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Full text of "The Connecticut quarterly"

GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



,,^ l 7 l i,f. N ,„ ( i9,yM.T.y.P.yBLIC.LIBRARy 



3 1833 01738 9450 



GENEALOGY 
974.6 
C7698 
1898 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/connecticutquartOOhart 



...THE 



Connecticut Quarterly, 



AN ILLUSTRATED MAGAZINE, 



DEVOTED TO THE 



Literature, History, and Picturesque Features 



OF 



CONNECTICUT. 



Vol. IV. 

JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1898. 



HARTFORD, CONN. 

Copyright, 1898 by GEORGE C. ATWELL. 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME IV. 



^•^•$(9* 



JANUARY— DECEMBER, 1898. 



C^*^*5^* 



Ancient Burying Ground of Hartford, The. Illustrated. Emily S. G. Holcombe 73 

Arctic, The Last Shot in the. Illustrated. Charlotte Molyneux Holloway. . . . 163 

Art Education in the Rose of New England Illustrated. ' Alice W. Cogswell. . . 201 

Almanacs of Last Century, Connecticut. Illustrated. Albert C. Bates 408 

Ancient Manuscripts, The Deciphering of. Edwin Stanley Welles 391 

Barnard, Henry, Educator. Illustrated. Frederick Calvin Norton 123 

Bristol Historical and Scientific Society. Illustrated. Piera Root Newell. . . . 208 

Black Dog, The. A Story. Illustrated. W. H. C. Pynchon 153 

Burials, Center Church Burying Ground, Hartford, List of. Copied and Anno- 
tated by Mary K. Talcott 180, 264, 417 

Early Text Books in Connecticut. Illustrated. Ellen Brainerd Peck 61 

Edwards, The Home of Timothy and Jonathan. Illustrated. Mary Seabury Starr 33 

Ellington. Illustrated. Alice E. Pinney 189 

Evidences of Glacial Action in Connecticut, Some Common. Illustrated. W. H. C. 

Pynchon 

Fenn, Augustus H. Illustrated. Joseph H. Vaill .' 

Forestry in Connecticut, Notes on. T. S. Gold 

Frontispieces — Barnard, Henry, LL.D. From a Painting by A. C. Fenety ... 

Mount Carmel — The Sleeping Giant 

Washington Green 

The Wreck of the Fleet Wing- Drawn by E. A. Sherman. . . . 
Glacial Action in Connecticut, Some Common Evidences of. Illustrated. W. H. C. 

Pynchon 

Hamden. Illustrated. J. H. Dickerman 

Litchfield Hills, Among the. Illustrated. Edgar Deane 

Memories of Meriden. Illustrated. Frances A. Breckenridge- 

Middletown. Illustrated. Grace Irene Chaffee 

Music and Musicians, Old Time. Illustrated. N. H. Allen. 

New Haven Defenses in the War of the Revolution and in the War of 1812. Illus- 
trated. M. Louise Greene. 

Nerva. A Story. Parts I and II. Milo Leon Norton 55, 

Peter Parley — As Known to His Daughter. Illustrated. Emily Goodrich Smith 304, 

Row of Maples, The. A Story. Albert L. Thayer 

Reminiscence of the Snow Storm of February 1, 1898, A. An Illustration, Drawn 

by H. Phelps Arms. .... 

Revolutionary Thanksgiving, A. A Story. Daniel Doane Bidwell 

Salisbury. Illustrated. Ellen Strong Bartlett 

Sabrina's Tea Cups. A Story. Sarah E. L. Case 

Social Struggler, A. A Story. Jane Marlin. . 

Tories of Connecticut, The. James Shepard 139, 

Washington. Illustrated. Dwight C. Kilbourn 

POETRY. 

An Old Daguerreotype. Anna M. Tuttle 

Arbutus. Sarah F. Bel 

Blind-Fold. Anna J. Granniss 

House of the Kindly Smile, The. Mary A. Hoadley 

Inspiration. Delia B. Ward 

Judge Not. Louis E. Thayer 

Lesson of the Rain, The. Louise P. Merritt 

Midnight Song, A. Minnie Louise Hendrick 

Mistress Mary's Wedding Apron. Ellen Brainerd Peck 

Not Forgotten. Poem. Susan Benedict Hill 

Pastoral, A. Illustrated. Herbert Randall 

Sorrow. Sally Porter Law 

Succory. Illustrated. Louise P. Merritt 

The Sea Was In Frolicsome Mood To-Day. Illustrated. A. C. Hall 

Tempest. Delia B. Ward 

Twilight. Illustrated. Sally Porter Law 

When Youth is Done. Elizabeth Alden Curtis 

Wreck of the Fleet-Wing. Illustrated by E. A. Sherman. Herbert Randall. . 
Youth and Nature. Nellie Wooster Cooley s 

DEPARTMENTS. 

Genealogical Department 113, 2 " 

Descendants of William Chase of Yarmouth 

Historical Notes 

From the Societies 

Publisher's Notes 

Editorial Notes 

Book Notices and Reviews 

Connecticut Forestry Association 

Index for year 1898, Genealogical Department 426 



107, 



329, 
1J9, 227, 
226, 337, 
in, 231, 



294 
197 
372 
122 

344 
236 
2, 4 

294 

376 

87 

49 

11 

319 

272 
175 
399 

394 

152 
30 

345 
44 

316 

257 
237 

315 
161 
290 
151 
60 

390 
138 

179 
162 
416 
292 

43 
291 

174 
196 

303 
263 

5 
393 

421 

335 
423 

333 



106, 231, 337, 424 

229 

100, 233 

34i 



Vol. IV. January, February, March, 1898. No. 1 




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THE CONNECTICUT QUARTERLY, 

henry s. house,: HARTFORD, CONN. | 

(., Manager of SubscriptiorTDept., ^) 

Hartford, Conn. @) 

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| The Connecticut Quarterly \ 



An Illustrated Magazine 

Devoted to the Literature, History, and Picturesque Features 
of Connecticut 



PUBLISHED QUARTERLY 

By THE CONNECTICUT QUARTERLY COMPANY 

66 State Street, Courant Building. 



George C. Atwell, Editor. 



HARTFORD, CONN. 



CONTENTS. 



Vol. IV 



January, February, March, 1898. 



No. 1 



Frontispieces Nos. 1 and 2, illustrating " The Wreck of the Fleet-Wing." 

. Drawn by E. A Sherman, 
The Wreck of the Fleet-Wing. Illus. by E. A. Sherman. Herbert Randall. 






Middletown. Illustrated. 

A Revolutionary Thanksgiving. . 

The Home of Timothy and Jonathan Edwards. Illus. 

Sorrow. Poem. .... 

Sabrina's Tea Cups. Story. 

Memories of Meriden. Illustrated. 

Nerva. Story. Part I. 

Inspiration. Poem. 

Early Text Books in Connecticut. Illustrated. 

The Ancient Burying Ground of Hartford. Illus 

Among the Litchfield Hills. Illustrated. 

Departments.— Book Notices and Reviews. 

Publisher's Notes. 

Historical Notes. 

From the Societies. 

Genealogical Department. 

Descendants of William Chase ok Yarmouth 



Grace Irene Chafe*. 
Charles Doane Bidweil. 

Mary Seabury Starr. 
Sally Porter 1 . 
Sarah E. L. Case. 
Frances .•/. Bri 
Milo Leon Norton. 
Delia B. 1 1 
Ellen Brainerd Peck. 
Emily S. G. Ho I cctr.be. 
Edgar Deo 



6 



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The Connecticut Quarterly. 

"Leave not your native land behind."— Thoreau. 

FIRST QUARTER. 

Vol. IV. January, February, March, 1898. No. 1 



THE WRECK OF THE FLEET-WING. 



BY HERBERT RANDALL. 



T 



Illustrated by E. A. Sherman. 



HE sinuous ripples blithely sang, 

Light ,'as the heart of May ; 
Soft blew the breeze from off the shore, 

The rainbows in the spray. 
The shining cliffs, the dimpled sky t 

The laughing face of day, 
Exultant life,— all rallied when 
The "Fleet -Wing" sailed away. 



On sped the ship o'er plangent waves, 

Her pennons flying free ; 
Past bar and bell-buoy, rock and shoal. 

To deep and open sea ; 
A gallant captain ruled her helm, 

And merry lads had she ; 
Guitar and voices rendered night 

A mingling melody. 



THE WRECK OF THE FLEET-WING. 




The swift white birds soared 
numberless ; 
The silver track lay wide I 
So smooth it was the fishers 
cast 
Their sun-browned seines 
beside. 
And all that night was gossa- 
mer, 
The moonshine and the tide 
A-sparkle led the "Fleet-Wing" 
on; 
A queenly spirit-bride. 



But lo! A stormy petrel came, 

Complaining on the light; 
His burnished wings thrice struck the ropes 

In his encircling flight; 
And all the sea grew purple -dark, 

The sailors stood afright, 
Their pallid lips averred the touch 

Had left a fateful blight. 



A salt -mist settled like a pall, 

The halyards creaked, the snow 
Mixed with the murky, sobbing sounds, 

The ropes flapped to and fro; 
And incantative spirits seemed 

To urge the winds to blow; 
The "Fleet- Wing " like an elfin rode 

The great waves, high and low. 



THE WRECK OF THE FLEET-WING. 



But lurked within the rigging, wet, 

The stormy -petrel's blight, 
And drearer, darker, closed around 

The reeling, rattling night. 
The click -clack, swift - sharp - arrowed hail 

Fell, mocking the dim light, 
And sterner grew the challenge for 

Supremacy of right. 



Still upon that ridge of darkness 

Rode the ship each trembling crest, 
Resolute did every sailor 

Bare his weather -hardened breast; 
More determined, stay and tackle, 

More defiant, gust and sleet, 
Fiercer, louder, more chaotic 

Did the thundering waters meet. 



Present, past and future 

hate 
Centered into one great 

force ; 
Surf and sea and tide and 

fate 
Grasped the " Fleet-Wing" 

in her course ; 
Sleet and rain and gathered 

winds 
Of the centuries com- 
bined ; 
Bolt on bolt the lightning 

fell 
Like the venging fires of 

hell. 




THE WRECK OF THE FLEET-WING. 




Flash and crash and cant and boom ! 

Roar and rush and plunge and fume ! 
Rockets bursting on the gloom! 

Curses! Clanging chains! "Make fast!'* 
"Starboard!" "Aft!" A sinking mast! 

Calls to God upon the blast ! 
Frenzy — and a void for sleep. 

For a hymn the boiling deep. 



THE WRECK OF THE FLEET-WING. 



When the ragged morning dawned 

Of the " Fleet- Wing " not a trace 
Not a scar the ocean wore 

On its wrinkled face. 
Rotting in the slimy ooze 

Lies the " Fleet-Wing's " grace. 
Hedged by unknown creeping things 

Is her burial place- 



On the beach the curlews whistle; 

Near, the fishers cast their seines; 
Murmuring the breeze - kissed ripples 

Circle as the summer wanes. 
Sad eyes fill with deepest meaning 

When the moaning surf complains- 
Strain to catch some shadowy phantom 

On the night -wind's sobbing rains. 




MIDDLETOWN. 



BY GRACE IRENE CHAFEE. 



Middletown, or Mattabesett, the Indian name by which the town was 
first called, was not settled for some time after the Pequot war in 1637, 
although there were many settlements along the sound and further up on the 
river. One of the causes which concurred to prevent an early settlement here 
was the fact that a large Indian tribe, very hostile to the English, existed at 
the point where Middletown now stands. Their wigwams stood thick at all 
places desirable for settlement. Their great sachem, Sowheag, had his strong- 
hold on the high ground, back from the river, and his warriors were clustered 
thickly about him. The English were, therefore, naturally unwilling to come 
and settle in the vicinity of so formidable a neighbor. 

But on Oct. 30, 1646, the General Court appointed a Mr. Phelps to join a 
committee for the contemplation of a settlement in Mattabesett. We are not 
expressly informed how soon and thoroughly the ground was examined, or the 
site for settlement 
fixed. The first 
few pages of the 
town records are 
lost, and others are 
nearly obliterated; 
consequently the 
names of persons, 
enrolled, who were 
preparing to oc- 
cupy the land and 
put up dwellings, 
are not known. 
However, rapid 
progress was not 
made, and it was 
not until the year 
1650 that actual 
settlement was be- 
gun. On March 

20, of that year, the addition was made of "Samuel Smith, senior, to the 
mittee about the lands at Mattabeseck, in the roome of James Boosy." 
committee reported that these lands might support fifteen families, but a 
greater number than that were soon here. These were settled north and 
south from Little River. 

In 1651 the records state: "It is ordered, sentenced and decreed that 
Mattabeseck shall bee a Towne, and that they shall make ehoyee oi one ol 




rill- G wi.okp 11 U r. 
The Oldest House now Standing in Mid. 



eom- 
This 



12 



MIDDLETOWN. 




THE JEHOSAPHAT STARR PLACE. 



theire inhabitants according to order in that state, that so hee may take the 
oath of a Constable, the next convenient season." 

" It is ordered that Mattabeseck and Norwaulk shall be rated this present 
year in theire proporcon, according to the rule of rating in the country, for 

theire cattle and 
other visible es- 
tate, and that Nor- 
waulk shall pre- 
sent to Mr.Ludlow, 
and Mattabeseck 
to Mr. Wells, in 
each Towne one 
inhabitant, to bee 
sworn by them 
Constabl es in 
theire several 
Townes." 

In the autumn 
of 1652 the town 
was represented in 
the General Court, 
and in November, 
1653, the name 
Middletown was 
given to "the plan- 
tation commonly called Mattabeseck." It is probable that the name of Mid- 
dletown was given to the township on account of its central location, because 
it lay between the towns up the river and Saybrook at its mouth. In 1654 the 
number of taxable persons was thirty-one. 

Before the commencement of the settlement, a large tract of land com- 
prising most of the 
township, was giv- 
en to Mr. Haynes, 
the Governor of 
Connecticut, ; by 
S o w he ag , for 
which a small con- 
sideration was giv- 
en in return. But 
the Indian title 
was not wholly ex- 
tinguished until 
about twelve years 
after. Then, Sow- 
heag having died 
probably, a tract 
of land extending 
from Wethers- 
field ( then including Glastonbury, ) to Haddam, was, for a further and 




RUSSELL LIBRARY. 



MIDDLETOWN. 



*3 



full consideration, given to Samuel Wyllys and others acting in behalf of the 
town. The original deed was written the 24th of January, 1672, in which the 
Indian proprietors of the territory gave " the tract of land within the bounds 
of Wethersfield on the north, Haddam on the south, and to run from the great 
river the whole breadth toward the east six miles, and from the great river 
toward the west so far as the General Court of Connecticut hath granted the 
bounds of Middletown shall extend, with all the meadows, pastures, woods, 
underwood, stones, quarries, brooks, ponds, rivers, profits, commodities and 
appurtenances whatsoever belonging thereunto, unto the said Mr. Samuel 
Wyllys, Capt. John Talcott, Mr. James Richards and John Allyn, in behalf of 
and for the use of the inhabitants of the town of Middletown, their heirs and 




THE ALSOl' PLACE. 



assigns forever." A small tract of land was reserved to remain the posse s 
of the heirs of Sowheag. The original deed with thirteen Indian signatures 
affixed is entered in the old Court Book of records, folio 70, April 5. 1673 
John Allyn, secretary. 

In the district north of the city, now known as Newfield, the India- 
lands until 1713; and the reservation laid out on Indian Hill, they retained 
until 1767, when, having become reduced to a a small number, they sold their 
right and united with the Farmington Indians. 

The records of the town are so deficient, it is not known who were the 
first settlers. The earliest remaining entry on the town books IS F< 
1652 and that is a vote for building a meeting house. Prom this building 
centre was laid out, in 1663, the bounds ot Middletown, four miles south 
miles west and three miles east. About this meeting house clustered the 



14 



MIDDLETOWN. 



dwellings of most of the settlers, at the upper end of Main street a little 
above Washington. A few others settled further south, at the southern end 
of Main street, and a portion settled in what is now Cromwell, then called the 
" Upper Houses," or North Society. In 1670 there were only fifty-two house- 
holders in the town, but thirty-five surnames, those being generally relatives. 
With two or three exceptions, these were of English extraction, coming di- 
rectly from the^British Isle, from towns in the eastern part of Massachusetts, 
or from earlier settled towns in Connecticut. 

The increase of population in Middletown was very slow. There was 
nothing to invite a rapid immigration here at first. The country was rough, 




BROAD STREET. 

and the labor of cultivating even small portions of the soil was great. Mar- 
kets for that which was produced were distant and difficult to reach. Imports 
were small, and were mostly limited to articles of necessity. The colonists 
suffered more from privations and hardships than we can calculate. They 
had little property and everything to begin anew. At first their dwellings 
were wretched, being hardly a shelter from the wind and rain. They had 
little furniture, and that of the plainest only. Their clothing was all of rude 
home manufacture. They were inexperienced in subduing a forest, deficient 
in implements for cultivating the ground, had scarcely any teams, horses, 
cattle or sheep. There were but few mechanics among them. An hundred 
pound lot was reserved to tempt a blacksmith to come among them, and it was 
not until Sept. 1661, that one appeared who pledged himself "to inhabit upon 
the land and to do the Townes worck of smithing during the term of four 
years, before he shall make sale of it to any other." Examination of the 
town records also discovers the fact that " at a towne meeting Feb. 9th, 1658, 
theer was granted to the shoomecker eagellston a peas of meddow that was 



i6 



MIDDLETOWN. 



intended for a shoomecker formerly, ley in g from creack to creack buting on 
the bogey meddow, as allso a howse lot beyond goodman meller in case not by 
and if by then to give him upland answerable to a howse lot and he ingaging 
to inhabit it seven year upon it as also doth ingag to indeevour to silt the 
towne in his trade for making and mending shoes." They looked to their 
clearings and forests for support. From the former they obtained their food 
and a few articles for barter ; from the latter, materials for boards, staves and 
hoops, which were also bartered for groceries and articles of clothing. 

For the next hundred years settlements were made in Westfield, Middle- 
field, Portland, then called East Middletown, Middle Haddam, Haddam Neck, 
East Hampton and other places. 

In 1679 the population was increased sufficiently for the building of a new 
meeting house, and on the nth of November of that year "the town by vote 




THE BENJAMIN DOUGLASS PLACE. 



agreed to build a new meeting house, thirty- two feet square, and fifteen feet 
between joints." It was erected on Main street, on the east side, about oppo- 
site what is now called Liberty street. In this all the inhabitants worshipped 
at least twenty-three years, and the greater part of them more than thirty- 
five. By 1750 there were five local parishes formed in the township, all of 
them Congregational, and a church was organized by the inhabitants of the 
first parish of Middletown and Westfield, called a " strict Congregational 
Church." 

The early settlers were a very religious people. All attended public wor- 
ship, and before they had a meeting house they worshipped God under the 
boughs of a tree. Their first sanctuaries were humble structures, but they 
were grateful for the accommodations they afforded. Not long after the set- 



MIDDLETOWN. 



n 



tlement commenced, the people employed Mr. Samuel Stow, a native of I 
cord, Mass., and a graduate of Harvard College, as candidate for minister of 
the gospel. He preached to them for some time, but some difficulties arising in 
the town respecting him, a vote was passed to discontinue his ministry and 
look elsewhere. The difficulties came before the General Court, and a Mr. 
Nathaniel Collins was appointed to succeed, and was ordained Nov. 4th, 1668. 

In the early settlements of Connecticut, people were assembled for public 
worship by the beat of a drum, and the place was guarded by armed men as a 
security from attacks by the Indians. The beat of the drum was necessary to 
collect the soldiers who acted as guard, and it also collected the congregation. 
Mr. Giles Hamlin gave a drum to the town, and never did a chime of bells 
sound sweeter. The people did not need it, that they might know the Sabbath 




WASHINGTON STREET. 



had come. It was on their minds through the week, and before the sun sank 
in the west on Saturday, worldly concerns were laid aside that their D 
might be free to keep the day in a holy manner. Rut this told them when the 
time arrived for them to start for the sanctuary, and while there was danger 
from the Indians, when they might go in safety. A drum was used in the 
Upper Houses more than sixty years after the settlement began. 

After the people in Upper and East Middletown had become distinct 
ishes, they undertook to build a new meeting house much larger than either 
of two houses that existed. In this church a choir was introduce,!. I: 
large and well trained. The elder President Adams, who attended worship 
here in 1771, says of the singing : -I heard the finest singing 1 ever heard in 
my life. The front and side galleries were crowded with rows of lads 
lasses, who performed all their parts in the utmost perfection 



iS 



MIDDLETOWN. 



women all standing up and playing their parts with perfect skill and judg- 
ment, added a sweetness and a sprightliness to the whole, which absolutely 
charmed me." 

It has been said that the early ministers were superior men, men of talents 
and learning. Mr. Collins, the first pastor, was an excellent character, whose 
brilliancy illuminated the whole colony. Cotton Mather wrote an elegy on 

him. He died in 1684, and was 
succeeded by the Rev. Noadiah 
'Russell, one of the founders and 
trustees of Yale College. His 
son, Rev. William Russell succee- 
ded him. The fourth pastor of 
the first church in Middletown, 
the Rev. Enoch Huntington, was 
a member of Yale College and dis- 
tinguished for high scholarship. 
Beside the duties of his ministry, 
he engaged in teaching young 
men, preparing them for college 
or business. Many from abroad 
as well as from home vicinity, 
were under his tuition, and among 
the names of his pupils can be 
found those of many literary, dis- 
tinguished and useful men. 

Only one mode of worship, 
Congregational, was observed in 
Middletown for about a century 
after the settlement was com- 
menced. The various other denominations now represented all arose after 1 750. 
Before leaving this period, however, mention must be made of a few emi- 
nent and influential citizens. Mr. Nathaniel White, who resided in the Upper 
Houses, was a man of high religious character and sound judgment. He was 
one of the first magistrates of the town, and held military commissions. 
Another whom the people delighted to honor was Mr. Giles Hamlin, as, also, 
his son John Hamlin, and his grandson Jabez Hamlin. Mr. Giles Hamlin was 
elected representative to the General Court twenty-two times. Mr. John 
Hamlin was a member for seven sessions, and then an assistant for twenty-six 
years. The excellence of Giles Hamlin may have contributed to bring forward 
his son John Hamlin; and his excellence combined with that of his father may 
have had more influence in bringing forward Jabez Hamlin. John Hamlin 
besides being advanced in military life to the rank of Colonel, was put into the 
commission of the peace as early as 1733 or 4 ; was a justice of the quorum for 
Hartford County, from 1745 to 1754, and then judge of that court thirty years. 
He was elected a representative to the General Assembly forty-three times, 
and was repeatedly Speaker of the Lower House. He was also for a time a 
member of the Council of Safety. He was judge of probate from the formation 
of Middletown district in 1752 till 1789, and mayor of this city from its incor- 
poration in 1784 until his death. Jabez Hamlin was publicly educated and pos- 




COMMODORE THOMAS MCDONOUGH. 



MIDDLE TOWN. 



*9 



sessed a well formed and well balanced mind, unusual sweetness and uniform- 
ity of temper, and courtliness of manner. He descended to his grave, rich in 
the esteem of men, and beloved of his God. He is buried in the old graveyard 
of Middletown, lying on the banks of the Connecticut river, which is one of the 
oldest in the United States. His inscription reads thus :— 

"In memory of the Hon. Jabez Hamlin, Esq., son of the late John Hamlin, 
who deceased set. 82, April 25th, 1791, having been honored by the public con- 
fidence from youth to advanced years and employed in various grades of office 
until he was called to higher duties of Magistracy. After a life of great use- 
fulness in Church and State, he died in a good old age, respected, beloved, 
lamented." 

Ship building flourished in East Middletown about 1767, but quarrying be- 
came of more importance. The place was subsequently named Portland from 
Portland in England, whence freestone is transported in immense quantities 




GOLD MEDAL PRESENTED TO COMMODORE MCDONOUGH BY CONGRESS IN RECOGNITION OF HIS 
VICTORY ON LAKE CHAMPLAIN. OBVERSE AND REVERSE SIDES. 



to London and other parts of the country, as the freestone from our Portland 
is carried to New York and other places in the United States. As early as 
October 11, 1669,. an entry on the town records states that " It was at ye towne 
meeting granted unto Mr. Adams, shipwright, for building a vessel or 
this winter liberty to get timber upon the commons and liberty oi building 
place so that they doe not cumber ye passage of carts to ye landing place.*' In 
1680 but one vessel was owned, and that was only 70 tons. There was only 
one other on the river, a vessel of 90 tons at Hartford. The trade was carried 
on in these two vessels. In 1730 only two vessels were owned he 
united rated at 105 tons. There were, also, but two merchants. One of :' 
was James Brown, an excellent Scotchman from Edinburgh, who used to 1 



* " The Medallic History of the United States of America," 1776-1876, bj J P Lo 
LL. D has an engraving of this ,medal. There is one also in M flossing oi the 

Revolution," but the reverse side is different. Wo incline to think thai 1 
correct and give it as he lias. 



MIDDLETOWN. 




GENERAL J. K. F. MANSFIELD. 



the country to Boston on horseback, once or more in the year, to make his 

contracts. Some years later there were still but three or four merchants. 

But in the latter half of the seventeen hundreds, a very profitable trade 

was opened with the West Indies. Middletown offered great advantages for 

carrying on this commerce, being situ- 
ated on the largest river in New England, 
having a fine harbor to which vessels 
could ascend drawing ten feet of water* 
with rich towns on its banks where arti- 
cles suitable for the West Indian market 
could be easily procured. The most suc- 
cessful in this trade was Richard Alsop, 
who had been educated a merchant in the 
store of Philip Livingstone in New York. 
He knew well how to avail himself of 
these advantages. He came to this town 
and commenced business about 1750. He 
had his stores in the lower rooms of the 
old town house, standing on Main street, 
a little above Washington. He engaged 
in commerce and prospered so much that 
he sometimes insured vessels for others 
on his private responsibility. He was a 
man of integrity, generosity and public 

spirit. His fellow citizens repeatedly elected him a representative to the 

Legislature. He died early in the Revolution. George Phillips, Col. Mathew 

Talcot and others were likewise engaged in the trade at this time. 

This trade stimulated agriculture; and by this time the best lands in all 

the parishes were brought under cultivation, and yielded abundant crops of 

wheat, rye,'^ barley, oats, 

flax, maize, and English ' f"JL \ ^ ¥Y / IIP 1 ^ WU\ IV} 

grasses. Great quantities I 

of provisions, and great 

numbers of cattle and 

horses were sent to the 

West Indies ; and great 

quantities of rum. sugar, 

molasses and salt were 

imported. Provisions in 

large quantities were sent 

from the river to New 

York, to be consumed 

there, or re-shipped for 

foreign markets, and 

thence various articles of 

merchandise were brought 

back in return. 

The West India trade, and almost all other trade, the Revolutionary War 

deranged, or rather suspended, but it was resumed after the war was over. 




THE GENERAL MANSFIELD PLACE. 



MIDDLETOWN. 



21 




GUN POINT. 



For fifty years previous to the breaking out of the war, Middletown had become 
gradually more and more prosperous. The increase in agriculture, domestic 
manufactures and other industries which the West India trade conduced to, 
had the effect of rap- 
idly increasing the 
population. Ship- 

building was an out- 
come of the growth 
of commerce and was 
carried on at many 
points along the river- 
Carpenters, black- 
smiths, wheelwrights, 
shoemakers, etc., had 
multiplied to meet 
the requirements of 
the enlarged popula- 
tion ; and for many 
years the industry 
and frugality of the 
people was rewarded 
by prosperity. Some 
of the principal trad- 
ers at this time were Elijah and Nehemiah Hubbard, Col. Lemuel Storrs, 
George and Thompson Phillips, sons of the George Phillips before men- 
tioned, and General Comfort Sage ; Joseph W. Alsop, a younger man, also 
succeeded in it. 

To enter into the details of the effects the war had upon Middletown, and 
the history of the many lives influenced thereby, would require much time. 

Suffice to say that Middletown took 
its due share in the derangement of 
commerce, suffering and 
that the war carried in its v . .. 
the next few years Alarm and in- 
dignation was first excited by the 
passage of the Boston Tort Hill, and 
the arrival of Gen. Gage in May. 
to enforce it by stopping the trade 
of that important town, and with it 
to a great extent, the trade l [ Mas- 
sachusetts and New England. The 
House of Representatives, then in 
session at Hartford, passed stl 
resolutions against the unrighu 
act, many towns did the same. . 
pledged their cooperation in 
of the rights of the people. On the 
15th of June in this year, more than 
five hundred inhabitants of this town assembled and gave such a 



X v 




THE OLD COURT HOUSE, 



MIDDLETOWN. 



One measure, which was the subject of much consideration about this time 
was the breaking off from all trade with the mother country, so long as she 
should continue her arbitrary proceedings. How the people felt on this point 
is clear from an incident which occurred, when the delegates from Massachu- 
setts were on their way to the first Continental Congress. Stopping in Middle- 
town, Dr. Eliot Rawson, Mr. Alsop, Mr. Mortimer and others, the committee 
of correspondence Matthew Talcott and Titus Hosmer, Mr. Henshaw and 

many other gentlemen called upon them to 
pay their respects, and to assure them that 
they would abide by whatever was decided 
upon, even to a total stoppage of trade to 
Europe, and the West Indies. This assurance 
is the more noticable, because the wealth of 
the town at that time, was mainly derived 
from foreign commerce, and some of the 
^ I gentlemen present were principals in carrying 

A^^ 1 ^^^^ ** on " Congress assembled, and formed an 

a? a I&^^ ^fe association for non-importation, non-expor- 

FV^^J tation and non - consumption "of British 

goods." This measure, thus pursued here 
and elsewhere, was designed to show Great 
Britain that the Americans were determined 
not to submit to oppression, and that if 
they could not live peaceably, with her, they 
would endeavor to live without her. Trade, 
therefore, was rudely interrupted, and all 
prosperity and progress was for the time 
at an end. 




THE RIGHT REV. JOHN WILLIAMS. 



After the Revolution had come 
to a successful issue, commerce 
began to revive, althought it never 
afterward reached the prosperity 
it had enjoyed before the war. In 
order that commerce might be pur- 
sued to a greater advantage, a 
petition was signed and presented 
to the Legislature in 1784, that a 
part of Middletown, where com- 
merce had been principally and 
almost wholly carried on before 
the war, might be invested with 
city privileges. The signers al- 
leged that "many inconveniences 
were felt by them, as well as by 
strangers, for want of due regula- 
tions of the police of the town;" 
and that keeping the high ways 
in good repair, removing the ob- 







RESIDENCE OF BISHOP WILLIAMS. 



MIDDLETOWN. 



2 3 



structions from the channel of the river and many other regulations for com- 
mercial convenience, were impossible to be accomplished without a separate 
and special jurisdiction. The petition was granted in May of the same 
year. At the same time Hartford, New Haven, New London and Norwich 
were constituted cities. 

In 1815 there were in the city two hundred and nineteen dwelling houses, 
and three hundred and fifty-three families. In 1850 there were six hundred 
and three dwelling houses, and seven hundred and eighteen families. There 
were also seven Churches, four Banks, a Court-house, Gaol and Alms-house, 
the University buildings and a High School. 

In connection with the war of 181 2, one illustrious name must be mentioned, 
that of Commodore Thomas McDonough. He was the distinguished hero of 




THE RUSSKI.I. I'l \' I 



Lake Champlain. Although born in Delaware, his long residence in M 
town, and his alliance in the family of Mr. N. Shaler of Middletown, give us a 
claim to his memory. He received during his life numberless honors. m< 
and gifts from different states and towns. He was in the naval service till 
near the time of his death, and it was upon the sea that his death 
November 10, 1825. On the arrival of his remains at New York, the authorities 
of the city, in sympathy with the feelings of the nation, deeply mourned the 
loss to their country ; the vessels in the harbor displayed their colors 
mast, and a detachment from the militia accompanied the hearse through the 
city. He is buried in the old " Riverside Cemetery" in Middletown. and his 
inscription reads : — 

"Sacred to the memory of Thos. McDonough oi the l". S. Navy H« 
born in the State of Delaware, December, 1783. and died at sea of pv 
consumption, while on his return from Command oi the American S 
in the Mediterranean on the 10th of November, iSj;." 



24 



MIDDLE TOWN. 



In 1 86 1 the Civil War broke out. The news of the bombardment of Fort 
Sumter was the cause of great excitement in Middletown, and called forth 
demonstrations of loyalty and patriotism from all classes. One illustrious 
name, of which Middletown feels justly proud, must be mentioned in connec- 
tion with this period, that of General J. K. F. Mansfield. He was one of the 
State's most highly esteemed citizens. His whole life was one of military ser- 




ON HIGH STREET. 

vice. He was killed at the battle of Antietam, on the 17th of September, 1862. 
A special meeting of the common council was called to take action in relation 
to his death, and it was voted that a committee proceed to New York to escort 
the remains to this city ; and another committee was appointed to make all 
necessary and proper arrangements for the funeral, which took place on the 
24th of September following. He was buried with the military honors to 
which his rank was entitled, and the solemn occasion attracted a large gather- 
ing of people from all parts of the country. 

The city is replete with historical legend. The illustration showing what 
is known as Gun Point is a spot up Little River with a story of Revolutionary 
times attached to it. The British were advancing up the Connecticut river 



MIDDLETOWN. 



2 5 



and had arrived at Essex. The citizens of Middletown, in expectation of hav- 
ing their stores and ammunition pilfered, carried their guns to this point on 
Little River and there sunk them in order that they might not fall into the 
hands of the British. Hence the place derives its name of Gun Point. 

The old house on Washington street, immediately behind the Stueck block, 
is believed to be the oldest house now standing in the city. It was known as 
the Gaylord house, and was erected about 1722 by Samuel Gaylord. The 
initials of himself and wife, S. & M., are still to be seen cut in a stone on the 
side of a fireplace therein. 

On South Main street is the old Kilbourn house, believed to be the second 
oldest house in existence in Middletown. It was known formerly as the Hub- 




WESLEYAN CAMPUS. 



bard mansion. The land with the unfurnished house was bought by John Kent 
in February, 1733. He occupied it until his death in 1775. It then became the 
property of his daughter, wife of Elijah Hubbard, and afterward oi the- 
the Hon. Samuel D. Hubbard, of whom Mr. Kilbourn purchased it m 1854 
There are many other old houses in town. 

The manufacture of woolen cloths and fire-arms was carried on early in 
the century in Middletown. In 1S10 the Middletown Woolen Company built a 
mill on Washington street and did a successful business for a number 0! J 
It was one of the first factories in this country that used steam as a m 
power. In 1814 a woolen factory on Pamecha River was started by John k. 
Watkinson, and continued for over twenty years. Colonel Simeon N 
started a pistol factory at Staddle Hill about 1S10. He is said to a the 

first manufacturer of pistols in this country. He had a Large government 
tract for many years, from 181 2. Oliver Bidwell commenced ahout 1810 09 
the upper Pamecha to make guns, and had a government contr; 



26 



MIDDLETOWN. 



Nathan Starr, Jr., erected a factory at Staddle Hill in 1812 and manufactured 
government swords, and later, muskets and rifles. 

In 1850 Middletown already possessed numerous manufactories, many of 
them now being immense concerns. It- would be impossible in this article to 
enter into detail, but mention must be made of some of the more important 
ones then existing. In Pameacha there existed the factories of H. L. Baldwin 
and F. Baldwin, the first making bank and store locks, the last, closet locks. 
Another concern making locks was the William Wilcox & Co manufactory. 
I. W. Baldwin had an extensive and profitable business in a sash and blind, 
flooring and planing mill. The Pameacha Manufacturing Company had the 
tweed or jean mill and a business of $20,000. Machinery, castings, iron dirt 
scrapers, corn shellers, plows, etc., were made at the works of William Stroud. 




THE HIGH SCHOOL. 



In the South Farms, the Russell Manufacturing Company, with an invested 
capital of $100,000, employed about two hundred operatives in the manufacture 
of India rubber suspenders, cotton and worsted webbing. In the city itself 
the establishment of W. & B. Douglas employed eighty workmen at their large 
pump manufactory. Jesse G. Baldwin was engaged in the silver-plating busi- 
ness, with thirty workmen employed. There were, besides these, many minor 
concerns of which none now remain. These were as follows : H. H. Graves 
& Co., britannia coffee and tea urns ; Nathaniel Bacon, bank and safe locks; 
H. E. Boardman, gaiter boots ; J. K. Penfield, patent grummets ; Penfield & 
Camp, medicated liquid cuticle, a substitute for sticking plasters in surgical 
operations ; H. Salisbury & Co., making of gold spectacles; C. F. Smith, man- 



MIDDLETOWN. 



27 



ufacture of Sand paper. There were also manufactories in Cromwell, West- 
field and Middlefield. Those here catalogued which remain at the present day 
are much enlarged and improved, and there are numerous concerns now exist- 
ing then unknown. 

Middletown of to-day, as a place of residence and natural beauty, has feu- 
equals. Its wide streets, numerous trees, general healthfulness and charming 
location render it delightful. Picturesquely situated in the bend where the 
river makes its graceful turn eastward, about twenty-seven miles from its 
mouth, the city stands on a gentle slope, gradually stretching up west from the 
banks of the river to an elevation of 155 feet. It is surrounded on all sides by 
charming scenery, the character of the country being strikingly and pleasant- 
ly diversified. Perhaps no place in Connecticut enjoys a more lovely sil 




SOUTH GREEN, SHOWING SOLDIERS* MONUMENT AND M. E. CHURCH. 

abounds more in the picturesque. It is impossible for an observing s1 
nature to acquaint himself with its variety of scene without being enchanted 

at the ravishing little picture spots that meet him everywhere. The rivet it- 
self, with its windings in and out, contributes no small share to the beauty of 
Middletown's environment. 

As a whole, perhaps the city may be best viewed from the -rounds or the 
last new building at the State Institution for the Insane, which, standing on an 
eminence around which the river sweeps, commands a magnificent prospect oi 
the whole scene in all its details to its utmost boundaries. The view oi the 
surrrounding country, with the long line of blue hills in the tar 
the winding river immediately beneath, the city in the middle distance 
ling in the bend of the river, its spires and towers peeping through a thick 
growth of trees, is like a panorama. 

The insane asylum itself is a collection of splendid buildings an< 
ive grounds. In 1866 the town of Middletown granted to the state, tor tht 



28 



MIDDLE TOWN. 



purposes of a hospital, 158 acres of land, and the cornerstone of the original 
building was laid June 20, 1867. The institution has been enlarged from time 




CONNECTICUT HOSPITAL FOR THE INSANE. 
Main Hospital. 

to time, so that 460 acres of land are now occupied. It is one of the largest 
institutions of its kind in the world. 

Wesleyan University is located in Middletown. It was chartered in 1831. 
Although it is under the patronage of the Methodist church, it is not a secta- 
rian school. It is well situated at the highest part of the city and occupies ex- 
tensive grounds. The five principal buildings — North College, South College, 
Chapel, Library, and Orange Judd Hall, all of stone and of fine architecture, 
stand in a line on the front campus facing High street and extending from 





„ 






** v ri jr 




L 3 


■ ■ • ■ 1 




PPW" 1 ^ 


'^jSr 


f^3F3 








Rtwatite^M 



CONNECTICUT HOSPITAL FOR THE INSANE. 



Middle Hospital. 

College street beyond William. Beside these buildings are others in the rear ; 
an observatory and its transit house, the physical and electrical laboratories, a 
large and elegant gymnasium erected in 1894, beside the residence of the pres- 
ident of the college in one corner of the campus, and Webb Hall, the ladies' 
dormitory, opposite. There are also many elegant society club-houses in con- 
nection with the college, which in beauty of architecture contribute largely to 



MIDDLETOWN. 



29 



the adornment of the city. The illustration showing High street gives a small 
view of Webb Hall, the Psi U and the D. K. E. club-houses. 

Berkeley Divinity school occupies a large area at the corner of Main and 
Washington streets. Beside the school proper, chapel and library, there is also 
the residence of the Rt. Rev. John Williams, bishop of Connecticut and senior 
bishop of the Episcopal church in the United States. 

In the southwestern portion of the town stands the Connecticut Industrial 
School for Girls. It is a private institution under the patronage of the state. 
It was among the first institutions of its kind organized in the United States. 
It was incorporated in 1868, received its first inmates January, 1870, and was 
formally opened the 30th of June following. 

Middletown has improved rapidly within the last few years. The old 
court house, built in 1832, has been torn down and a handsome new municipal 
building erected in its place. A large and elaborate new high school has been 
built on the corner of Pearl and Court streets, in which the city feels a just 
pride. Many other improvements are noticeable. Middletown is undoubtedly 
awakening from the lethargy which has characterized it for so many years. 
It has been termed, and perhaps not inappropriately, " the graveyard of Con- 
necticut." But the name will apply no longer. Our quiet but beautiful little 
town has awakened to a tardy recognition of its advantages, and an activity 
heretofore unknown now marks it. 686*54*1 




A REVOLUTIONARY THANKSGIVING. 



A True Story of Olden Time. 



BY DANIEL DOANE 13IDWELL. 



Winter had settled in early. It had come with a rush, chasing away un- 
ceremoniously the dreary, effeminate, Indian summer days, and substituting a 
sharp, crisp cold which sent the blood coursing through the veins with a vigor 
leading old Gran'ther Aaron Olmsted to announce that he felt "fit to fight the 
Britishers - " The cider had been stored in a dozen barrels in the shadows of 
the north cellar, the corn was husked and was sleeping in its crib, and the big 
pumpkins lay in yellow waves on the barn floor. 

The old Olmsted homestead stood on the west side of the wide village street, 
in East Hartford, a highway now over-arched by three rows of leafy elms — 
noble centennarians whose aged boughs, interlocking, form two grand Gothic 
arches. It was a scanty half-mile from the Great River. Its upper windows 
commanded one of the fairest views in Connecticut Colony. A narrow fringe 
of wooded upland reached westward to a rich meadow bordered by a sweep- 
ing curve of the Great River. Beyond, a second meadow stretched to the 
stores of outlying farm-houses of Hartford. Islanded against the cold blue of 
the November sky and the russet and gold of the late autumnal foliage, rose 
the steeple of the First Church of Christ in the colony's northern capital. 

It was a hospitable mansion in which the Olmsted family were to collect. 
Lengthwise it stood to the street and two good stories high with the gambrel 
roof — changed later to a gable. A ponderous brass knocker, polished till it 
gleamed, hung on the mammoth front door, which was divided horizontally. 
A gigantic chimney permitted fireplaces in the lower story rooms and in two 
of the chambers. In the rear was a long ell, over whose roof rose a long well- 
sweep. It may be said, parenthetically, that the first piano in East Hartford 
was consumed when the house burned, in 1876. For a week or more the chil- 
dren in the Olmsted household had been pounding cinnamon and cloves in a 
gigantic lignum-vitae mortar, and chopping suet and meat for mince pies, and 
stoning raisins and slicing citron, and making the rafters of the old colonial 
homestead echo with the busy preparation for that apostle of festivals — 
Thanksgiving. 

Those sturdy days were still half a century or so earlier than the introduc- 
tion of prepared spices. It was almost in the crude state that the material 
used for seasoning came to the kitchen. Its reduction from raw material to 
culinary ammunition was assigned to the army of children as their natural 
obligation. On those youngsters who had been "fro ward" was laid the pen- 
alty of preparing a salt, evolving it by the ascending steps of washing, drying 
and pounding, from primitive rock-salt. For a week the main business of 
mankind in the little Puritan theocracy had been the secular duty of making 
pies. By dozens and scores these had come forth daily from the kitchen and 
been consigned to the icy cavern of " the north room." Seemingly, they were 
made of anything vegetable or animal that is on the earth or in the waters 
under the earth. 

Early on Thanksgiving morning all sorts and conditions of Olmsteds, even 



A REVOLUTIONARY THANKSGIVING. 31 

to the third and fourth generation, began to arrive. The homestead was the 
rallying point of Gran'ther Aaron from all over the colony. It was hoped that 
two score would sit down to the dinner which would be awaiting the family on 
their return from " meetin." Of the six sons of the white-haired grandsire all 
were to be on hand at the hospitable board saving Captain Gideon, who was a 
prisoner to the red-coats in the West Indies, unless perchance he was in Davy 
Jones' locker. Of the six daughters, all with their families were to attend. I if 
the third generation no fewer than twenty-seven were to pay their tribute to 
the turkeys and pies, and of the fourth there were two, little Mehita- 
ble Burnham, just a twelvemonth old, and Pardon Olmsted, three months 
younger. With the early morning began to arrive other individuals also — in- 
dividuals not so desirable. Various loafers from the quiet country-side strag- 
gled 'round the skirts of the rambling colonial mansion, and stopped in 
the lean-to and the wood-shed which led off from the savory kitchen. As the 
morning wore on they departed, laden with jugs and brimming pitchers of 
cider, given to them by Gran'ther Aaron's ungodly grandson, Nehemiah, or 
with turkey drumsticks and pies of divers kinds, the gifts of stout Mistress 
Olmsted. Among the beneficiaries were some of the few remaining Indians of 
the neighborhood, miserable, squalid, half-drunken creatures, stigmatized by 
that most withering of Puritan adjectives, "shiftless." There was also a visi- 
tor whom the children and even their parents regarded with curiosity, mill 
in some measure with apprehension. This was a youth of swarthy complexion 
and foreign and mysterious appearance, who had come with a party of horse 
traders that had pitched their tents on Bidwell's Lane some days previously, 
announcing that they were trading and buying horses to deliver to General 
Washington at Morristown, to recruit the continental cavalry. There wore not 
lacking those who "suspicioned them 'ar traders were as like to wring the 
necks of gobblers as to buy horses." 

When the bell of the village meeting-house began to remind the | 
pie of duties spiritual the army under the Olmsted roof -tree was ready to 
respond to its invitation. Nehemiah Olmsted and Ozias Bidwell, two of the third 
generation, were left in charge of the homestead when the reunited family riled 
soberly down to the meeting-house. The two young clansmen were placed on 
this detail not so much because they were the most reliable for that duty, but the 
more because well-grounded apprehensions were entertained regarding their 
froward conduct in the temple and consequent rebukes from Levi Goodwin, 
the tithing-man. They were fit predecessors of the Comstock Cavalry 
later day. When good, old, logical Parson Williams had reached his seventhly 
and had consequently become well started on his sermon, the two young harem 
scarems left in charge of the family fort had wearied of their labors as an in- 
vestigating committee. They had examined the yawning depths of the brick 
oven, raided the buttery and pantry, hidden Gran'ther Aaron's gold-h< 
walking stick, loosened the king-bolts on rive of the family chaises in « 
the Olmsted progeny had journeyed to the mansion, introduced una 
pepper into the star chicken-pie, doubled in half-sections the lower 
each bed, and employed their mischievous ingenuity in every fertile pi 
trick which their active boyish minds could devise. 

As they sat in the low-ceiled kitchen, sighing for new worlds oi deviltry, 
two figures darkened the passageway leading in from the lean-to. 1 



3 2 A REVOLUTIONARY THANKSGIVING. 

they saw first the swarthy horse-trader who had left in the early morning 
freighted with a pitcher of cider, drawn by Nehemiah's own grimy hands, and 
with two of Mistress Olmsted's famous pies. Behind the trader was one of his 
companions from the camp on Bidwell's Lane. 

" Is it hungry ye are again?" was Nehemiah's salutation. "It is, young 
sir," was the reply, in a foreign accent. 

"Sit down then, if ye be so minded, and we will feed you." 

Nehemiah motioned with a wave of his hand towards a settle. He pro- 
duced a plate and heaped it with steaming potatoes and turnips, and dexter- 
ously whipped off two drumsticks from one of the six turkeys which were to 
feed the convened clans, saying as he layed the edibles before his visitors r 
" Begin on them two scalps." 

Presently a felicitous idea occurred to Ozi, who had cut a big wedge from 
the erring chicken-pie, in which the boys had inserted a double allowance of 
pepper. This he carefully chose from the section which the youngsters had 
spiced. Laying it on one of Mistress Olmsted's choicest plates he presented 
it to the second of his callers, and then deemed it seemly to withdraw to the se- 
clusion of the pantry. Thither Nehemiah discreetly followed him. In a few 
seconds the lads were rewarded for their industry by the sound of violent 
sneezing mingled with strange foreign oaths. Looking out they discerned 
their victim gesticulating fiercely. In a short time they saw him approaching 
their hiding place. Seeing that he would be discovered, Ozi made a virtue of 
necessity, and emerged from his retreat to enquire solicitously, " Be ye ill?" 

With a threatening sweep of his hand the man demanded milk or cider to 
wash down the pepper. "Give him. both together," advised Nehemiah, under 
his breath, but Ozi was content with proffering a mug of cider. At that 
moment was heard the sound of wheels approaching on the road. Hastily 
gulping down the liquid, the boys' visitor rushed with a valedictory sneeze from 
the kitchen and out of the lean-to. The lads followed him and then turned 
with cheerful faces to welcome Gran'ther Aaron, who was depositing a load 
from the family chaise. 

A few seconds later startled exclamations summoned them to the dining 
room. Mistress Aaron and a half-score of female Olmsteds were pointing to 
the table, where crumpled linen and missing knives and forks betrayed the 
operations of an invader. 

" Look yonder," cried the good old lady : " What did I tell you ! " she con- 
tinued in prophetic frenzy. "They've let in some thief, who has stolen our 
silver. 'Twould have been better to have disgraced our family before the tith- 
ing man than have let this come to pass ! " 

Explanations were given in short order, and the male Olmsteds repaired 
as a sort of committee of the whole to the camp on Bidwell's Lane. 

The gypsies were on the point of striking their tent, but a few minutes of 
salutary persuasion by Gran'ther Aaron and constable Timothy Bryant, sup- 
ported by the evidence of the two boys, resulted in the recovery of the articles 
which had been stolen by the confederate of the victim of the medicated 
chicken-pie. 

As for Nehemiah and Ozias, it is said that they have transmitted their 
deviltry to their descendants, but it may be nothing more than the fact " that 
boys do not seem to change as much as men.'' 



THE HOME OF TIMOTHY AND JONATHAN EDWARDS 



BY MARY SEABURY STARR. 



As one strolls through the heavily shaded streets of South Windsor, an 
appreciation of comfortable thriftiness overspreads him. Even the great elms, 
knarled and weather-beaten by the forces of a hundred years, breathe from 
their swaying branches a suggestion of sturdy resistance, crowned by the 
nified bearing of proud old age. From the hollow trunks and mutilated limbs 
of these landmarks of history we can weave the story of the Hessian soldiery, 
prisoners of the Revolution. A merry lot of young fighters they must have 
been, for the streets of the quiet town echoed with the sounds of h 
racing, and the bright coins of the gambling table glistened before the eves of 
our Puritanical forefathers. At Lafayette's command these naughty disturb- 
ers of the peace were set to work planting three rows of tiny elms to line the 
thoroughfare, unconsciously setting up for themselves rugged monuments to 
a defeated cause. 

On either side of the roadway, broad fields of waving vegetation form a 
restful variety of changing color. Long stretches of tobacco, stiff and tropical 
in form and deep in tone, contrast with the easy swaying of a field of grain, 
bright from the rays of the summer sun and intensified by the background of 
heavy woods. Over yonder lie the flat stretches of meadow land, quiet and 
motionless, save for the occasional glimpse of a group of hay cutters or the 




STREET VIEW, EAST WINDSOR 11111. 



34 



HOME OF TIMOTHY AND J ON A THAN EDWARDS. 



lazy movement of a herd of cattle. This picture of peaceful prosperity is 
framed by the purple mass of the Farmington hills. The faint lines in the 
distance are dimmed by the August haze, sometimes losing themselves in the 
blue of the heavens which seem to entice the fading forms into the uncertain- 
ty of space. It is a dreamy, restful picture, and if one cares to call up sugges- 
tions of a buried past, the silent " God's acre " at East Windsor Hill will trans- 
mit to the busy mind the strange charm of its atmosphere laden with the mys- 
terious stillness of its unwritten history. The sinking stones are moss-covered 
and cracked, sometimes leaning against one another for support, sometimes 
wholly covered by the persistent weeds or the clinging blackberry vines. 




HOUSE OF TIMOTHY EDWARDS. 



Near the center of this crumbling spot is a long stone tablet bearing the 
following inscription : 

In memory of Rev. Timothy Edwards 

Paftor of 2nd society in Windsor 

(whofe lingular Gifts and piety rendered 

him an excellent, and in the judgment of 

Charity by the bleffing of heaven, a 

fuccefsful minifter of the Gofpel) 

who diejd January ye 27th Ad 1758 

in the 89th year of his age and 64th of 

his miniftry — and his remains 

bury d under this stone 

An Epitaph : 

The man of God who nobly pled 
His Mafter's Cause alafs! is dead 
His Voice no more ! — but awful Urn 
Still speaks to Men their great Concern 
His Praise on Souls by Heaven impreft 
This mouldering Stone will long but laft 
When Grace completes the Work begun 
Bright Saints will fhine his living Crown. 



HOME OF TIMOTHY AND JON A THAN EDWARDS. 35 

The name of Timothy Edwards stands out strong and clear in the annals 
of early Connecticut. The little colony of settlers broke ground at Windsor in 
1635. We all know something of their struggle for life. The banks of 
Great River "were a favorite hunting ground for the Indians, and although 
the new comers found favor in the sight of the red-skinned warriors, never- 
theless that treacherous twist of the Indian character caused the pale-faced 
colonist to be ever on the alert for the war whoop. Despite the hardships and 
dangers the brave little band struggled on, building its church and making its 
laws. 

The town of Windsor included a tract of land some ten or twelve miles in 




SITE OF TIMOTHY EDWARDS HOME. 

area, divided by the Quonetakut River into equal parts. The first settlement 
was on the west side, at what is now Windsor, but the meadows across the 
bright water furnished tempting pasture land for the cattle, and before many 
years had passed a few of the more adventurous members brok< 
the mother settlement and cast their lot among the Podmiks an 

For some twenty-five years the old settlement was considered as home 
When the blasts of "ye trumpet" echoed beyond the waters, the tow 
colonists would brave the drifting ice cakes of winter or battle with the r 
freshets of summer, their light canoes making dangerous marks iov the at 
heads of the tawny foe, as they obeyed the distant summons, wh< 
prayer or battle. 

Rude houses sprang up along the bank of the hill which overlooked the 
fertile meadows, and the new life was passing outside the narrow limi 
childhood, when the advancement was stopped by the bait. 
Philip's War (1675). 

Cut off from the mother colony and surrounded on all 
savages, the doom of the pale-faces seemed sealed. Many of them remo\ 
the protection across the river, leaving the more daring of their eomrae. 
build a fort as a meagre refuge against the ravages of the Seam 



36 



HOME OF TIMOTHY AND J ON A THAN EDWARDS. 




Distant echoes of this troublesome past have come down to lis on the wings 
of tradition, weaving for our imagination hasty sketches of that far-off strug- 
gle. The war was a short one, and better days were in store for the colonists 
of the Windsor Farmes. 

In 1680 a petition was made to the assembly for the privilege of support- 
ing a separate minister and of building a new church. For fourteen years the 
petition was refused, as the rich land of the meadows formed a paying supple- 
ment to the little town of Windsor. 
However, the fifty families of the 
Farmes were persistent in their clam- 
orings, and the mother town at last 
ceded the request. 

In 1694, "It was granted that all 
those on the west side of the river that 
have estate in land or otherwise on the 
east side, their estate shall be rated to 
the ministry pf the west side, and this 
order to take no place till they of the 
east side have a minister settled among 
them, and to continue no longer than 
they do keep a minister there." 

In 1697, "It was voated also that 

Mr. Edwards should be called to offise 

as soon as conveniently may be, and 

those that are male church members do 

treat with him respectin' that matter." 

About this struggling community 

Timothy Edwards cast the influence of 

his power, drawing many an unruly nature unconsciously within the radius of 

his wonderful personality. 

Wales was the original home of the Edwards family, but history confuses 
the distant line of their descent. The father of Timothy Edwards was one 
Richard Edwards of Hartford, "a respectable merchant and an exemplary 
Christian." In the Connecticut Historical Society's rooms at Hartford maybe 
seen a curious yellow manuscript. The cover is torn and the neatly written 
pages are defaced in places, but the precise old-fashioned writing is easily dis- 
cernable, giving us a living picture of this same thriving merchant in the 
language of his son. It is entitled, "Some things concerning my dear and 
honored father, Mr. Richard Edwards, late of Hartford, deceased, who depart- 
ed this life in the comfortable hopes of a glorious resurrection to life again 
April 20, 17 18, on a Sabbath day, about singing time in the forenoon, aged, 
according to his own statement, within about a fortnight or three weeks of 71, 
or within a very little of it at least." 

It then goes on to describe his personal appearance as follows : " He was 
of middle height, rather taller than shorter than men of ordinary pitch, of a 
straight, well-shaped body, not corpulent but rather sparse and slender with a 
good proportion and symmetry in its parts. He had, especially in his younger 
years, a very good head of hair and comely countenance. Since I can remem- 
ber, he was, at least in my eyes, as pleasant a man to look upon as most I have 



DOORWAY TO GRANT HOUSE, 
EAST WINDSOR HILL. 



HOME OF TIMOTHY AND JONA THAN EDWARDS. 



37 



seen, and he had a smile that made him (upon occasion) appear with a still 
more graceful and amiable aspect, for it had a pleasantry in it beyond what I 
have seen in many — yea, most others." 

Timothy Edwards was born May 14, 1669. He was given all the advan- 
tages which the new country offered. Harvard was then the only college in 
New England, and from there he received on the same day his two degrees of 
bachelor and master of arts, "which was an uncommon mark of respect paid 
to his proficiency in learning." Long hours were spent in the study of theolo- 
gy, and the young minister had laid a substantial foundation for the hard task 
of his life work. Despite the stern conditions of his surroundings he had 
already succumbed to Cupid's arrow and his Psyche was realized in the beau- 
tiful Esther Stoddard, daughter of the Rev. Solomon Stoddard of Northamp- 
ton. Perhaps this student of young Harvard had sought relaxation from the 
society of classic poets or early theologists with the merry girls of the Boston 
boarding school, amongst whom was Esther Stoddard. Probably these college 
days were interwoven with Timothy Edwards' courtship. In November, 1694, 
he was married, and a few days later the substantial two-story house, the gift 
of Richard Edwards, opened its doors to the bonny bride. Work on the meet- 
ing-house was pushed forward, and by 1696 a rough building was completed in 
the corner of what is now the old burying ground. Close at hand was the fort, 
and, while the pilgrims offered up their silent prayers, one ear was kept open 
for the yell of the savages. Timothy Edwards' house was a little distance 
towards the south, across the street. Even now the old well from which little 
Jonathan quenched his thirst may be seen, although the house was torn down 
during the early days of this century. It was a well-made building of more than 
ordinary size, long and narrow and low. Off toward the west were the wav- 
ing meadows and glistening Connecticut. On the other side the land sloped 
gently aw T ay toward a noisy little brook at the edge 
of the dense forest which stretched away toward the 
east in black uncertainy. 

We are inclined to picture these forefathers of 
ours as treading a moral path of painful straight- 
ness, looking neither 
to the right nor to the 
left for relaxation 
from the stern calls 
of rigid discipline. If 
we glance in fancy 
for a few moments 
through the diamond- 
shaped panes of the 
Edwardshouseon the 
night of the " ordina- 
tion ball," we will find 
our mouths watering for the good things to eat, sent by the neighbors 
feet beating time to the music. We will long to catch an 1 
ing tales of the weather beaten group about the great fire 
in the more quiet gossip of the women, grouped together on tin 
about the wall and watching the movements of the young host and his pretty 







nir 01 D wfj 1 



38 



HOME OF TIMOTHY AND JON A THAN EDWARDS. 



bride in their quaint dress of long- ago. It is a pleasant suggestion of good 
comradeship on the outskirts of the howling widerness, a bright little spot 
peering out of the dreary background. 

The early years of missionary work we're trying ones. The Indians were 
tireless in their attacks, and there were trifling dissensions among the colo- 
nists, many of whom were rough adventurers, daring in spirit and wholly un- 
couth in manner. The seating of the meeting-house was a source of miserable 
contention. At last the following rules were made and peace was partly 
restored to the rural atmosphere, May 27, 1724 : "There being a general dis- 
satisfaction with the seating of the meeting-house, it was ordered to be re- 
seated and the rules adopted by vote were : 

" 1. That shall be 1 head to a man and age and estate, to take it from the 
building of the meeting-house until now. 

" 2nd. That the men shall sit on the men's side and the women on the 
women's side and it shall be counted disorder to do otherwise. 

" 3rd. That the seaters shall fill up all the seats with young persons viz, 
where the married are not seated." 




roll. 



THE CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH, SOUTH WINDSOR. 

Roger Wolcott, the future governor, heads the list on the new seating 



The path of the young preacher was not strewn with roses. His natural 
sympathies were far away from the agricultural life, and the primitive civiliza- 
tion about him grated upon his sensitiveness. It was hard for the struggling 
parish to eke out even the small salary demanded of them, and the family be- 
neath the sloping roof of the pastor's house was a large one. Amongst the 



HOME OF TIMOTHY AND JON A THAN EDWARDS. 



39 



eleven children, Jonathan, the fifth child, was the only son. The father of this 
little flock was wont to say " that his sixty feet of daughters must be clothed," 
and sometimes it was difficult to find the wherewithal. A little school was 
started at the parsonage and it soon became famous throughout the land, and 
no examination for college was considered necessary if the candidate came 
from under Mr. Edwards' care. As the daughters finished their education in 
Boston, where they were all sent, each one found their place on the staff of 
teachers. 

In 1 71 1, when the little Jonathan was eight years old, the distant war cry 
resounded throughout the land, and Timothy Edwards went as chaplain on an 
expedition designed for Canada. The fleet of about twenty men-of-war 




STREET VIEW, SOUTH WINDSOR. 
Showing elms planted by the Hessians. 

reached Albany August 15, 1711, after a tedious voyage. The 

has come down to us, written at a discouraging time, but filled with 

tenderness which gave new enthusiasm to the anxious family at the 

Windsor home. 

" To Mrs. Esther Edwards, on the East side of the ( onn, 

" . . . Whether I shall have any time to write to this, I kfl 

not; but however that maybe, I would not have you 1 
anxious concerning me, for I am not so myself, 1 have still 
seeing thee and our dear children once again. I cannot but h 
had the gracious presence of God with me, since 1 left hom< 



strengthening my soul, as well as preserving my 






4o 



HOME OF TIMOTHY AND J ON A THAN EDWARDS. 



cheered and refreshed respecting this great undertaking, in which I verily 
expect to proceed and that I shall before many weeks are at an end see 
Canada. 

" Remember my love to each of the children — to Esther, Elizabeth and 
Mary, Jonathan, Eunice and Abigail. The Lord have mercy on them and save 
them all — with our dear little Jerusha. The Lord bind up their souls with 
thine and mine in the bundle of life. 

" Though for a while we must be absent from each other, yet I desire that 
we may often meet at the throne of grace in our earnest prayers for one an- 
other, and have great hopes that God will hear and answer our prayers. 

" The grace of God be with you. 

" I am thy loving husband, 

" Timothy Edwards." 

Scraps from another letter show us that the weeds were not suffered to 
grow in the path to knowledge trodden by the boy Jonathan. 

August, 171-1. "I would have Jonathan keep what he hath learnt in his 
Grammar and I would have none of them forget their writing." Again: " I 
desire thee to take care that Jonathan don't lose what he hath learnt but that 
as he hath got the accident and about two sides of ' Propria quae maribus ' by 
heart so that he keep what he hath got I would therefore have him say pretty 
often to the girls. I would also have the girls keep what they have learnt of 
the Grammar and get by heart as far as Jonathan hath learnt, he can keep 

them as far as he had learnt — and 
would have both him and them 
keep their writing, and therefore 
write much oftener than they did 
when I was at home. I have left 

f paper enough for them which they 

may use to that end." 
& The expedition failed in its 

attempt, and, after two years, 
Timothy Edwards returned home 
Ml , : ^ JMi^ ? sick and exhausted. Again he 

gathered up the reins of discord 
and again by the pure words of his 
teaching he sought to instill new 
hope into the hearts of his tired 
flock. 

His sermons are full of vital 
force, well rounded by the breadth 
of learning. He preached the story 
of a substantial hell and of a per- 
fect peace. 

Amidst these strange conditions of circumstance the character of Jonathan 
Edwards was moulded. His home life was carefully guarded by the refined 
influences of his mother and of his little army of sisters, while the strong hand 
of his father was ever stretched out to help him. Beyond the high sill of the 
parsonage were only crude beginnings, and yet, from the very center of these 
primitive surroundings, came the boy who was to become one of the greatest 




JONAl HAN EDWARDS. 



HOME OF TIMOTHY AND JONA THAN EDWARDS. 41 

conquerors of human thought. He was a poetical, dreamy lad, easily moved 
by the sights and sounds of that world of uncultivated nature about him. He 
loved to wander along the brook by the edge of the forest and he was subject 
to strange religious impressions. When a mere child he and a couple of com- 
rades erected a booth in a swamp close by and retired to it each da 
prayer. The two little comrades were willing enough to drive the nails, but 
when the next chapter of the episode was disclosed, we can hardly believe that 
their boyish fancies would allow them to leave the butterflies and dancing 
sunbeams for quiet meditation. I suspect that the little Jonathan was left 
to solitary reflection. 

When scarcely beyond the age of babyhood the originality of his thoughts 
is very impressive, and the letter which he wrote when only twelve years old 




THE OLD CEMETERY AT EAST WINDSOR Hill 



is strikingly unnatural in its deep suggestions. Someone had stated that the 
soul was material and dwelt in the body until the resurrection. The 
pressed the thoughtful little listener as ridiculous. His reply is full ot a hid- 

den humor: 

" I am informed y* you have advanced a notion y« the soul is ma 
keeps w th y e body till y e resurrection, as I am aprofest lover of noveliv 
must alow me to be much entertained by this discovery. 1st 1 
whether this material soul keeps w*» in T Coffin and it so whether U n 
be convenient to build a repository for it in order w<* 1 W* know v 
of whether round, triangular or foresquare or whether it is a DUmbc 
fine strings reaching from r head to >- foot and whether it dus 
very discontented life. I am afraid when y coffin Gives way 
in and crush it but if it should chuse to Live above Ground and h 
Grave how big it is whether it covers all y body or is assined : 



42 HOME OF TIMOTHY AND JON A THAN EDWARDS. 

wt it dus when another body is Laid upon yt. Souls are not so big but y* 10 or 
a dozen of you may be about one body, whether yy will not quarril for y e high- 
est place." 

The paper on spiders, also written at the age of twelve, has become 
famous as a bit of childish literature. The following small selection from 
the long article will serve as an illustration of the logical reasoning and 
observance of the boy: 

"Especially late in the afternoon may these webs that are between the eye 
and that part of the horizon that is under the sun be seen very plainly, being 
advantageously posited to reflect the rays and the spiders themselves may be 
very often seen travelling in the air, from one stage to another, amongst the 
trees, in a very unaccountable manner. But I have often seen that which is 
much more astonishing. In very calm and serene days in the fore mentioned 
time of year, standing at some distance behind the end of a house or some 
other opaque body so as just to hide the disk of the sun and keep off his daz- 
zling rays and looking along close by the side of it, I have seen a vast num- 
ber of little shining webs and glistening strings brightly reflecting the sun- 




GRAVESTONE OF TIMOTHY EDWARDS. 



beams, and some of them of great length and of such a height that one would 
think they were tacked to the vault of the heavens and would be burnt like 
tow in the sun, and make a very beautiful pleasing as well as surpassing 
appearance. It is wonderful at what distance these webs may plainly be 
seen. Some that are at a great distance appear several times as big as they 
ought so great doth brightness increase the apparent bigness of bodies at a 
distance as is observed of the fixed stars." 

Yale, at this time, was just springing into notice. The infancy of the col- 
lege was an uneasy one. During this uncertain period our dignified Insti- 
tution of Learning was tossed from pillar to post, resting at New Haven, 
Wethersfield or Hartford, as the case might be. 

It was to this unsettled school that Jonathan Edwards was sent at the age 
of thirteen. Here, as his path lengthens beyond the narrow limits of his first 
home, we will leave him, with his future still dim before him, merely pausing 
to roughly sketch the outline of his maturer life. 

The years which followed were a stormy contrast to the protected sur- 
roundings of childhood. His disposition was not an enviable one, although 



SORROW. 



43 



from his own concise definition of his character, self-esteem can scarcely be 
numbered among his faults: 

"I possessed a constitution in many respects peculiarly unhappy, attended 
with flaccid solids, vapid, sizy and scarce fluids and a low tide of spirits, often 
occasioning- a kind of childish weakness and contemptibleness of speech, pres- 
ence and demeanor." 

His long ministry at Northampton ended in unfortunate controversy and 
he was forced to resign his charge, removing to Stockbridge, Mass., where he 
labored for eight years among the Housatonnuck Indians. Here he wrote his 
famous articles on "The Freedom of the Will." From the reputation which 
this work brought to him he was offered the presidency of Princeton College. 
He lived long enough to merely enter upon his duties there, dying March 
28, 1758. 

Only two months before Timothy Edwards was laid to rest in the little 
cemetery at East Windsor, close by the church to which he had willingly de- 
voted the busy years of his long life. 

The record of his tireless activity forms one of the purest pages in the 
history of those days. 

During his last years his work was somewhat lightened by the help of an 
assistant, so that he was able with a greater degree of comfort to enjoy that 
home life which was ever so dear to him. 

The solid doors of the parsonage were always open to the little flock of 
grandchildren. 

The blazing logs on the fire-place offered a crackling accompaniment to 
the tales of pioneer life. About the bent figure of the white-haired old man 
was often clustered an eager band of small listeners. 

The neglected cemetery, the theatre of these scenes of long ago, is now 
surrounded by a white picket fence which seems to serve as a barrier between 
the past and the present, separating the cloudy atmosphere of far-off 1 
nings from the highly cultivated sphere of our reality. 



SORROW. 



BY SALLY PORTER LAW, 



When Sorrow spreads her sable cloak 

About our shoulders bowed and bent, 
And bids us follow where she leads. 

Until our strength is well nigh spent. 
'Tis then we turn to Thee, oh God, 

And heav'nward lift our streaming eyes 
In mute appeal, with aching hearts, 

And beg Thee listen, ere Hope dies. 



SABRINA'S TEA CUPS. 



BY SARAH E. L. CASE. 



" Say, dear, you don't really dislike the name of Sabriny, do ye ? Cousin 
Hiram, he used to quote something from one of the poets about some ' Sabre- 
nah,' he called it, 'sitting knittin' lilies in her hair,' an' I used to think it 
sounded pretty. I always meant you should have something for your name, 
an' I mean to. I'll settle it right away." 

Thus said old Miss Elder as she struggled out of a 'bad turn,' looking up 
into the anxious face of Sabrina the younger, bent over her. 

It was out Litchfield way in a lonely hillside farmhouse, the loneliest of 
them all, the home for seventy years and more of the old lady who was near- 
ing to the " end of the road, however long it be." 

The late sunshine of an October day streamed in through the few flicker- 
ing leaves of the yellowed maple outside, through the blindless window, 
glanced at the dying fire and seemed to linger on Miss Elder's wasted hands 
as she sat propped up against the pillows. 

" All a-dying, ain't we, Sabriny ?" she panted to the plump little matron, 
%t the day an' the fire an' the beauty o' the year an' I sure enough — there now, 
you needn't mend the fire, I ain't chilly — less you be." 

Sabrina Morse settled back in the rocker comfortably. She had fixed up 
the room till it shone with the neatness of the old days when Miss Elder was 
in her prime " and kept things goin' wonderful," according to the neighbors, 
" with no man about 'cept Alec, an' he did'nt amount to no more'n a pasley 
patch." 

Alec was the only relative she had in the world, and " shif'less," to be sure; 
after his marriage to French Canadian Leonie he had departed, but for some 
months of his aunt's wasting illness was at the old homestead again, on the 
farm of many acres which he knew was to be his own when its present owner 
should enter upon the better inheritance. 

The quieting potion and the gruel had been administered and still the 
patient would talk. 

The sunset rays fell across the trembling hands stretched out on the bright 
patchwork quilt, and feebly rubbing them together, " There shall I bathe my 
weary soul in seas of heavenly rest — so, only more so," she said, as she basked 
in the yellow light and listened to the tap tap of the leaves softly blown 
against the window. " No pantin' an' fightin' for breath pretty soon for me." 
Then looking at the knotted homeliness of her poor hands, from which the 
idleness of a few months had not effaced the marks of years of heavy work, 
she rambled on: " To think I am going to have hands belongin' to me young 
an' limber an' ready for playin' on harps an' viols — if that is goin' to be the 
next duty, an' plenty o' voice for singin', don't seem like it, does it ? I've had 
to fight for a bare living'— but there! thank the Lord, I ain't beholden to no- 
body, never was, never will be. I never did lop down on anybody's help but 



SABRINA'S TEA CUPS. 45 

my own— only you're so good, Sabriny, a nussin' me up. An' Sabriny M 
while I have what I have, an' a mite o' breath, I want it settled right sure 
'bout my chiny teacups. Doctor'll be comin' round this evenin'— it's his day, 
an' he ain't been in sence last week, an' he'll be on hand to see 'em signed an' 
sealed an' delivered— yes, he's here now," she laughed. Her quick ears had 
caught the rattle of the doctor's gig coming over Gully Brook down the high- 
way. 

" Now, Sabriny, be sure and call the children in— Alec an* Linnie, 'fore the 
doctor goes, 'cause I want to say something." 

Almost as broad and smiling as the sun-bath about them— as doctors 
should be — entered the doctor, blithe in manner and face most comforting to 
the two women. The professional greeting and inquiry and advice over, after 
a while he seconded his patient's wish that Alec and his wife come in. 

Now, with a solemn air, Aunt Sabrina said: " I ain't never made any ■ 
I haint much to leave anyway, but you all know just how 'tis. I've just come 
to this old place, you know how I've labored early and late to keep it as Gran- 
ther left it, and now the mortgage is riz, paid up every cent on it, an' it'll go in 
the natural way to Alec, my nephew — yes, to you, Alec, and your heirs. 

" But I want to say just now an' here that them cups in the corner cup- 
board, them Davenport cups, yaller an' gilt, an' the sarcers an' plates, I want 
Sabriny Morse to have for her name, that her ma who was my best friend 
when we was young, named her for my sake. 

"'T don't seem so very long either, Sabriny, 't we was young girls together 
— an' not long neither since she was a-settin' in that very chair where you're 
a-settin' now, with you a teenty little mite of a red-haired baby in her lap, an' 
a-tellin' me your new name. A pretty baby you was, too — I never liked red 
hair before, but I always liked your'n. But about the namin', I thought I'd do 
something for you, never realizing what a sight o' things you'd be doin' for me 
— and you have been such a comfort, Sabriny ! 

" That's all I'm p'ticklar about, 'cept Alec — I want to be buried in the 
n'theast corner o' our lot in the old ber'rin' ground an' next Pa, 'tween him an' 
Cousin Hiram, an' I want a stun like Hiram's, don't forget, within six months 
after my goin'; an' Alec, you an' Linnie must remember 'bout them cups; the 
milk cup an' the sugar cup an' the teapot you may have, Linnie, it you will 
prize them, for the children. Well, Sabriny, I shan't use the cups no more, let 
the doctor take them home for ye to-night." 

"No," protested Sabrina the younger, "they brighten up that corner, 
they mustn't be moved yet a while, you'd miss the sight of them after all I 
years." 

"P'raps I would. Wall, do as you think best, they're yourn," ass 
the weary woman, dropping off into a sleep of exhaustion. 

Alec and his wife slipped from the room, she with a little shrr., slike 

as she passed the watcher, for the pretty cups were the things she m< 
ed of all her aunt's possessions. 

Dr. Walter mended the fire and pulled down the shade, am! advised the 
nurse as he lighted the lamp for her to sleep when she could ami sta 
with some good gruel, and then went out into the moonlighted Oct 
evening. 

Sabrina dozed until her charge stirred, then the invalid seemed \ c-\ 
awake, and in spite of gentle warnings, very talkative. 






46 SABRINA'S TEA CUPS. 

" I'm glad you hev them cups," she said, " I wouldn't hev parted with 'em 
for gold while I was a livin', breathin' human bein,' so to to speak, to anybody. 
I've had people tryin' to purchase 'em, an' you know I've been pretty poverty 
pinched by times — an' never did I give 'em up. I always supposed they were 
my Davenport cups 'cause I got 'em of the old Jesse Davenport estate at the 
vandoo in 1849, but of late years I heerd tell it was the name o' a kind o' chiny 
ware. I'll tell you how I got 'em after I've had my cup o' broth." 

Sabrina heated the broth, and going to the cupboard took down one of the 
dainty cups of buff and yellow gold decoration, and carefully wiping it, she 
filled and brought it to the sick woman, sitting on the side of the bed to feed 
her after tucking a towel under the sharp chin and wasted cheeks. A pleased 
smile came over Miss Elder's face as she said: "Jest like I did for poor Hiram 
when he came home from Calif orny. And the way I got them cups, Sabriny. 
Wall, you know, I ain't never, an' couldn't never be extravagant if I wanted to 
be, but when I was a getting ready to be married — you didn't know I ever ex- 
pected to be ? wall, folks didn't then, but I did, an' that was enough. Hiram 
Coles an' I had it all settled between ourselves — nobody else knew — and when 
the Californy fever broke out, the gold seekin,' you know, in '49, we weren't so 
very young, then, but we'd been o' that mind for a good many years, an' I 
knew if ever he got settled he'd be glad to have me to take care o' him — he 
was a sort of rover, by nature, Hiram was, always plannin' and dreamin' an' I 
was jest the steady one for him if I do say it, but he was so conscientious I 
wan't a bit afraid o' his falling into temptation, but I felt a awful sinkin' o' fear 
when he said he was a-going off with the rest o' them, the gold hunters. My! 
how fur off that Californy seemed to me them days — now they say you can get 
there in less'n a week. 

" I'd a begged to be let go, too, I dare say, for I had stren'th for any kind 
o' pioneering, for anythin' he'd be called on to bear an' to do, but you know 
when your pa and ma are gettin' oldish and need you near 'em, you can't, if 
you are oldest gal at home, jest strike out for yourself. 

" He said he was sure to come inside a year, or two at the furthest, then 
he'd have enough to buy and furnish the little farm he wanted, he was sure 
on't. I most felt so, too, he was so certain on't. 

" I fixed him up some things for his long journey; he was going overland 
but I didn't know what bleaching bones that meant for many a poor fellow., 

"An' we said good-bye — harder for me to say to my one tall slim chap 
than 'twill be for me to say good-bye to the whole living world pretty soon. 
Oh, but it was wringin' hard ! You'll never know, my Lord, yes. 

" Wall, next day after he'd gone was old Col. Davenport's vandoo sale. I 
wasn't goin' mopin' about, which wouldn't a helped nothin', so I went with the 
others about here to see what the young Davenports were goin' to let go of the 
old Colonel's belongin's — most everything, it seemed. The old Colonel had 
been such a fast liver, he'd used up all his cash, about. When I see 'em, I 
thought them bright cups, your teacups now, would be the very nicest thing 
fur the money I'd laid out to spend, if I could get 'em for that, an' I did, an' 
had enough to bid off the plates, too ; but when I asked about them, an' the 
sugar cup an' the creamer an' the teapot, they said them had been sold for 
special price an' favor, an' was to be took to a young lady in the country. 
Now I never dreamed it was me, but it was, an' Hiram he'd done it for a good- 
bye present for me. 






SABRINA'S TEA CUPS. 4/ - 

" You may guess I prized 'em more than ever, an' Pa made me that corner 
cupboard with his own hands, an' I was busy— wall, I always was, but some o' 
my sewin' them days was for the little home that was to be, an' I pictured hav- 
ing your pa and ma— they was married about that time, to take tea with me 
an' the minister, an' all of us drinkin' tea out o' them cups in my own house, 
an' my Hiram at the head o' his own table. 

" Yes, he'd gone an' I waited, an' I didn't get any word from him, an' then 
what I heard was discouragin'— only pitiful news o' sickness an' bad luck an' 
such. And I waited one, two, three, four years, a little bit o' hope one while 
that he was doin' well an' he hoped to get home. 

" Then I heard that he could never come, no, never — 'at he was dead— an' 
I went into the deepest kind o' black for him in my soul, an' still nobody knew 
'at we'd been more than friends an' cousins. 

"I never did favor folks a-gossipin'— congratulations or pity, till all things 
was set and settled. 

" I give him up — I had to, an' I had to work harder'n ever after pa died 
and Brother Joe leavin' Alec here scarce fifteen, an' never real handy, an' Joe's 
widder warn't smart nor poor mamma neither, so I got used to runnin' the 
farm an' could do it as well as any man; but pa, he'd never paid off the mort- 
gage, 'n I wanted to for Alec's sake. I guess folks thought me awful stingy, 
for its close an' plain we lived, an' after Alec married an' went off, I did live 
awful poor. 

" But the sixth year Hiram had been gone — I was thirty-four then — he 
was a year or two younger'n me, one night some one was rappin' on that door 
yonder — -it was an October night like this, but chillier. I opened the door an* 
v there was that poor Hiram, a shadder of himself, all a-worn out with his hard- 
ships an' fever an' travelin'. * Oh, you blessed livin' ghost, come in, come in !' 
says I, jest so. Course I got him in, an' into a good warm bed, an' brought him 
gruelin a bowl an' acup o' chicken broth, soon's ever I could make it, in one o' 
our cups, so I told him, an' he looked as pleased as such a shadder could. 
Poor dear, poor dear, he had suffered so, all them years ! an' I in good old Con- 
necticut in comparative ease an' comfort. 

"Wall, Sabriny, he had next day what old Dr. Walter called a congestive 
chill, an' he didn't get over it; 'fore he went out o' his head he talked o* want- 
in' to be married 'fore he died. I was willing,' but he got worse awful fast; lie 
seemed to come to himself a little, an' at the last he was a-whisperin' he hoped 
one o' the Lord's own many mansions, jest a little one, would be a place tor us 
somehow, together. 

" Then he dropped away— he was a lyin' there, my Hiram, with me a-hold- 
in' him by the hand, but I couldn't hold him. 'N more'n forty year I've been 
goin' on toward that house an' home— you're comiiv, too. in due season. S 
ny. Now, a little more gruel, an' I'll rest." 

Sabrina Morse was still a watcher by the old friend's bedside when a 
days later the feeble life spark went out. A word o( trust, .1 gleam of joy that 
the long journey was so nearly over — then the dark. 

It was perhaps a week after the simple funeral that the doctor 
to Mrs. Morse's door and the doctor, son of the old doctor, came bringing the 
legacy from Miss Elder's corner cupboard. 

"Here are the twelve plates and the twelve cups with saucers, none 



48 SABRINA' S TEA CUPS. 

cracked or chipped, which I heard Miss Elder say were to be yours, Mrs. Morse, 
but Alec's wife declares she gave her the rest of the set; I don't remember 
that I heard her say anything- about them, but I'm sure she must have meant 
you to have it all as a sort of birthright," said the doctor. 

" But the rest are hers," explained the widow. " I hope she'll really prize 
the pretty things, they're so pretty, aren't they, doctor ? For mine, I shall 
have a corner cupboard made straightway. Advise me how and where." 

The year went on and still another year since Miss Elder was laid away 
next to Hiram in the northeast corner lot in the old cemetery, and yet grasses 
and daisies ran riot there and Alec was urged in vain to heed his aunt's 
request about the headstone, "one like Hiram's," small and plain, and still he 
and Linnie " didn't feel to afford it." 

"I could get one for her myself," said the troubled name-child, Sabrina, 
" but she'd most rise and walk if a charity stone, as she'd call it, was set at 
her grave, she who would not in her most pinched days take a cent's worth of 
help. She meant it paid for out of that hundred dollars she left in the bank, 
and she did all her life so slave to lift the mortgage off the farm to leave it 
clear for that couple. They ought to respect her wishes. It's a shame !" 

About this time Dr. Walter developed a great passion for collecting old 
china and other "olds," and Mrs. Morse concluded after a wakeful night that 
dear old Miss Elder's independent spirit should be respected. She should in a 
manner buy her own gravestones, for she, Sabrina Morse, would sell to the 
doctor her beloved Davenport cups and the stone should be set. And Dr. 
Walter was glad to purchase the treasures for a sum that would pay for the 
memory tablet to be placed in the old lot beside Hiram's. " But I can't let the 
plates go," affirmed the little widow, "I'll have these for a keepsake of my 
mother's old friend." 

And during the weeks following his wakeful night, no doubt, the doctor 
himself affirmed on his next call to her: " Sabrina Morse, I've bought for a 
good price from Linnie and Alec Elder — she wants to get a melodeon for her 
oldest girl — the old Col. Davenport teapot and sugar bowl and creamer for my 
collection, and now Sabrina Morse if you only would let me have your plates, 
why — well, I'd like to say that I'll give you all of my cups and things — in fact, 
with all of my worldly goods and my clumsy old self, I'll gladly thee endow — 
if you'll only say I may have you." 

And the rosy widow did not say a word for the surprise of it, but someway 
the doctor knew. 

And " Sabrina's teacups " and the rest of the glittering array, shining and 
with a new lease of unbroken pleasure -giving, adorn the old-fashioned side- 
board or table of the good doctor and his cheery little helper to this day. 



MEMORIES OF MERIDEN. 



BY FRANCES A. BRECKENRIDGE. 



The steep declivities of nearly all the mountainous elevations of Connecti- 
cut face in a southerly direction. Between these hanging hills the land undu- 
lates from east to west, forming sheltered depressions, in which many, indeed 
most of the early colonists located their farms, often choosing the lowest and 
least sunny spot for their dwelling house and outbuildings. 

Occasionally though, and nearly always by a family of known English ori- 
gin, a large and roomy house, with some pretension to architectural symmetry 
and ornament, would be built upon the summit of a hill. Such is the position 
of the old "Johnson house," plainly to be seen from many of the city streets. 
r ,' The original Johnson made a sensation by entering town with his family, in 




THE JOHNSON HOUSE. 

what an old resident called "an equipage." This equipage was a vehicle with a 
canvass top. Its prototype was exhibited at the State Fair of 1892. This 
was considered elegant, and gave a certain social position to the new-comers. 
The Johnson farm included part of the west mountain and quite all of the 
known as West Peak. This purchase was not by other thrifty farmer! 
ered an especial evidence of good judgment. The mountainous 
most of it, hemlock, and no self-respecting housekeeper 01' thi 
buy hemlock wood for any purpose, unless cheated into 
accomplished by slyly inserting a log or two of the objectionabh 
into an honest looking load of hickory and maple. For mam be moun- 

tain was considered a nearly worthless adjunct o( the property, but within the 
last few years it has acquired a value other than its forests Th< t the 

4 



5° 



MEMORIES OF MERIDEN 



Johnson family were just the silent, grave, stern men of that day. The moth- 
er, slightly paralytic, equally serious and formal, and the two daughters, called 
by the children of that formal time " Miss Amanda " and Miss Huldah," might 
have stepped bodily out of Mrs. Gaskell's. " Cranford." The writer has just 
one memory of one of these ancient sisters. She sat stiffly upright, her with- 
ered hands crossed, as she gave out that ''she considered red flannel extremely 
conducive to health." liesides the equipage aforesaid, the family brought with 
them good store of china and Wedgewood ware. Cut glass decanters and wine 
glasses adorned the mahogany sideboard. China and pewter cider mugs had 
their own place. The pewter cups and platters had a commixture of silver, 
rather more than one of silver to sixteen of pewter. There are still extant 
certain pieces of old china and glass, once their property. An old pitcher with 
the parting of the to-be bride of "Old Robin Gray" and her Jamie depicted on 
one side, and the ship with white sails flaming, and the tossing waves beneath 
which bore Jamie away from her, on the other, had been in some long gone 




THE ALLEN PLACE. 



time broken into many pieces, carefully replaced and joined together with 
putty now dried by time into a hardness equal to the pottery itself. An old 
stoneware flip mug, with a surface as smooth and fine as china, is hooped with 
metal bands. 

The cut glass on the sideboard was not kept solely for show. Callers were 
always refreshed by a small modicum of cherry brandy or foreign wine from 
the decanters, dispensed in the tiny wine glasses. Their loaf-cake, rye bread, 
cream biscuits and honey were famous in all the region round about. 

The formalities of a tea-party were once described by a lady who assisted 
at the function. Upon the arrival of the guests, they were met at the door by 
both sisters, and by them helped in the arranging of best caps and lace collars. 



MEMORIES OF MERIDEN. 



They were then escorted sedately to one of their chairs by one of the sisters, 
and "negus" was mixed with much precision and with distinguished solemn- 
ity by the other. The del- 
ectable tipple was then 
dispensed by both, and 
was partaken of with se- 
rious appreciation by all, 
including the minister and 
his wife, who were always 
the guests of honor at such 
solemn divertisements. 
The family coat of arms 
was, and perhaps still re- 
mains, cut into the panel- 
ling of what was the best 
parlor. 

The old, old white rose, 
single to be sure, but fra- 
grant, and with buds when half opened of absolutely perfect lovelines-. 
still be found on the premises, as can also the almost extinct red and white 
striped York and Lancaster rose. The family is extinct, and the old 1 
is to this generation a landmark — nothing more. 




the cop: pi.ack. 




THE KICK HOUSE. 

In this section of the town are also the farms owned respectively by mem- 
bers of the Allen and Coe families. Commodious and handsome dwellings 
have been built on both of these estates, which have descended from tat; 
son. The old farmhouses are still Standing, but are in no way distinct 
Nearer the city is another farmhouse which antedates its centennial by d 



5 2 



MEMORIES OF MERIDEN. 



years. Low in its elevation, it is large upon the ground. Substantially built, 
its wide low hall with its staircase rising directly from it, gives an air of 
roominess not usual in dwellings of that period. This hall now furnished with 
"things new and old" gives access to the cosy rooms on each side, with their 
cupboards and corner fireplaces. This is and has been for more than a hun- 
dred years the " Rice Farm." There, many a year agOne, Deacon Ezekiel 
Rice, a widower with seven children, brought home as his bride the sometime 
widow of Dr. Hall of Wallingford. Into the family of seven girls and boys 
the new wife brought her three daughters. From that time, all the young peo- 
ple lived in the peace of a singularly harmonious home. Somebody, with more 
truth than elegance, said of them that " they were stirred together with a long 
stick and never afterward did anyone know to which side of the house did they 
belong." To these ten, six more were added, and the sixteen grew up and all 
but one married. From the shelter of its broad roof have gone out into the 
world those who are known in pretty nearly every state in the Union. Among 







its later inmates are those who have been and are in close relationship 
and friendship with men and women known beyond the limits of our own 
country for their important station in the political world, and for the wealth 
of their intellectual resources. 

The house and land surrounding is still owned and occupied by members 
of the family name. Before the present dwelling was built, more than a cen- 
tury ago, there was another, of which only the door stones and an old well 
were discoverable some years since. At the southwest corner of the low door- 
yard terrace, there stands a vigorous, and although distorted, very beautiful 
maple. This tree was a good size when the present house was built, and is at 
least a hundred and fifty years old. A tall and vigorous pine tree has a pretty 
bit of family history connected with it. One of the daughters, then a little 
girl, went to Middletown with her big brother, she riding behind him on a 



MEMORIES OF MERIDEN. 

pillion. Going over the mountain she saw the tiny tree, only a few inches 
high, and she transplanted it in the home door yard. Some years ago it 
seemed to be dying. It is a landmark, and would be missed, but it has taken 
a new start and bids fair to live through another generation. Besides these, 
visibly striving to renew its youth, is an ancient stump of a ''golden sweeting" 
apple-tree, the parent of which was brought to Wallingford from England. It 
is, itself, the parent of all that especial fruit in these parts. 

From the first this home was the center of good cheer and of an intelli- 
gent, social culture. 

In the northern section of the town is standing another quaint dwelling. 
Its long, low, picturesque roof once sheltered one of the large families of the 
olden time. It is still occupied by a member of the family, and, like the three 




BLACK POND. 



before mentioned, is still held in the family name. This was not exactly a 
farmhouse. Years ago, its owner, Squire Patrick Clark, conducted a thl 
tin business that with its numerous surrounding low workshops gave that cor- 
ner of- the town the name of " Clarksville." Tinware making was then the 
most important Meriden industry, antedating that oi ivory comb ma 
which afterward outgrew its predecessor, but of which no trace is left e\ 
the pretty artificial lake known as i( Prattsville Pond." In its o\ay the tin 
ness quite held the town. Not only were the shops at Clarksville k< . . but 

there were those of " Squire " Noah Pomeroy at the " Eas 
arate concerns belonging to members of the Vale family in the cent< 
town, and another, quite as thriving as any of the others, carried on bj 
rich and Rutty." Of those old workshops not a vestige can n< uind. 

Streets with sidewalks and electric lights now traverse the precinct! 



54 



MEMORIES OF MERIDEN. 



the "apprentices" soldered the pots and pans, doing their evening "stint" by 
the obscure radiance given out by tin lamps filled with whale oil, or by tallow 
candles. 

The Pomeroy shops are gone. Even " Black Pond," the adjacent east side 
natural lake, the only natural lake in the town limits, has lost its weird notori- 
ety as a fathomless water. Since the trees from the overhanging mountain 
side have been cut away, the sunlight falls as brightly there as anywhere, and 
it is now known to be no deeper than any mountain side lake is apt to be. 

As the tinware and ivory comb business declined, the present industries 
which give Meriden the title of " Silver City "grew naturally out of the small 
but very well paying trade in britannia metal. This was at first confined to 
the manufacture of spoons and tea and coffee pots of homely and inelegant 
pattern, and except perhaps a simple beading, of a perfectly plain finish. 

The leading Connecticut industry, rivaling for many years that of clock- 
making, was that of tinware. Northern tin-peddlers pervaded the Southern 

States, and what were 
then known as fort- 
unes were thus ac- 
cumulated, of which 
Meriden had its gen- 
erous share. Since 
then other business 
ventures have start- 
ed, developed into 
more or less impor- 
tance in their own 
time, have declined 
and passed out of the 
needs of this newer 
day. 

But the great 
the Patrick Clark homestead. factories of this later 

dispensation, growing still more and more extensive in their operations ard 
varied in their merchandise, have grown up from and have been evolved out 
of, more or less directly or indirectly, those low, unpretentious, nearly forgot- 
ten workshops of seventy years ago. The men who conducted the enterprises 
of those years were all of them economical, thrifty and painstaking. Besides 
these qualities, they were both, farmers and manufacturers, eminently God- 
fearing, Sunday-keeping men. They strove,— even if they sometimes, being 
but human, failed— to have "a conscience void of offence." 




NERVA. 



A Story of Pastoral Connecticut, 



BY MILO LEON NORTON. 



PART I. — DESOLATION. 

Fortunes are made and lost in a day, is a common allusion to the fluctua- 
tions of Wall street, but yet to one who has little knowledge of the feverish 
excitement, the anxieties, the depressions and exhilarations peculiar to specula- 
tion, this expression is as meaningless as the terms of a quadratic equation to one 
who has never progressed beyond the simple calculations of arithmetic. There 
is a fascination about speculation, like all forms of gambling, that is almost 
irresistible ; and the fact that some succeed allures others on to almost certain 
ruin. 

George Smith had been a successful operator on Wall street. Whatever 
he touched turned to gold. His great ambition was to become a millionaire, 
but, having attained this, he was just as ambitious to add another and still an- 
other million to his pile. How few learn the lesson of moderation. How few 
ever succeed in curbing the insatiate craving for more, that becomes a pa- 
a mania, robbing men of much of the real enjoyment of, and relish for the good 
things of life. 

George Smith became interested in a new, gigantic railway project in the 
West. This was to be the master financial stroke of his career. The : 
were issued, the scheme duly lauded by the well-paid metropolitan | 
bonds were being taken by investors ; indeed, success seemed assured. But a 
rival operator saw a chance to steal a march on his fortunate rival. A - 
cate was formed. Legislation hostile to the Smith system was secure,. 
process best known to those familiar with the lobbies of legislative bodies. 
False reports were circulated. The stocks depreciated. In short. G< 
Smith, triple millionaire that he was, found himself out-generaled, and rained 
The bubble had burst. 

Gathering up a few scattering securities he realized what he could Upon 
them, cast into the pool again, and lost. Luck had turned. There \\ 
Prematurely aged at fifty, when he should have been in the prime of lii 
less and nerveless, what could he do ? He still possessed son 
this under forced sale did not realize its full worth, a few thousands, and de- 
positing this, he cast about for some business opening, tor he had a" 
speculation forever. He was soon astounded to learn that the bank which 
this remnant of his fortune had failed. The very root above his hi 
now be sold and he must seek inexpensive quarters elsewhei 

Misfortunes never come singly. TJiey came upon him and overwhelo 
him like an avalanche. 

It is not surprising that this run of ill-luck that had swept from him 
.few months what had taken him so many years to aecumr. 



56 NERVA. 

pletely prostrate him. Many a man has ended his life by suicide at such a 
crisis in his affairs. But he was too utterly crushed by his misfortunes to even 
think of suicide. He lapsed into a sort of stupor, from which nothing could 
arouse him. He took little interest in anything. He ate and slept and con- 
versed aimlessly, nervelessly. 

Mr. Smith's family consisted of a wife and two daughters. «One of the lat- 
ter, the older, was with her mother in Europe, the other was with her father. 
The two sisters were as unlike as two persons could well be. The elder one 
was proud, haughty, calculating, like her mother, her horizon bounded by her 
own desires and ambitions. Her mother had married for money, not love. 
Born of an old, aristocratic family, she inherited the blue blood of her ances- 
tors. Fortunately for her, her husband had settled upon her an immense sum, 
the income of which, coupled with her own private fortune, placed her above 
the possibility of want. The news of her husband's failure, which would have 
excited wifely sympathy and compassion in most women, only deepened her 
alienation from her husband. To her, financial misfortunes were criminal. 
Henceforth their paths would be divergent. 

She wrote at once to her youngest daughter to join them in Paris, where 
they could live at their ease, and leave the man who had brought all this dis- 
grace upon them to shift for himself. To this proposition the youngest daugh- 
ter made a prompt and indignant refusal. What ! Leave her father to bear 
his burden of disaster alone ? Not she. Her father had done too much for 
her to be recompensed with such ingratitude. 

The stately family mansion was sold. Some of the most useful furniture, 
and some precious souvenirs were reserved, rooms were secured in a quiet 
locality, and a talent for management was developed in this girl of twenty, 
that surprised herself : she who had never been required to give an anxious 
thought for the morrow. 

A few months after taking up their abode in their new quarters, Nerva — 
for I must now introduce her by name — was reading aloud to her father, who 
listened, half heeding, in his listless way, when her eyes rested upon an illus- 
tation of an old farm-house, its windows broken, its weather-boards fallen off 
in places, its chimney of hewn stone still defying wind and weather, its doors 
unhinged, and tangled vines and shrubbery growing wild and luxuriant about 
the stone door-steps of the old deserted habitation. It was one of those aban- 
doned houses so common in New England. There was something about it in 
keeping with the dilapidation into which their fortune had fallen ; something 
about the old ruin that seemed consonant with the ruin and desolation that had 
come to her heart. Not only had she lost her position in society as a belle and 
heiress, petted and admired and envied, but the young fortune-hunting lawyer 
to whom she had been betrothed, when she had promptly released him from 
the engagement, had as promptly accepted the release, not without a show of 
regret, to be sure, but as she well knew, without a particle of sincerity about 
it. Hollow and insincere as she then knew her affianced to have been, yet the 
sudden rending of ties so sacred, the sudden blasting of the hope that, perhaps, 
after all he would be true to her despite her loss of fortune, the dashing to 
earth of all the hopes and dreams that had taken possession of her young life, 
almost crushed her beneath their accumulated weight. But the sight of her 
poor father, sitting day after day, helpless almost as a child, yet trustful and 



NERVA. _-- 

gentle and kind as he always had been since her earliest recollection, nerved 
her to struggle bravely against the overwhelming disasters that had befallen 
them. Her eyes followed the descriptive text, and she read, with languid 
interest, paragraph after paragraph. 

All at once a sudden inspiration came to her. How nice it would be to 
live in the seclusion, the solitude, of such an old home. How sweet to bury 
one's selfjin such an old tomb. The close companionship with nature, the gentle 
murmur of tne brooks, the perfume of the new mown hay, the beauty of the 
wild flowers, the shadows of the leafy wood, and the grandeur of the hills ; how 
all these things would inspire her very soul, and soothe and heal her wounded 
heart. 

She laid down the magazine at last, and sat and thought, and thought, and 
thought. 

It was a perfect day. May, the lovely bridal month of the year, had 
decked herself with apple blossoms, the loveliest of all fruit blossoms. All 
nature was gay with bud and bloom, and brilliant with vernal sunshine. A 
New England train wound in and out among the hills of Litchfield County. 
It labored up a steep grade through a wild gorge, a canyon they would call it 
in the wild West, through which a stream of water dashed over gray rocks, 
spread out into miniature lakes, or glided along underneath drooping willows 
or black stemmed alders. Farther along a deep cut in the solid rock of the 
gorge, worn away by untold ages of falling water, afforded an ideal site for a 
mill-dam. One had time only to catch a glimpse of a deep, dark chasm, into 
which plunged the waters from the weir above, when the train gave a lurch, as 
it rounded a curve, and then traversed the border of a placid mill pond, upon 
which was reflected the deep blue of the sky, and the cloud-fleets that sail on 
aimless voyages along the uncharted currents of the upper air. A little island, 
a continent in miniature, with a cape here, a gulf there, beetling crags a cubit 
high, rocky promontories, bold headlands — what one could imagine Australia 
to be, could he view it from the moon — seemed to float upon the lakelet, to nes- 
tle there as an emerald might nestle upon the bosom of a sleeping maiden. 

Farther along the train emerged upon a plain. A stream wound through 
it in serpentine spirals, fringed with water-loving alders and mottled maples. 
The plain itself, like a great river, stretched away to the north, skirting 
frayed edges of the bordering hills, or yielding to the encroachments oi huge 
masses of metamorphic rock. Scores of cattle grazed in the pastures. Farm 
houses, surrounded by cherry trees in full bloom, partially revealed their 
white-painted gables and weather-beaten roofs in the distance. 

Another lurch of the train, another sharp curve, and the train rush* 
a narrow defile in the mountain. Huge boulders and angular masses detached 
from the heights above, lay scattered about. Through the very her 
many huge rocks the engineers had blasted the way for the locomotive. There 
were pools, shaded by sombre hemlocks ; there were cascades dashing over the 
rocks, or tumbling down the mountain side; there were wooded slopes, 
gray, bald crags of rock, towering high above the tree tops. 

Still farther on the spire of a village church, and clusters of snow \\ 
houses were seen, and the train came to a halt at a little station. 
the villagers persisted in calling it. At the station two passengi 
They were Nerva and her father. 



58 NERVA, 

They were quickly approached by the local Jehu of the village livery sta- 
ble, who proffered his services. 

" Can you take us out to the Weston farm ?" asked Nerva. 

" Certainly, ma'am. But there's nobody living there," replied Jehu. 

" I know it. We wish to go out there, and have you come for us at six 
o'clock," said Nerva, motioning toward a lunch basket, which Jehu quickly 
stowed away, with his passengers, into his carryall. 

With Yankee inquisitiveness Jehu plied his passengers with questions on 
the way, eliciting very little information, however. Nerva desired very much 
to be left to her own reflections, and to closely observe the country through 
which they were driving. She soon turned the tables on the questioner, who 
could not have been more inquisitive had he been conducting the cross-ques- 
tioning of a witness, by asking the names of owners of houses and farms which 
they passed, and listening to their biographies as glibly told by her informant. 

Three miles from the station a small rural hamlet was reached. The road 
descended to it from a lofty ridge, at the foot of which it nestled. Ledges of 
mossy rocks cropped out here and there, barely admitting the passage of the 
wagon. Little streams of water trickled down the rocks, and off through the 
meadows. Great, spreading elms and symmetrical maples lined the roadway 
upon either side. Half a dozen farm-houses, some of them very old, with great 
chimneys protruding from their roofs, stood behind the rows of shade trees. 
The first settlers had found many relics of the aborigines in the shape of 
arrow heads, stone axes and other implements, and so they named the place 
Indian Hollow, and " Injun Holler " it had ever since been called. Only one 
descendant of the original settlers remained. The rest had died, or drifted 
away to livelier and more congenial scenes. The throb of the great world's 
pulse came to the few families in the hamlet but faintly through the medium 
of the press. They plowed and sowed, and reaped and mowed, in the sum- 
mer, and cut their year's supply of fuel in the winter, as their fathers had done, 
and were content, with one exception, and he, still a young man, had worked 
his way through an agricultgral college and come back full of new-fangled 
ideas, strange and new to his neighbors, to whom the good old ways were all 
sufficient. All these facts and much more Nerva learned as they drove on. 

A turn in the road brought them to a grassy lane. The bushes on each 
side had not been cut ; the fences were out of repair ; white birches, the van- 
guard of the hosts of the wilderness, had taken possession of once cultivated 
fields ; tangled vines and brambles were everywhere, illustrating the fact that 
nature abhors a vacuum. 

Up this lane, over a hill, across a rude bridge in the hollow beyond, Jehu 
guided his team and drew up at a solitary, deserted farm-house. Nerva did 
not need to be told that it was the place they had come to see, for she recog- 
nized it instantly by the picture she had seen in the magazine. 

Dismissing the carriage, father and daughter proceeded to explore the old 
dwelling. Thanks to the durable, hand-rived shingles, the rain had penetrated 
but little through the roof, and most of the ceilings were intact. The windows 
were broken, the doors unhinged, and the floors warped by sun and storm. 
They climbed up into the great empty attic, where the wasps built their nests 
of clay, and the spiders spread their nets for the unwary fly. They walked 
through the tenantless rooms, descended into the capacious cellar, looked up 



NERVA. 59 

from the cavernous fire-place to the blue sky above through the chimney flue, 
and looked out of the unglazed windows. Then they went out and sat on the 
velvety grass beneath a spreading cherry tree, white with its mass of bloom, 
and ate their noontide lunch. 

The old house stood on a terrace upon the hillside. To the south was a 
mountainous region densely wooded. To the north were sloping hillsides, 
where were long rows of apple trees in picturesque stages of decay and death. 
Broken down stone fences divided the land into fields where once the yellow 
grain had fallen before the reaper's cradle, and the tall corn had waved its tas- 
sels in the autumn sunlight. To the west lay open fields and pastures over- 
grown with brush and brier. To the east were meadows, and beyond them 
pasture lots. A good-sized brook flowed through the meadows, cool and 
sparkling, singing in an undertone the songs it had learned of the rustling 
leaves in the woodlands, where it had its birth, and where the song birds war- 
bled over its cradle. 

A path led across the meadow out into the wood-lot beyond, crossing the 
brook over a bridge of rude construction. Just beyond the bridge was a cliff 
of gray rock, towering a hundred feet into the air, its precipitous sides cov- 
ered with stunted trees and laurels, while lichens and ferns clung to the rocks, 
softening their hard surfaces with velvety greens and silvery grays. 

Leaving her father sleeping peacefully on the grass, Nerva followed the 
path till she came to the bridge. A trout shot like an arrow through the shal- 
low water when her foot touched the planking. She paused a moment, listen- 
ing to the music of the stream, and then passed on to the foot of the cliff. 
Following a foot-path, she scrambled from rock to rock, clinging to the trunks 
of trees, until she reached the summit, where a view of exquisite beauty re- 
warded her for the effort. 

The hills of Litchfield County appear much more enchanting to the 
distant observer than they do to the weary traveler who descends one hill and 
crosses a narrow valley, only to be compelled to climb another hill, and to 
repeat the process for many a long mile. But viewed from a distance there is 
a pastoral beauty in these long, sloping ridges, running north and south, un- 
excelled by any landscape in the world. A superb view of these hills, 
checkered by dividing fences, and dotted with white farm-houses, was s] 
out before Nerva as she stood there. 

After a long time she retraced her steps, and regaining the wood-path 
soon came to the ruins of a mill-dam. The pond, which covered sew 
was empty, but the old water-line could be seen upon the shores. In s 
places the meadow sloped down to what had been the water's edge : at other 
places the shore was precipitous and rocky. Nerva saw that the dam could be 
easily repaired, and instead of the repulsive marsh a lake o\ rare beauty could 
be formed. 

A few steps below the dam she found the rotting segments of an overshot 
wheel. This suggested to her mind that the pond could not onl] 
namental, but useful. 

Returning to the farm-house by another route she rejoined her father, 
and with him visited the orchard, the fields and the woodlands adjoining. 
The father, somewhat aroused from his listlessness, took considerable int 
in his surroundings. Reared on a New England farm he instinctively knew 



6o INSPIRA TION. 

the adaptability of different soils to different crops. This evidence of return- 
ing intelligence was very gratifying to Nerva, and confirmed her in the 
opinion that with the quiet and change that this secluded spot would give, her 
father might be greatly benefitted if not restored to his former self. 

On the day following, in consideration of the payment of a few hundred 
dollars, the old Weston farm that had lain idle for a quarter century, changed 
owners, and Nerva found herself possessed of landed estate. 

[To be Concluded.] 



INSPIRATION. 



BY DELIA B. WARD. 



'Look, then, into thy heart and write \"— Longfellow. 

So many tuneful bards have sung 
So many rhymes in every tongue, 
Can any thoughts have gone astray 
To charm the poet's soul to-day ? 
Have all our loves and joys been toM? 
Are all the rain-drops set in gold ? 
The glamour of the woods doth thrill 
Each quickened sense, delighted, still, 
Eolian strains of wind-swept trees ; 
The zephyrs' gentler harmonies, 
A subtle rapture thus uplifts 
The heart, in gratitude for gifts. 
So we will sing as they have sung: — 
For poesy is ever young ; — 
The human soul's beatitudes, 
And Nature's sympathetic moods. 




EARLY TEXT BOOKS IN CONNECTICUT. 



BY ELLEN BRAINERD PECK. 



There is a charm which ever hallows an old book — the charm of antiquity. 
As we peruse the pages we are transported in thought from our present sur- 
roundings to a contemplation of the customs and environments that be- 
longed to its time. Something of the atmosphere that emanated from the 
impulse and the action of the period of its making seems to be still lingering 
about it. There is a particular interest which is attached to the method 
instruction that bore a part in the education of our colonial ancestors; but a 
more especial interest belongs to the early American text-books studied by 
those who lived in the stirring times of our early independence. In consider- 
ing these early text-books, we naturally think of what sort and manner of 
they were, when was the period of their greatest usefulness, and by whom, 
and under what circumstances they were compiled; and, in doing this, the 
people of Connecticut are, haply, led to their own state. Before we begin to 
examine these interesting books, it is perhaps best to survey briefly the condi- 
tion of the educational affairs as they were prior to the Revolutionary War 
and to note how great was the lack of school-books in those days. 

The colonist of Connecticut, who was imbued with the spirit which | 
vailed in all New England (the keen desire for knowledge he nece 

of providing, as quickly as might be, a means of educating the children of the 
colony. For, upon the growing generation, the New Englander well knew 
depended the continuance toward the success ot" the nation which he had 
striven to found. Moreover, men realized that the one way to rise in the eves 
of their fellow-citizens lay along the pathjof education. So. in this w . 
about the importance of the school in New England. 

In Connecticut, "as early as 1648 the assembly passed a law pr 



62 



EARLY TEXT BOOKS IN CONNECTICUT. 




THE HORN BOOK. 



common education, every town containing fifty families was required to sus- 
tain a good school, where reading and writing should be well taught." It is 
not to be wondered at, that books at this time w T ere a luxury, since so few of 

them were in the colonies and when the financial 
condition of affairs was such that the expense of 
printing them could not be undertaken. 

One of the present generation can hardly un- 
derstand the feeling of the forefathers for a book 
of learning, and they guarded it with the care of 
a treasure, that it might be handed down from the 
oldest to the youngest in a family. 

The New England Primer, which revealed so 
strongly and clearly the character of the Puritans, 
was called the little bible of New England, and it is 
described as having stiff oak covers, unbeautiful 
prose, rough and stern poetry and crude pictures. 

Such was the book wherefrom many a child 
studied lessons and doubtless knew by rote its oddly 
religious and laughably instructive rhymes. It 
must have been an uninteresting little book in its 
day, but now it is interesting because of its quaint 
character and puritanic primness. 

Beside this little book the children had lessons 
from the Bible and the Psalter, and these were about 
the only books that were in use in those days of the colonies. The teaching 
under this order of things, was compelled to be for the most part oral, and the 
teacher often possessed only a manuscript copy of any subject he taught. 

The advancement in such schools as this must have been slow and dif- 
ficult. The youngest pupils were sometimes supplied with a very curious con- 
trivance, which took the place of the regulation book and which was called by 
the name of the " Horn Book." This was made of a thin board, with a handle, 
and to this board was fastened a leaflet, upon which was inscribed the alphabet, 
the Lord's Prayer, and some sentences. This remarkable and unique device 
was oftentimes suspended from the girdle of the young pupil for convenience. 
Over the leaflet, very frequently, was fastened a thin pane of horn, that the 
page might be kept fair. This Horn Book had long been in use in old England, 
and it antedated the art of printing. This device continued to be in use till 
about the middle of the eighteenth century. 

The poet Cowper describes the Horn Book in the following verse : 

" Neatly secured from being soiled or torn, 
Beneath a pane of thin translucent horn, 
A book (to please us at a tender age), 
'Tis called a book, though but a single page, 
Presents the prayer the Saviour deigned to teach, 
Which children use, and parsons when they preach." 

Later along in the schools, the three R's— reading, writing and arithmetic 
— were required to be taught, and a pupil of average ability was supposed to 
become proficient through the rule of three, as proportion was then called. 
Rev. Heman Humphrey, D.D., president of Amherst College, wrote in a letter 



EARLY TEXT BOOKS IN CONNECTICUT. 



63 



atical Inftitute, 



to the Hon. Henry Barnard concerning schools between the years 1790 and 
1800, and the books that were then studied: "Our school books were the 
Bible, Webster's Spelling Book (third part mainly), one or two others were 
found in some schools for the reading classes — grammar was hardly taught at 
all in any of them, and that little was confined almost entirely to committing 
and reciting the rules. Parsing was one of the occult sciences in my day ; we 
had some few lessons in geography by questions and answers, but no maps, no 
globes, and as for blackboards, such a thing was not thought of till long after. 
Children's reading and picture-books we had none, the fables in Webster's 
Spelling Book came nearest to it. Arithmetic was hardly taught at all in the 
day schools; as a substitute, there were some evening schools in most of the dis- 
tricts. Spelling was one of the daily exercises in all of the classes." This 
testimony coincides with that of others who have written on the subject 
concerning the instructional appliances of that period, and shows how poorly 
equipped the schools were, and how limited the scope of an education to those 
dependent on the common school. 

But the mention of Webster's Spelling Book in this extract from President 
Humphrey's letter reveals the first bright spot in the means of acquiring 
instruction in those days, the glow of the dawn in the world of text-books. 
Up to this time in the history of the educational affairs of our country, there 
had been no idea of a text-book as a distinctive type of book, which was to be 
rendered interesting as well as instructive, 
and no allurements toward the path of 
learning, evidently, were regarded as 
needful. It was the general opinion 
that people should be impelled personally 
toward an education by the love of knowl- 
edge and through a sense of duty which 
ought to induce them to make the most 
of their opportunities and of themselves. 
This is, of course, the feeling which should 
animate all people, the personal obliga- 
tion to make the most of themselves, 
though unfortunately it has never been 
sufficient to lead the masses. But it was 
natural that amid toil and great hardship, 
little thought could be given to the mak- 
ing of the ways of education pleasurable 
either by books or otherwise. The child- 
ren were sent to school to learn their les- 
sons in the plain, hum-drum way provided 
for them. Our feeling is somewhat curi- 
ous and quizzical, yet withal reverent 
when we examine a dingy, unpretentious 
little volume printed in the year 1 790 or 
thereabout. " Books think for me," wrote 
Charles Lamb from his world of them; but in this country, in its \v 
the small and scanty volumes filled but slightly the longinga m the lr. 
minds of our ancestors. If the subject of the text-book were to be treated in 




OF THS 

ENGLISH LANGUAGE, 

COMPRISINC, 

An eafy, concifc, and fyftena 

EDUCATION, 

I v T a M E R J C J. 







IN T il il E H 1* A r 












PART I. 




















A IK 


V 3 


nil accurate S .nd»rd oi 








By 


X 


O A H WEBS 


A. 




." 


:-, 








'• 



HARTFORD? 
Pbintsd bt HUDSON » GOOI 



Tl PI E PAGE 



OF WKBST1 K 

iN<n PI n ■". 



64 EARLY TEXT BOOKS IN CONNECTICUT. 

strict detail up to those in use by the present generation of pupils and the text- 
books taken one by one through the series of advancements it would be al- 
most inexhaustible. 

S. G. Goodrich, better known perhaps as Peter Parley, who was a na- 
tive of Ridgefield, Conn., in describing a school of his town as it existed between 
the years 1803 and 1806, gives the following list of books as those used there : 
" The catechism, which was probably the New England Primer, and Webster's 
Spelling Book, the Bible, and Daboll's Arithmetic (which held its place in the 
schools for nearly thirty-five years), Webster's Grammar, which even the mas- 
ter did not understand, and Dwight's Geography, which had neither maps nor 
illustrations, and was merely an expanded table of contents of Morse's Univer- 
sal Geography." 

Furthermore, William Woodbridge writes concerning another one of these 
early schools: " As for geography, some few schools studied Morse's and a few 
others used as a sort of reading book Nathaniel Dwight's System of Geogra- 
phy;" and Mrs. Emma Willard wrote of a school which she attended when she 
was a young girl, " Saturday morning I went and received my lesson in Web- 
ster's Grammar and Morse's Geography." 

In reading the names of the books mentioned in these extracts, we find 
that they were all written by Connecticut men. And we draw the conclusion 
from such references as to what extent the text-books of Connecticut men pre- 
vailed in these early schools, and it is evident that they were the only ones of 
American authorship then in the country. This was at the crucial and forma- 
tive period of the nation when things were either to make or to mar its pros- 
perity, and we learn from further study that among these books was one 
which pre-eminently served as the base whence the character of the text-book 
in general was builded. The witnessing of both history and biography goes 
to show conclusively that to Connecticut belongs the honor of first instituting 
the distinctive class-book. A noted Frenchman, who visited this country 
about forty years ago, wrote of Connecticut that from its small area went forth 
teachers, law-givers, and clock-makers; and, if we may so use the word, Con- 
necticut has been a creative state — a state whence impulses strong and power- 
ful have gone forth toward the betterment of the country. 

It is to this energy of its inhabitants that we can attribute its success in 
educational affairs, and this honor of being the state that gave the first impetus 
to the evolution of the text-book. As soon as circumstances so framed them- 
selves in the course of the construction of this commonwealth and the finances 
of the country were in a better condition, then the text-book began to be 
thought of. When the [time is ripe, a thought that is running as a thread 
through a period finds an exponent for its expression. When the right hour 
came in the growth of our history then a new method and theory of teaching 
were developed and given to the people. Since that time school books have 
rapidly increased and advanced for all branches of study. This period came 
after the close of the Revolutionary War, for during that struggle, education and 
schools suffered with and like everything else in the country. When the war 
was finished, in the calm that followed, men might turn their attention to those 
advancements which would make toward the progress of the United States. 

It was during this time that Noah Webster, who in the year 1758 was born 
in the town of West Hartford, Connecticut, had published in the year 1783 the 



EARLY TEXT BOOKS IN CONNECTICUT. 

first part of his Grammatical Institute. This Grammatical Institute was com- 
posed of a speller, a grammar and a reader; and in the two succeeding years 
after the speller was published, the grammar and reader appeared. 

Previous to Webster's speller the Dilworth speller had been in use, and it 
can be remembered even now by some of the oldest inhabitants of New Eng- 
land. In a measure, the Dilworth book served as a model for Webster's spell- 
er, although it differed materially, as Mr. Dilworth was an Englishman with 
all the national prejudice of his nation at that time, and his book savored 
altogether of English form and custom, for it contained long lists of the abre- 
viations of honorary English titles, which although they might be needful in 
England were hardly so necessary here; moreover, it dealt with words more 
current in England than in America, for each country has its own preferences 
and shades of meaning in its vernacular, and Mr. Dilworth omitted in his book 
American linguistical additions. 

Noah Webster wished to break away from all this, and to gain a new foot- 
ing; he desired to lay aside this English spirit of ceremonial, the forms and 
the very evident spirit of subserviency toward the aristocracy which seemed 
to pervade the Dilworth speller, and, in short, in contradistinction to the Eng- 
lish work, to establish in all American schools a pure national spelling-book. 
So, although the Dilworth speller may have aided Webster in his ideas in re- 
gard to forming a speller, yet between the two works lay the distance of the 
ocean, for one had to do with England, the other with America. This is a 
favorite remark of Webster's : "In the year 1782, while the American army 
was lying on the banks of the Hudson, I kept a classical school in Goshen. 
Orange county, State of New York. I there compiled two small elementary 
books for teaching the English language. The country was impoverished, in- 
tercourse with Great Britain was interrupted, school-books were scarce and 
hardly obtainable, and there was no certain prospect of peace." This work, 
which was undertaken by Webster at this time, was " The Grammatical Institute 
of the English Language, comprising an easy and systematic method of educa- 
tion, designed for the use of schools in America." This work had a large and 
imposing title, but the famous speller part became best known as Webster's 
spelling-book. Perhaps Webster builded even wiser than he knew when he 
penned in the following paragraph the aims of his indefatigable labors : * 1 
spared no pains to make the orthography correspond to the analogies of our 
language and the usages of the country, banishing the French spelling and 
the harsh Indian pronunciation." And in very truth he performed well this 
which he set for himself. Webster other-where made this statement: " That 
the spelling book did more for the language of a nation than any other K 
How far he realized the great truth that was in these words, we cannot now 
know, but from our coigne of vantage (the lapse of time we can look I 
ward, conscious of the changes that time with its fulfilling touch 
wrought, and of the great stride in the progress o\ affairs and of education, 
we can realize in its fullness Webster's statement. It has been cog 
ten,— "The peasant of the Apennines drives his goats home at evening over hills 
that look down on six provinces, none of whose dialects be can sneak." \\ hat 
a contrast this is to affairs in America, whose great area extends three :' 
sand miles, and where we speak a uniform language ! This g 
speech we owe to Noah Webster, whose dictionary and spelling e the 

5 



66 



EARLY TEXT BOOKS IN CONNECTICUT. 



two great influences in keeping the language in this country pure. This spell- 
ing book attained speedily to a marvelous success and widespread popularity, 
and as it was used in all parts of the country, it exerted a far-reaching influ- 
ence, and probably a greater one than that of any other single book of study 
ever published. Webster bestowed much attention in his speller upon orthog- 
raphy and analogy, as he tells us, and the fables, which were one of the feat- 
ures of the book, became household words wherever the speller went; and they 
were beneficial in every way, beside interesting the child who read them, for they 
taught morality, legality, and patriotism. To-day, all over the United States, 
we are free from marked differences of pronunciation which result from dia- 
lects, and we are exceptionally free from provincialisms. This, happy state of 
our speech we trace rightly to the harmony of spelling and pronunciation pro- 
duced by the wide use of Webster's spelling book. The sales of this work 
were enormous, and it passed through various editions and revisions. By the 
year 1847 it had reached the sale of no less than twenty -four million copies, 

and by 1870 of over forty million. This book 
has held its own nearly to the present time, 
but it is now superseded by more modern and 
improved methods. 

Fortunately, the speller preceded the dic- 
tionary, as by the ample proceeds which its sales 
brought, Webster found the wherewithal to 
allow him the leisure to mature the plan of his 
dictionary. This speller was also the means of 
a most important movement in the laws of the 
country, as it gave the impulse to the earliest 
action of the States and Congress in regard to 
the laws of copyright. Before this work was 
published Webster took the manuscript and 
rode on horseback to visit the influential men 
of the different States, and showed to them his 
projected work. In this way he succeeded in 
gaining their active co-operation in the matter 
of the copyright law, for which Webster peti- 
tioned the legislatures of the States, and saw 
his efforts achieve success. 

The reader which he compiled, although a 
popular book, did not gain for itself such a popularity as the speller, which 
could not be hoped for. It was composed of selections for reading taken from 
the masters of English prose, and is interesting, although it has not been in 
use in schools for some years. 

The grammar division of the Institute was by far too radical in theory to 
establish itself, but it was nevertheless a work of merit. Mr. Chauncey Good- 
rich (who was the son-in-law of Noah Webster) says of this grammar: " It was 
a highly original work, the result of many years of diligent investigation." 
Webster disapproved earnestly of English grammar being conformed in its 
plan to the grammars of the Latin and Greek languages in the nomenclature 
and classification. However, it was impossible to carry out this plan, for there 
existed in the minds of the people too great a prejudice against such an entire 



AMERICAN 

SPELLING BOOK : 

CONTAIStKG 
'• Jn ear/ Standard of Fiouunchu™. 

BEING THE FIRST TART 
o» A 

Qnirnnat'^ 1 Tnftimrc 

or Ttis 

ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 

IN THREE FART*. 

mmm <- -■'; ' ■■■■' ~« i~ ' ' ■ ■ ■ "■■ 
By NOAH WI'.B.STER, Jua. Esquire. 

rut -.r/vrj-r. :j?r;' CiMlUttCfT *««* 



lURU-jRD : 

i'.ntt. »r HVH.-ON' W 6O0DW1 



TITLE PAGE OF WEBSTER S 
SPELLING BOOK. 



EARLY TEXT BOOKS IN CONNECTICUT. 67 

change in nomenclature, and this hindered the grammar securing wide 
acknowledgement. In the year 1807, Webster, who had profited by his former 
experience and who saw wherein he had failed, issued a " Philosophical and 
Practical Grammar of the English Language," and this work was more satis- 
factory in its result. 

Webster, in some ways, was a man of radical views, and even at the early 
date in which he lived, favored the since much discussed phonetic spelling, 
but he did not thirfk that his time was ready to adopt it with success and 
advantage. Few of our day think of the great debt to Noah Webster which is 
owing him from all of his countrymen, or realize how potent was his work and 
his life in this nation. 

Contemporaneous with Webster, Caleb Bingham lived, acquiring celebrity 
as a teacher in Boston, whom I briefly shall mention, as he was originally from 






A PH\ 



TITLE PAGES OF MORSE'S GEOGRAPHY. 

Connecticut, although he is closely allied to the educational history of 
Massachusetts. 

Caleb Bingham wrote school books, some of them dealing with the same 
subjects as those which employed Webster's attention, and some of Mr. Bing- 
ham's admirers have claimed a somewhat rival fame for his books with the books 
of Webster. This claim cannot be sustained. In the case of the readers there 
may have been justice in it; but as for spellers, Bingham's was completely lost 
sight of in the fame of the Webster Spelling Book. There was no question of 
rivalry in them, for the Webster book stood in conspicuous pre-eminence. 

In the lists of books studied in the early schools, Morse's Geography fre- 
quently meets the eye. This book was written by Jedidiah Morse, a learned 
and talented man, whose birthplace was Woodstock, Connecticut. The first 



68 EARLY TEXT BOOKS IN CONNECTICUT. 

geographical work that he issued, called " Geography Made Easy," was adapted 
from some of the larger English works on the subject. 

Dr. Morse had used this system of geography written in manuscript in 
teaching his pupils before he issued it in book form to the public, and his stu- 
dents so much liked it that they frequently made copies of it for their own 
purposes. This induced Dr. Morse to have the work published for general 
use, and the first edition appeared in the year 1784 as the first work of the kind 
published in the United States. This fact brought the geography into prom- 
inence as being first in the field, and the great excellence of the work gained 
for it the favor of the public. These remarks are in the preface: " Geography 
made easy, being a compendious system of that very useful and agreeable sci- 
ence." And farther on we read: " To the young gentlemen and ladies through- 
out the United States this compendious system of geography, a science no 
longer esteemed as a polite and agreeable accomplishment only, but a very 
necessary and important part of education, is with the most ardent wishes for 
their improvement, dedicated and devoted by their very humble servant, the 
author." 

Some time after this geography was published, Dr. Morse brought out The 
American Geography, in the year 1789. This book passed through many edi- 
tions, and was deservedly popular. In the year 181 2 we find it issued in two 
bulky volumes, between whose leathern covers lay a very encyclopedia of 
knowledge. The American Review and Literary Journal for the year 1802 
gives a long, comprehensive and critical article to this work which was just 
then issued, in one of its editions, and in an improved style. The Review 
makes the statement that "The blunders of European geographers are many, 
and sometimes ridiculous, and that Americans who wish to gain a knowledge 
of the geography of their own country would find this work of Dr. Morse's 
authentic, and they would do well to study it." This geography gives in its 
introduction an account of all geographical theories in a concise manner, from 
the time of Thales, the philosopher. The American Review closes its article 
with this paragraph: "The public has been so long acquainted with the merit 
of Dr. Morse as an author that we need not here enter into a particular exam- 
ination." As Dr. Morse wrote so early among text-book makers of our coun- 
try, and with but poor material, it cannot be expected to find in his work the 
advanced ideas and methods which came later on as the geographical science 
was developed, but it was a wonderful book for its time, and contains for a 
reader of the present day even much valuable information. These geographies 
had a large circulation, and gained for Dr. Morse the title of the father of 
American geography. 

I wish to speak now of perhaps a less famous and less widely known geog- 
raphy, but of one deserving great commendation, which was the joint work of 
Mrs. Emma Willard, of honored memory, and of William C. Woodbridge, who 
lived from his infancy almost his entire life in Connecticut. He was born in 
Massachusetts, but when he was an infant his parents moved their family to 
Middletown, Connecticut. In regard to the subject of geography, Mrs. Willard 
wrote: "The books of geography, being closely confined to the order of place, 
and those of history to that of time, by which much repetition was made neces- 
sary, and comprehensive views of topics by comparison and classification were 
debarred." wShe also goes on to write in detail of the faults in the geographies 



EARLY TEXT BOOKS IN CONNECTICUT. 69 

of her time, and points out how these errors may be remedied, and also to tell 
the way in which she formulated her own geography. Her methods of teach- 
ing she had for some time previous to publication used in her seminary at 
Troy, New York, and the young ladies under her instruction had so greatly 
benefited therefrom that Mrs. Willard concluded to have the geography pub- 
lished, setting forth her views of that science. 

At the same time that Mrs. Willard was preparing for the publication of 
her work, William C. Woodbridge was similarly engaged in regard to the same 
study. It so happened that Mrs. Willard was persuaded to mingle her ideas 
on the subject with Mr. Woodbridge's, and the result of this happy conjunc- 
tion of thought was the Willard-Woodbridge geography. As Mrs. Willard was 
a Connecticut woman, her class-books are of educational interest to this state; 
these works were -all of a high grade of excellence and the results of the 




vsa or schools. 

3ccomjKim"rt 



\ PHACTII AL RYBTRM 

MODERN QROOBAPHYI 

nut or mi: pamK.Tr >t vu m 

Tin: Hom.i). 

COMTAUffiW v Ml I 

.. EnnK. Ul 



»,..: .. -1 1 . . 
I 



1 < DripM ft,-,..* 



PROBLEMS 



*8E OF THE GLOBES. 



BV J. OLNEY 




i«nnnci-.. C*ir.:n:. 

■ 

M I \*. 

m .1 01 si ^ 



TITLE PAGE OF OLNEY S GEOGRAPHY 
(FIRST EDITION.) 



TITLE PAGE OF A I A PER I Dl 1' 
olney's GEOGK \l M\ . 



thought of a woman who was in advance of her time. Such books, as in their 
individuality make a marked step forward in the methods oi study, and are 
truly imperishable stones in the structure of education. I will not here enum- 
erate all of Mrs. Willard's educational works, but they were many, botl 
graphies and histories, modern and ancient. 

In continuing the subject of geographies we come to the most note- 
worthy and famous of all the early geographies, that of Jesse Olney. 

In the year of 1827, when Mr. Olney was thirty years o\ age, he is- 
sued to the public a geogiaphy and atlas, a work that proved a most 
wonderful success, and attained immediate popularity. It was. at once. 
introduced into nearly all schools and was regarded as a stai 
work. For as many as thirty years both public and private schools, in the 
United States, adopted Olney's geography. It was improved and enlarged 
very many times, and went through ninety-eight editions, which ran as high 
as eighty thousand copies. The popularity of this geography was s 
Webster's Spelling Book. Olney's geography marked an epoch in the ;■■ 
of this science and in the method of its instruction. It was a decided and 




VIEW OF MAIN STREET, HARTFORD. 



70 EARLY TEXT BOOKS IN CONNECTICUT. 

revolutionary advance, when new and different theories were developed and 
made practicable, when the old ways of teaching were put aside by the vigorous 
ideas of a practical instructor. Olney keenly felt the lack in geographical class, 
books then in vogue, and his dissatisfaction brought about the fortunate result 
of the new system, and the entire change in geographies. For Olney utterly 
discarded the old plan of teaching this study, which was long and roundabout, 
and which started with the solar system, and then worked its way through a 
labyrinth of explanation until, at last, it came to the earth. Olney abandoned 

all this and began with the con- 
crete whence he worked to the 
abstract — with the near at hand,, 
and from there he went to the dis- 
tant. By this method the pupil 
became familiar with the earth's 
surface, and with the geographic- 
al terms, as applied to home ob- 
jects, and thus he could the more 
easily comprehend the subject 
when he came to study the distant 
countries. That this plan of teach- 
ing should immediately overthrow 
the old method is not at all astonishing, nor that it should establish itself in the 
place of the former method. Since the introduction of Olney's geography into 
schools there has been, materially, almost no change in the method, and there 
is little reason to suppose that a better theory could be adopted. This author, 
who so thoroughly revolutionized this science of geography, to its great ad- 
vance, and for a better understanding and comprehensive view of the study, 
was born in Union, Tolland County, Connecticut, in 1798. 

At this point I shall make brief mention of two books that are valuable 
historically, though not well-known now. Frederick Butler, A. M. had published 
in the year 181 7, a catechetical compend of general history, sacred and profane, 
from the creation of the world to the year 181 7 of the Christian era, which 
book was in three parts. This seems an extensive design, and Mr. Butler in 
his preface remarks: "The school establishments in America are upon the most 
wise and liberal plans ever devised by man. They are the basis upon which 
all our civil and religions liberties rest. They are in general well supplied 
with useful and valuable school books in the different branches of science." 
We can gather from this remark in praise of the schools in America, and in the 
commendatory words about the numerous school books, how greatly the schools 
must have advanced in every way, which was due to the increasing prosperity 
of the nation. Mr. Butler goes on to say that he [presents this book to the 
public, as previous to its publication there had been no such compend of 
general history published in the United States for the use of schools. The 
preface of the book which is dated at Wethersfield, Connecticut, October 15, 
181 7, is particularly interesting because it so clearly states the condition of 
educational affairs in the United States, and also because it is the first book of 
its character to be issued from the press in this country. 

Let us return in thought now to the end of the eighteenth century, and 
consider the science of arithmetic and its growth. In the year 1796 there was 



EARLY TEXT BOOKS IN CONNECTICUT 



71 



printed and sold by one Thomas Hubbard, an introduction to arithmetic, for 
the use of common schools. This work was published in Norwich, Connecticut, 
and it was written by Erastus Root, A. B. 

I deem worthy of attention this remark in the preface of this work as 
particularly demonstrating the trend of feeling and thought at the time ; 
"Transatlantic authors. will no longer do for free and independent America — 
we have coins and denominations of money peculiar to ourselves; in these our 
youths ought to be instructed and familiarized." Further on in the preface we 
come upon this paragraph: " Here too the tree of liberty first put forth its blos- 
soms after having been eaten for ages by the canker worm of feudal gothi- 
cism." The following statement of Mr. Root cannot fail to be amusing, and all 
young students of the arithmetic must have deeply admired his judgement. 
Mr. Root says " I have omitted fractions not because I think them useless, but 
because they are not absolutely necessary." The date of this preface was 
Hebron, Connecticut, June 8, 1795. It is worth while examining this crude 
method of arithmetical science, and to contrast the book with the elaborate 
treatises on the subject in use at the present time. 

In naming Daboll's arithmetic, we speak of a book which enjoyed an en- 
viable popularity, and of which S. G. Goodrich spoke in the passage already 
quoted from him (that this arithmetic had been used for nearly thirty five 
years in schools), and it was undoubtedly the most widely used and popular 
arithmetic of its day, and its day was a long period. The following words in- 
troduced one edition of Daboll's arithmetic 
to its public: "The schoolmaster's assistant, • 
improved and enlarged, being a plain, prac- 
tical system of arithmetic adapted to the 
United States, by Nathan Daboll, with the 
addition of the practical accountant for farm- 
ers and mechanics, best methods of book- 
keeping, for the easy instruction of youth, 
designed as a companion to Daboll's arith- 
metic." This book appeared in the year 
1833. Daboll himself studied Cocker's arith- 
metic, an English work of exceeding difficul- 
ty, whose definitions were extremely long 
and most complicated and hard to under- 
stand. The study of such a verbose and diffi- 
cult work must have impressed Daboll so 
that he felt the urgent need of a simpler book 
for the American schools. " The Schoolmas- 
ter's Assistant " was published in the year 
1799, and Daboll met with difficulties and ob- 
tacles in the way of its publication. The 
publisher was doubtful as to whether the book 
would prove a success, or not and pecuniarily 
reward him for undertaking the printing of 
it, after allowing Daboll the royalty of but 

one cent a copy. Noah Webster, Prof. Meigs of Vale. Pro;". Mess 
University, with other noted men gave the arithmetic their hearty nent 









VRITHMETIC 



i\!-U'4J ' 



/ . . 



BY \ \ IM v\ D 












■ V \c.Y OF V D IBOl l 
ak; niMi n 



:4 



72 EARLY TEXT BOOKS IN CONNECTICUT. 

and approval, so that the first edition was issued under favorable auspices 
The eminent success of the arithmetic removed all doubts of its financial value 
from the mind of the publisher, and this fact was most fully attested, as the 
first edition appeared when the publisher was in his prime, and though he lived 
to the ripe age of ninety-eight years, he died when the arithmetic was still in 
the tide of popularity. This arithmetic held its own against all newer arith- 
metics, as we have seen, for many years, and stood side by side with Webster's 
Spelling Book almost, in popular favor. Daboll's arithmetic was by no means 
an easy book, but there was no book to even approach it in excellence of 
method through these many years of its use. The master who taught it pos- 
sessed a sort of key to all the problems which it contained, in the form of a 
manuscript book. To this book the pupils referred when they found it impossible 
to solve an example. This sum-book stood in the stead of the table of answers 
placed in the back of our mathematical text-book of to-day. Nathan Daboll 
was born in Centre Groton, Connecticut, in the year 1750. As his career was 
that of a teacher, he had ample opportunity to observe how great a need there 
was for a good arithmetic in the school work, and as all his impulses were 
those of a great educator, he felt the inspiration to help to supply the want. 
He went to work to remedy this state of things, by devoting all the 
leisure which he could gain in his life of teaching to compile his arithmetic. 

We are now a nation whose schools and text-books rank well with those of 
the nations of highest educational standard in the world; we should be gener- 
ous in our gratitude to these men who rose up among their people as benefac- 
tors, and whose good sowing we are harvesting to-day; whose books were the 
outcome of excellent foresight and persevering work. 

When we read on the fly-page of some well thumbed school book of long 
ago, a signature written in a childish hand, the name and the age of the young 
student who conned its pages, something which we term association brings 
an imagery about it: — 

" Even while I look, I can but heed 

The restless sands incessant fall, 
Importunate hours, that hours succeed, 
Each clamorous with its own sharp need, 

And duty keeping pace with all." 




THE ANCIENT BURYING GROUND OF HARTFORD. 



Opportunities for Descendants of Old Connecticut Families to Join in Memorials. 



BY EMILY S. G. HOLCOMBE. 




As the Connecticut Quarterly deals with sub- 
jects of peculiar interest to the descendants of the old 
families of Connecticut whose ancestral lines converge 
to that little band of English pioneers who settled in 
Hartford in 1636, and who later were interred in the 
ancient cemetery of that place, I can but feel that the 
redemption of that cemetery has for them more than 
a passing interest. Howfamiliar in Connecticut family 
traditions are the names of Hooker, Havnes, Wvllvs, 
Talcott, Whiting, Webster, Lord, Denison, Goodwin, 
Wadsworth, Stanley, Stanton, Steele and others, most 
of whom are among the illustrious dead gathered to- 
gether in that silent company. As early as 1040 the 
cemetery was established, and until 1803 was the only 
place of burial, so it contains the dust of all who died 
in Hartford during that period ot" 163 years. Rich and 
poor, high and low,all were there laid to their final rest 



74 



THE ANCIENT BURYING GROUND OF HARTFORD. 



Gradually as time wore on and high buildings were erected around this burial" 
place, it disappeared from public view to become a thing of the past almost for- 
gotten by the later generations. Few of the hurrying footsteps passing along the 
busy thoroughfare ever turned aside to enter that historic spot where slept a com- 
pany of great men, fathers of the city, the state and the nation. Very few of the 
residents of Hartford, even those descended from its early citizens, ever visited 
that obscure ground. Hidden from sight, protected by a locked gate at the ter- 
minus of an inconspicuous alley, it truly was not an inviting spot nor an easy 
one to find. An occasional stranger having made a pilgrimage hither to visit 
the graves of his ancestors where sentiment might revel as at a sacred shrine, 
zealously hunted up the key and entered the cemetery, only to gaze with hor- 
ror at its neglected condition and the tottering ancient headstones fast crumb- 
ling into dust. Large trees undisturbed had grown to sucn a size as to create 

a dense shade, and 
these with the 
shut-in situation of 
the ground pro- 
duced great damp- 
ness and singular 
decay in the stones. 
Where monuments 
of like age in open 
country grounds 
only become cov- 
ered with moss, 
suffering the oblit- 
eration of epitaphs, 
perhaps, the stones 
in the old Hartford 
burying ground 
owing to the damp- 
ness mentioned 
have desintegrat- 
ed and many have 

fallen to pieces. When the Ruth Wyllys Chapter, D. A. R., undertook the 
task of redemption a year ago they had no reason to hope for such results as. 
have since been accomplished, as they were told by those experienced in such 
matters that nothing could save those stones already far advanced in decay. 
But the Caffal process has wrought wonders, and to-day many stones which 
were apparently doomed to destruction now stand erect and so restored that 
they are almost a true image of their fresh and perfect youth. Although 
Hartford ground holds the ashes of that noble company of men and women, 
not to her alone belongs the honor of descent from those illustrious forefath- 
ers. Scattered all over Connecticut are families from that fine old stock and 
to a great extent over the entire country. For Connecticut blood has been a 
colonizing influence for many generations. To reach the descendants of those 
persons buried in the old burying ground hundreds of letters have been writ- 
ten and circulars distributed, and the responses have been most generous and 
spontaneous. The fund for the restoration of any monument is open to all the 




GOLD STREET. 



THE ANCIENT BURYING GROUND OF HARTFORD. 75 

descendants of the ancestor whose memory is being- thus honored and pre- 
served. The persons engaged upon this work earnestly hope that this oppor- 
tunity for co-operation may become very generally known in all parts of 
the country where reside descendants of Hartford's •' founders " and early citi- 
zens. A full record will be made and preserved of all the work done in the 
cemetery under the auspices of the Ruth Wyllys Chapter, D. A. R., and these 
lists of descendants joining in a mutual work of honoring a common ancestor 
and caring for his burial place as well as preserving his monument will make 
a most interesting record for future generations to read. It is hard to realize, 
but nevertheless true, that we are making a history which generations vet un- 
born will contemplate and study. The summer has been a season of busy 
work in the old cemetery and ninety stones have been restored, but as there 
are five hundred memorials in the yard needing treatment, it will be seen that 
but a beginning has been made and there is still ample opportunity for the 
assistance of those who are interested. 

Just where the great Hooker, the " Father of the Constitution," was buried 
is not known, but his monument stands near the entrance in near company to 
others of that illustrious band. Many descendants have been happy to join in 
the honor of restoring and preserving the stone erected to his memory. 
Those having already contributed are : Mr. John Hooker, Mrs. John C. Dav, 
the Misses Day, Mr. Edward W. Hooker, Miss Rosile Hooker, Dr. Edward B. 
Hooker and family, Mrs. Martha W. Hooker, Mr. Thomas W. Hooker, Mrs. 
Sarah A. Talcott, Mr. Charles Hooker Talcott, of Hartford; Mr. William Gil- 
lette of New York, Mr. Henry G. Newton of New Haven, Mrs. S. M. Hotchkiss 
of New Haven, Mr. W. E. Downs of New Haven, Mr. Charles E. Mitchell of 
Nyack, N. Y., Mr. George S. Talcott of New Britain; Mrs. William (Nancy 
Hooker) Hill, Mrs. George R. (Adeline F. Hill) Bowman and Miss Clara Lee 
Bowman, of Bristol ; Miss Ellen Francis Hooker and Mr. Joseph Hooker Wood- 
ward, Hartford; Miss Mary Cheney and Miss Alice Cheney, South Manche! 
Mrs. C. D. Bramble, New London. Any descendants of the Rev. Thomas 
Hooker who have not already identified themselves with his memorial can 
do so by communicating with Mr. John Hooker, 16 Marshall street, Han: 

The next table stone to the north of Thomas Hooker's is that of Governor 
John Haynes, one of the most conspicuous figures in early Connecticut colonial 
life, and the first governor of the colony, being elected in 163c) and re-eu 
governor every second year and deputy-governor every alternate \ ear until his 
death in 1654. His wife, Mabel Harlakenden, that representative of English 
royalty, does not lie by his side, for she later married Samuel Baton and re- 
moved to New Haven. The descendants of Governor Haynes have been 
prompt and generous in their contributions, and those already on the list are 
Colonel Frank Cheney and family, Mrs. Edward Hooker, Miss Rosalie Ha 
Miss Caroline Day, Miss Mabel H. Perkins, Miss White, Mr. John C. Day, Miss 
Catherine S. Day, Miss Alice H. Day, Miss Mary K. Talcott, Mr. James 1\ 
Taylor, Henry A. Perkins, Mr. Edward Perkins, from Hartford; Mr. John T. 
Terry and family, New York; Mrs. Charles P. Turner, Philadelphia; General 
Charles Darling of Utica; Mrs. John F. Maynard of Utica; Mrs. Walter Fer- 
guson, Stamford; Miss E. Gertrude Taylor, Sandusky; Mrs. J. A. Woolworth, 
Sandusky; Mr. Anson Phelps Stokes, New York; Miss Olivia Stokes. New York; 
Miss Caroline Phelps Stokes, New York; Mr. John Bliss, Brooklyn, N Y ; 



7 6 



THE ANCIENT BURYING GROUND OF HARTFORD. 



Prof. Thomas Day Seymour, New Haven; Miss Emily Seymour, Hartford; 
Miss Caroline Day Bissell, Hartford; Col. Louis R. Cheney, Hartford ; Miss 
Eliza Trumbull Cheney, Hartford. Any other desiring to be identified in this 
work can please sendtheir names and contributions to Miss Mary K. Talcott, 
£15 Asylum avenue, Hartford. 

During tne next summer a most beautiful monument will be erected to 
the Wyllys family; it will be an exact reproduction of one of the finest types 
of early colonial work and be placed near the center of the grounds where it 
is known the Wyllysses were buried. This will be a memorial of one of the 
most illustrious families ever living in Hartford; three of whose members oc- 
cupied the position of Secretary of the Colony and State consecutively from 
1 71 2 to 1809. Hezekiah Wyllys from 171 2 to his death in 1734; his son George 
from 1734 to his death in 1796; Samuel, son of George, 1796 to 1809. 

Many descendants have already contrib- 
uted, but any one a Wyllys descendant can 
join in this family circle by sending name 
and contribution to Miss Mary K. Talcott, 
115 Asylum avenue, or Mr. Ralph W. 
Cutler, Hartford Trust Company, Hart- 
ford. The monument to Governor Joseph 
Talcott, one of beauty and bearing a coat- 
of-arms, had fallen into a condition of 
much decay but now stands a beautiful 
example of the power of redemption. An- 
other governor whose memorial has been 
perfectly restored by his descendants is 
that of Governor Leete. The most 
extraordinary restoration of any 
stone is that of Mabel Wyllys Tal- 
cott, because from a mere wreck 
it has undergone complete trans- 
formation. Although still stand- 
ing upright, it having suffered 
great desintegration and seemed 
but a shadow, the front and back 
surfaces had long ago flaked off 
until in the center of the stone but one-half inch of firm texture re- 
mained. There was nothing to indicate the identity, except an instinct of 
Miss Talcott's, which was verified by an examination of Dr. Hoadley's list of 
stones where we procured the exact original inscription. A border of carved 
leaves on the top of the stone and a fragment of carving at the bottom alone 
remained of the original beautiful design, but it was a valuable index, and 
with such clues we have restored the stone from that spectre of a monument 
which seemed ready to fall at the slightest touch, to its original character, and 
now it stands perfect in every detail and as fitting a memorial of Mabel Wyllys 
Talcott as could be desired. It seems almost unnecessary to state that there 
has been absolutely no modernizing, such a thing would be looked upon as 
desecration by the committee of the Ruth Wyllys Chapter. The necessary 
cleaning gives of course a fresh appearance, and it needs hardly an argument, 




BP2FORE RESTORATfON. 



THE ANCIENT BURYING GROUND OF HARTFORD. 



77 



it seems to me, to prove that the inscriptions when effaced should be recut, for 
a gravestone with no record has lost its value and is of no more service than a 
lump of field granite. When a choice piece of antique colonial furniture is 
brought forth to be given the place of honor in the household and a broken 
foot is repaired that the revered article may stand firm and safe, and some 
accumulations of dust scraped off to make this household god clean and 
attractive, I have never heard the process stigmatized as that of "modernizing." 
There are practical details of restoration which must be accomplished, and 
when an old stone which stands at a ridiculously unsteady angle of 45 degrees 
and has lost every word of its record is cleaned, straightened and the inscrip- 
tion recut exactly like the original with no change in any respect from its colo- 
nial characteristics, can any restoration be more true or free from the 
criticism of " being modernized ?" In cases where the inscriptions have dis- 
appeared, as has frequently been the 
case, the exact originals have been 
found in Dr. Hoadley's priceless list of 
epitaphs copied by him in 1870. To his 
foresight and to the patient work of 
twenty-seven years ago, as well as to his 
present courtesy, all who are interested 
in this work of redemption in the ceme- 
tery are greatly indebted, and I feel that 
the value of this list can hardly be over- 
estimated. A one dollar subscription 
has been started for one of the foun- 
ders of Hartford whose descendants 
are legion, Ozias Goodwin, 

I the father of all of that 
name in this part of the 
country. It seems singu- 
lar that with so many 
Goodwins born in Hart- 
ford, who lived, died here 
and were buried in the old 
cemetery, there should be 
so few stones of that name 
now existing — only ten. 

I am told that the Goodwins were buried where the Waverly now stands. • s 
sibly also under the church or chapel or even the sidewalk. Contribute 
may be sent to Mrs. W. N. Pelton, 792 Asylum avenue, or Mrs. John M. Hol- 
combe, 79 Spring street. Thirty dollars have already boon subscril 

Descendants of the Rev. Timothy Woodbridge may send to Miss Mary K. 
Talcott, 815 Asylum avenue. Samuel Stone's descendants may send to Mrs. 
W. N. Pelton, 792 Asylum avenue, Hartford. The Rev. Samuel Stone let: 
descendants in the male line, so there are no representatives of his name, but 
there are numerous direct descendants from his daughters— one the 
Thomas Butler, has many representatives; his daughter Elizabeth man 
first William Sedgwick, second John Roberts; Rebecca married Timothy Nash; 
Mary married Joseph Fitch. 





AFTER RFSTORA HON. 



7 8 THE ANCIENT BURYING GROUND OF HARTFORD. 

In case sums donated exceed the amount required for the stone in 
question, the balance will be used on the improvement of the cemetery, and 
this work is almost as important as the care of the stones. There are several 
fine table stones not yet arranged for, and I give them as follows, hoping thus 




ROW OF STONES BEFORE RESTORATION. 



to find persons interested in their preservation: Mrs. Eunice Wadsworth, 
1736; Thomas Wadsworth, 1716; Lieut. Col. John Allyn, 1696; Mr. John Ellery, 
no date; Daniel Lord, 1762; Elisha Lord, 1725; James Richards, 1680, coat-of- 
arms carved on stone; John Ledyard, 1771; William Ellery, 181 2; Dr. Eliakim 
Fish, 1804 (the daughter of Dr. Eliakim Fish married John Morgan, one of the 
founders of Christ Church and for whom Morgan street was named. Are 
there any descendants?); Deacon Solomon Smith, ^786. The table monu- 
ments of the pastors of the First (or Center) Church will be restored by their 
descendants, except the one erected to the memory of the Rev. Edward Dorr. 
As he left no children the First Church has put his tomb in perfect order. 
McLean, 1 741 ; William Stanley, 1786 (Mr. Stanley left all his property to the 
South Church); Rev. Benjamin Boardman, Pastor South Church, 1802; Anna 
Smith Strong, 1784, wife of Dr. Nathan Strong, dau. Dea. Solomon Smith, gr. 
dau. George Talcott. 

What seemed a very necessary improvement to this sacred God's Acre 
was to convert the neighboring alley, called Gold street, whose tenements 
overhung this sacred spot and whose filth often desecrated it, into a broad, fine 
avenue by removing the old rookeries and thus place the ancient cemetery 
upon a spacious and beautiful thoroughfare, where, in a position public and 
honorable in the center of the business portion of the city, the throngs who 
daily pass could read the historic names of those so long since buried there 
and meditate upon the deeds that live in the nation's life and the veneration of 
a grateful people. Eighty thousand dollars it would cost to buy these build- 



THE ANCIENT BURYING GROUND OF HARTFORD. 79 

ings, and to aid in this matter the Ruth Wyllys Chapter offered to raise by 
public subscription the sum of ten thousand dollars to be used in any way deter- 
mined by the Street Board. The Chapter issued a public appeal asking for 
$ 15,000 — $10,000 to devote to the city to aid in the widening of Gold street, the 
balance for the improvement of the cemetery. In two weeks from the publica- 
tion of the appeal $10,000 had been pledged, and after that figure was reached 
the contributions were for the cemetery work. Our " Fund " had reached the 
sum of $13,000 in June. The old First Church had a fund of its own to raise, and 
very soon the voluntary subscriptions amounted to $10,000; so with the * 13,000 
contributed to the "Ruth Wyllys Chapter Fund" it will be seen that the citizens 
of Hartford have contributed nearly $23,000 to redeem her ancient cemetery 
from neglect and give it a proper setting. In compliance with the require- 
ments of the law, the matter of widening Gold street has twice come before 
the Common Council, and this body has unanimously directed the necessary 
steps to be taken. The matter is still in the hands of the Street Board. 

During the last summer much interest has been aroused all over the coun- 
try. Sympathetic chords have been touched and responses have come from a 
wide extent of territory, even as far west as California. We seem entering 
upon a period of renewed patriotism when the very atmosphere is teeming 
with the spirit of loyalty and reverence for the " Founders " of this, "our coun- 
try," and I am sure when the old cemetery is brought to public view adorn- 
ments will be added and memorials of various kinds created. There mav 




A ROW OF RESTORED S POM'S. 



Connecticut preserve some of her traditions in beautiful design and enduring 
stones and honor the sacred dust of those whose "ability, valor, sufferings and 
achievements are beyond all praise." May their descendants not enjoy a 



8o 



THE ANCIENT BURYING GROUND OF HARTFORD. 



justifiable pride that they are linked to that historic past and those early 
patriots through the long chain of lineal descent ? 

In the center of the cemetery is a venerable monument erected sixty-two 
years ago to the memory of the " Founders of Hartford," and bearing the fol- 
lowing names: 



John Haynes, 
Thomas Hooker, 
George Wyllys, 
Edward Hopkins, 
Matthew Allyn, 
Thomas Welles, 
John Webster, 
William Whiting, 
John Talcott, 
Andrew Warner, 
William Pan trey, 
William West wood, 
James Olmsted, 
Thomas Hosmer, 
Nathaniel Ward, 
William Wadsworth, 
John White, 
John Steele, 
Thomas Scott, 
William Goodwin, 
Thomas Stanley, 
Samuel Stone, 
John Clark, 
John Crow, 
James Ensign, 
Stephen Post, 
Stephen Hart, 
William Spencer, 
John Moody, 
William Lewis, 
William Rusco, 
Timothy Stanley, 
Richard Webb, 



NAMES ON THE CENTRAL MONUMENT. 

William Andrews, 
Samuel Wakeman, 
Jeremy Adams, 
Richard Lyman, 
William Butler, 
Thomas Lord, 
Matthew Marvin, 
Gregory Wolterton, 
Andrew Bacon, 
John Barnard, 
Richard Goodman, 
Nathaniel Richards, 
John Pratt,- 
Thomas Birchwood, 
George Graves, 
William Gibbons, 
Edward Stebbing, 
George Steele, 
George Stocking, 
Joseph Mygatt, 
William Bloomfield, 
William Hill, 
William Hyde, 
John Arnold, 
Arthur Smith, 
John Maynard, 
William Hayden, 
Thomas Stanton, 
John Hopkins, 
Nicholas Clark, 
John Marsh, 
Edward Elmer, 
Richard Church, 
Zachariah Field, 



Joseph Easton, 
Richard Olmsted, 
Richard Risley, 
Robert Bartlett, 
Thomas Root, 
John Wilcox, 
Richard Seymour, 
Benjamin Burr, 
John Bidwell, 
Nathaniel Ely, 
Thomas Judd, 
Richard Lord, 
William Kelsey, 
Richard Butler, 
Robert Day, 
Seth Grant 
Thomas Spencer, 
John Baysey, 
William Pratt, 
Thomas Bull, 
William Holton, 
Francis Andrews, 
James Cole, 
John Skinner, 
Thomas Hale, 
Samuel Hale, 
Thomas Olcott, 
Thomas Selden, 
William Parker, 
Samuel Greenhill, 
Ozias Goodwin, 
Thomas Bunce , 
Clement Chaplin. 



These names represent the fountain-head of most of the pure streams- 
which have carried American national principles to the furthermost regions of 
this country. 

I append the list made in 1835 of gravestones standing in the old cemetery 
now in the possession of Dr. Chas. J. Hoadly, State Librarian, and president 
of the Connecticut Historical Society. The Hartford Courant says: "It should 
be carefully read so that those who have relatives buried in the Ancient Hart- 
ford Cemetery may know the fact. They can then find a reason for helping to- 
put that sacred spot in order." 

Dr. Hoadly has also a list of burials called the "Sexton's List," from 1749 
to 1806, including two thousand names. This has been copied and prepared 
for print by Miss M. K. Talcott, registrar Ruth Wyllys Chapter, and will be 
published in the four numbers of the Connecticut Quarterly beginning in 



THE ANCIENT BURYING GROUND OF HARTFORD. 



81 



the issue of April next. All these lists give but a fraction of the number 
buried in the old cemetery, which, be it remembered, was Hartford's only burial 
place from 1640 to 1803, and where Dr. Walker estimates there were nearly six 
thousand interments. 



NAMES ON THE GRAVESTONES STANDING IN 1835. 

Died. Age. 



Aggnis, Margaret 1781 

Austin, Mary, wife of John 1753 

Adams, Frederick 1798 

Arnold, Jonathan 1719 

Arnold, Hannah, wife of Jonathan 1714 
Allyn, Hon. Col. John, Secre- 
tary Colony 34 years 1696 
Burr, Sarah 1750 
Burnham, Elisha 1770 
Children of Elisha and Sarah Burnham 



Burnham, Sarah 1770 

Burnham, Abigail 1770 

Burnham, Ephraim 1770 

Burnham, Richard 1766 

Bunce, John 1794 

Bunce, Thomas 1711 

Bunce, John 1794 

Bunce, -Elizabeth, wife of Thos. 1741 
Bunce, Joseph 1750 

Bunce, Susanna 1780 

Children of Caleb and Martha Bull. 
Bull, Martha 1759 

Bull, George 1759 

Bull, Susannah, wife of Capt. 

Thomas 1680 

Bull, Rebecca, wife of Caleb, Jr. 1775 
Bull, Caleb, son of Caleb, Jr. 1775 
Bull, Jefferson 

Bull, James, son of Frederick 1778 
Bull, Epaphras, son of Aaron 1747 
Bull, Esther, wife of Joseph 1783 
Bull, Abigail, wife of Aaron 1758 

Bull, Daniel Deacon 1776 

Bull, Mary, wife of Daniel 1769 

Bull, Elizabeth, wife of Daniel 1775 
Bull, Catherine, wife of George 1800 
Bull, Mary, wife of David 1763 

Bull, Ruth, wife of Thomas 1805 
Bull, Thomas Parkin, son of 

Amos 1794 

Bacon, Elizabeth, wife of Andrew, 

formerly of Timothy Stanley 1678 
Bigelow, Jonathan 1710 

Bigelow, Timothy 1747 

Bigelow, John 1780 

Bigelow, Jonathan 1749 

Bigelow, Rebecca 1V54 

Bigelow, Jonathan 1779 

Bigelow, Thomas 1767 

Bigelow, Jonas 1756 

Bigelow, Levina 1756 

Bigelow, Abigail, wife of Daniel 1757 
Bigelow, Timothy 1761 

Bigelow, Hannah, wife of Tim- 
othy 1763 
Balch, Sarah, wife of Ebenezer 1756 
Bidwell, James 1718 
Eidwell, Martha, wife of Jon'an 1735 
Bassett, Elsey, wife of John 1778 
Bassett, Willimytje, daughter of 

Frederick 1777 

Barnard, Thomas 1724 

6 



69 
53 

25 
13 
20 
18 
44 
36 
6 

65 

72 

2^ 



70 

27 

6 

2 

18m 

15m 

42 

40 

68 

86 

55 

32 

42 

40 



76 
62 
45 
4i 
75 
44 
55 
3i 
4 
10 
32 
31 

25 
29 
26 
46 
80 

12 
43 



1727 
1803 
1798 
1727 
1792 
1799 
1783 
1782 



1797 



Died. 

Barnard, Ebenezer 1799 

Barnard, Sarah, wife of Samuel 1776 
Butler, Jerusha 1777 

Butler, Patty, wife of Norman 1806 
Butler, Moses 1801 

Butler, Sarah, wife of Moses 1813 

Boardman, Daniel, son of Oliver 1799 
Boardman, DanielE., " " 1803 

Boardman, Benjamin (Rev.), pas- 
tor Second Church 1802 
Boardman, Anna, wife Rev. Ben- 
jamin 1809 
Bow, Rosanna 1780 
Benton, John, Jr., 1790 
Benton, Andrew 1683 
Bliss, David 1791 
Bliss, Wealthy, daughter of Isaac 1799 
Beauchamp, John 1740 
Beauchamp, Margaret, wife of 

John 
Brown, William 
Brown, Phebe 
Brainard, Hezekiah 
Benjamin, Charles 
Bolles, John 
Bolles, John 
Bolles, Harris 

Breck, Helena, wife of Rev. Mr. 
Breck, formerly of Rev. Mr. 
Dorr 

Brewster, Alithea, wife of Prince 1802 
Beckwith, Elizabeth, wife of Sam- 
uel 1793 
Beckwith, Hart 1790 
Bradley, Aaron 1802 
Burr, Mary, wife of Timothy 1785 
Burr, William 

Burr, Mittie, wife of William 
Burr, William 
Burr, Thomas 

Burr, Sarah, wife of Thomas 
Burr, Timothy 
Burr, Samuel 
Burr, Moses 

Burr, Elizabeth, wife of Moses 
Burr, Mary, wife of Joseph 
Burr, Rebecca 
Burr, Rebecca 
Burr, Sidney 
Burr, William H.. son 

Timothy 
Branthwaite, Robert 
Branthwaite.Ruth.wii'e of Robert 1799 
Babcock, John 

Babcock, Andrew 1799 

Barlett. Isaac 1-04 

Beach. Sally, daughter of Miles 1800 
Barrett, Rebecca, wife of Capt. 

Jos. 1770 

Bradley. John, son oi Aaron [802 

Caleb Bull's family tomb: 
Bull. Esther, wife of Joseph 1783 



1800 

i:"3 

1 70 2 
1777 
1799 
1799 
1,-OJ 
1792 
I796 
1796 
1778 
1775 
I 705 

1 800 

1799 



Age. 

73 
30 
61 

43 

86 

84 

8 

1 



92 
24 
38 
63 
33 
5 
88 

59 
39 
25 

46 

7m 

11 

4:11 



78 
58 

33 
1 
61 
34 
53 

20 
59 

73 
50 
47 



74 

3 



9m 
4 
6l 
65 
17 
35 
10 

47 
19 

41 



82 



THE ANCIENT BURYING GROUND OF HARTFORD. 



Died. 
I82I 

1797 
1789 
1786 
1719 

1772 
I/5I 
1751 



Bull, James J. 

Bull, Joseph 

Bull, Caleb 

Bull, Martha 

Cadwell, Matthew 

Cadwell, Deborah, wife of Ed 

ward 
Cadwell, Edward 
Cadwell, John 

Coleman, Deborah, wife of John 1757 
Cooke, Aaron 1725 

Cooke, Martha, wife of Aaron 1732 
Cooke, Moses 1738 

Cooke, Joseph 1747 

Cooke, Mabel, wife of James 1800 
Cooke, Jeremiah, son of James 1799 
Collier, Jennett, wife of Hezekiah 1806 
Collier, Hepzibah, wife of Heze- 
kiah 1770 
Collier, Grove 1768 
Collier, Hezekiah 1763 
Collier, Thomas Capt. 1763 
Collyer, Ann 

Collyer, Joseph 1738 

Collyer, John 1740 

Collyer, Thankful, wife of Daniel 1792 
Coomes, Miriah 1794 

Crocker, Lucy, wife of Freeman 1796 
Conkling, May, wife of Benjn. 1789 
Clark, Eunice 1774 

Clark, Daniel 1679 

Currie, James 1763 

Cowles, Hannah, wife of John of 

Hatfield 1683 

Cole, Lidiah 1683 

Cable, John 1798 

Colt, John, son of Peter 1785 

Church, Elizabeth, wife of Joseph 1751 
Caldwell, John, father of Major 

John 1758 

Caldwell, Mary, daughter of 

John and Hannah 1736 

Caldwell, Margaret 1775 

Caldwell, John 1777 

Caldwell, Samuel 1782 

Chapman, Robert 171 1 

Cotton, Elizabeth, wife of Daniel 1791 
Chenevard, Margaret, wife of 

John M. 1783 76 

Chenevard , Jane, daughter of 

John M. 1788 

Chenevard, John Capt. 1805 

Chenevard, Hepzibah, wife of 

John 1774 

Chenevard, Michael 1801 

Chenevard, John Michael 1735 

Chenevard, Mary 1774 

Chenevard. William 1778 

Chenevard, Henry 1781 

Caldwell, Margaret, wife of John 1798 
Caldwell, James 1801 

Caldwell, James Church 1795 

Caldwell, Hepzebah 1795 

Deming, Lemuel 1724 

Dennison, George 1694 

Doolittle, Enos 1806 

Doolittle, Asenath, wife of Enos 1804 
Duplessy, Francis 1731 

Davenport, Elizabeth/wife of Wil- 
liam 1697 



Age. 
48 

63 

72 
62 

51 

85 
71 
29 

27 
61 

65 
38 
67 
38 
17 
75 

57 
29 
56 
54 



6 

85 
9m 
46 
36 
10 
i6d 
36 

70 
28 
58 
8 
26 



Died. Age. 



2 

I 

1 8m 

3 

63 

49 



63 

72 

33 

30 
56 

9m 
1 

iod 
40 

3 
1 
4 
23 
74 
56 
45 
38 

27 



Dorr. Edward, pastor First 

Church 1772 

Day, Samuel C. 1804 

Day, Mary 1804 

Day, Mary 1798 

Deming, Pownal 1795 

Deming, Elizabeth 1793 

Danforth, John 1805 

Danforth, Lucinda 1803 

Dwight, Charles 1799 

Deane, Barnab'as 1794 

Ellery, Experience, wife of Wil- 
liam 1773 
Ellery, Mary, daughter of Wil- 
liam 1781 
Ellery, William 1812 
Ellery, John (buried April 16, 1764) 
Ellery, Eunice, wife of John 1800 
Eddy, Susannah, wife of Charles 1734 
Edwards, Miary, wife of Richard 1723 
Edwards, Richard 1718 
Edwards, Samuel 1732 
Eggleston, Elihu 1803 
Ensign, Lucretiia,twife of Thomas 1791 
Ensign, Thomas, Jr. 1752 
Ensign, Thomas 1759 
Ensign, Moses 1751 
Fhgg, Samuel 1757 
Flagg, Sarah, wife of Samuel 1769 
Flagg, Mary 1750 
Flagg, Ruth, wife of Jonathan 1787 
Fowler, Melzar 1797 
Fish, Eliakim (Dr.) 1804 
Fish, Sarah, wife of Eliakim 1803 
Fish, Huldah, wife of Miller 1806 
Farns worth, Joseph 1741 
Farnsworth, Mary 1741 
Foster, Isaac (Rev.), pastor 

First Church 1682 

Foote, John 1803 

Gardiner, David, of Gardiner's 

Island 1689 

Gross, Rebecca, wife of Jonah 1718 
Goodwin, Daniel 1772 

Goodwin, Samuel 1776 

Goodwin, Mary, daughter of 

Samuel and Lodema 1786 

Goodwin, Sarah, wife of Na- 
thaniel • 1676 
Goodwin, Abigail, wife of Samuel 1748 
Goodwin, Abigail, widow of 

Captain Daniel 1776 

Goodwin, Daniel 1790 

Goodwin, Dorothy, wife of Lieut. 

Daniel 1746 

Goodwin, Sarah, wife of Na- 
thaniel 1740 
Goodwin, Nathaniel 1746 
Goodwin, Daniel 1790 

1805 
1708 
1730 
1763 



Nathaniel 
Daniel 
Goodwin, Hannah 
Goodman, Abigail 
Goodman, Richard 
Goodman, Richard 
Goodrich, Abigail, wife of Lieut. 

Gov. Chauncey 1778 

Gardiner, William 1766 

Grimes, James 1794 

Gilbert, Jonathan, Jr. 1741 

Gilbert, Mary, wife of Jonathan 1700 
Gilbert, Jonathan Cornet 1682 



50 
3i 

3 

1 
46 

2 
10m 

4 
6w 

5i 
26 

19 

72 

60 
27 
62 
7i 
30 
59 
21 

59 
1 6m 

45 
53 
64 
18 
42 
20 
63 
66 
41 
48 
43 



40 

54 
32 
67 
66 



29 
32 

73 
44 

79 

60 
79 
44 
48 
29 
76 
58 

24 
24 
17 
40 

74 
64 



THE ANCIENT BURYING GROUND OF HARTFORD. 



83 



Died. 
Hyde, Sarah, wife of Ezra 1799 

Holtom, Joseph i^o 

Hamlin, Giles 1712 

Hosmer, Sabra, wife of Joseph 1789 
Ho'Smer, Susanna, wife of Steph- 
en, Jr., 1738 
Hosmer, Joseph 1777 
Hosmer, Thomas 1732 
Hosmer, Stephen, son of Stephen 1673 
Hosmer, Mary, dau. of Stephen 1684 
Hosmer, Sarah, dau. of Stephen 1685 
Hosmer, Stephen (Dea.) 1693 
Hosmer,Frances,wifeof Thomas 1675 
Hosmer, Thomas 1687 
Hooker, Thomas (Rev.), pastor 

First Church 1647 

Hooker, Thomas (Doct.) 1756 

Hooker, Roger 1698 

Hooker, Nathaniel 171 1 

Hooker, Nathaniel 1763 

Hooker, Mary 1765 

Hooker, Mary 1763 

Hopkins, Betsy, wife of Jesse 1799 
Hopkins, Daniel, three infant 

children of 
Hopkins, Sally, wife of Daniel 1796 
Hopkins," Rebecca, wife of Asa 1791 
Hopkins, Asa 1805 

Hopkins, Lemuel (Doct.) 1801 

Hart, Alcis Evelyn 1805 

Hansom, Joseph 1804 

Hinsdale, Magdalen, wife of Bar- 
nabas 1782 
Hinsdale, Barnabas 1725 
Hinsdale, Experience, wife of 

Amos 1*781 

Hudson, Maria, wife of Henry 1805 
Haynes, Jo'hn (Hon.), first Gov- 
ernor of Connecticut 1654 
Haynes, Joseph (Rev.), pastor of 

First Church 1679 

Haynes, Sarah, wife of Rev. Jo- 
seph 1705 
Haynes, John 1713 
Haynes, Mary, wife of John 1^26 
Haynes, Sarah, daughter of John 1724 
Hubbard, Cornelia, wife of Nehe- 

miah 1781 

Hall, Alley, daughter of William 1772 
Hall, Jerusha, wife of Henry 1804 
Hastings, Jonathan son of Lieut. 

Josiah, of Chesterfield, N. H. 1798 
Howard, John 1804 

Hancock, Patty, wife of Jonathan 1803 
Hempsted, Anna, daughter of 

Doctor Hempsted 1799 

Hempsted, Anna, wife of Doctor 

Hempsted 1797 

Hempsted, Benjamin 1793 

Jepson, Mrs. Susanna 1772 

Jones, Pantry 1796 

Jones, Amasa 1/85 

Jones, Hope, wife of Amasa 1798 
Jones, Nathaniel 1773 

Jones, Rdbecca, wife of Nathaniel 1776 
Jones, Levi, blown up in school 

house 1766 

Jones, Daniel 1802 

Jones, Olive, wife of Daniel 1788 

Joy, Sarah, wife of John 1764 



Age. 
56 
77 
21 
62 

27 
72 
57 
5d 
13 
4 
49 
75 
83 

61 
64 
30 
40 
53 
65 
20 
26 



29 
29 
48 
50 
22 
33 



42 

58 

61 

21 



38 

67 

44 
54 
27 



2 

24 

30 
35 
20 

32 

66 
1 
32 
8t 
57 
63 
92 

84 

50 
46 
27 
34 



Died. 

Keith, William 1745 

Keith, Marianne, wife of William 1784 
Knox, William 1787 

Knowles, John 1754 

Knowles, Rachel, wife of John 1739 
Kilbourn, Abigail, wife of Na- 
thaniel 1798 
Kilbourn, Samuel 1789 
Kennedy, Leonard, Jr., 1796 
Lyman, Thomas 1727 
Lyman, Martha, wife of Justin 1798 
Lyman, Lorinda ] 7 ( j-\ 
Ledlie, Mary, wife of Hugh 1809 
Ledyard, Nathaniel, blown up in 

school house 1766 

Ledyard, Austin 1766 

Ledyard, John 1771 

Lawrence, John, treasurer of Con- 
necticut 1802 
Lawrence, Margaret, wife of John 1775 
Lawrence, Roderick 1783 
Lawrence, John, Jr., 1774 
Lawrence, Mary Ann 1790 
Lawrence, William Henry 1792 
Lord, Abagail, ch. of Richard 1698 
Lord, Richard, ch. of Richard 1699 
Lord, Abigail, ch. of Richard 1694 
Lord, Richard 1712 
Lord, Mary (Alias Hooker) 1702 
Lord, Elisha 1725 
Lord, Mary, dau of John H. 1748 
Lord, Epaphras 1738 
Lord, Daniel 1762 
Lord, Daniel Edwards 1763 
Lord, John Haynes 1796 
Lord, Rachel, wife of John H. 1803 
Lord, Elizabeth, wife of Elisha 1786 
Langrell, Thomas (Doct.) 1757 
Law, Lydia 1799 
Lette, William, Gov. of Conn. 1683 
Marsh, Katy, dau. of Capt. Saml. 1768 
Merrills, Hannah 1730 
Merrils, Mary, wife of Gideon 1750 
Merrils, Christian, wife of Chas. 1778 
Merrils, Martha Smith, wife 

George 1 793 

Morrison, Ann, wife of Normand 

and formerly of John Smith 1766 
Morrison, Roderick 1755 

Marshall, Josiah 

Marsh, John 1744 

Marsh, Elizabeth, wife of John 1:42 
Marsh, Samuel l8M 

Marsh. Catherine, wife oi Capt. 

Samuel 1-,) ~ 

Morgan, Elizabeth, wife of Dwell 1793 
Morgan, Lavinia > Wives of 1702 
Morgan. Sally I ,; lias. 1705 

McCracken, Rebecca, wife ol 

John 
Mather. Elizabeth, daughter of 

Rev. Allyn i^5 

McLean, Susan, wife ol Mien i-u 
Mills, Caroline 
Messenger, Rachael, daughter of 

Daniel 
Messenger, Lydia, daughter 

Daniel 
Muir. William i^tt 



Age. 

& 

55 
64 

3« 

7i 
17 

17m 

49 

35 

7 

79 

26 
25 



84 
49 

27 
26 

25 

3 

3m 

4 

2m 

42 

53 

24 

15m 

7 

1 

72 
77 
3* 

29 

42 

4 
49 
29 
?3 

37 

64 
3° 
47 

72 

67 
23 

iS 

29 
21 

7 

2 

17 



52 



8 4 



THE ANCIENT BURYING GROUND OF HARTFORD. 





Died. 


Age. 


McLean, Allen, son of Neal 


1 741 


3 


Moore, George Smith c ^ 


1788 


2 


Moore, Ebenezer, Jr., Jo g 


1793 


17m 


Moore, Anna W <- 


1802 


3 


Moore, David "o*o 


1807 


4 


Moore, James Grant c % 


1807 


6 


Moore, Mary Smith V. £ 


1808 


18 


Moore, Mary Smith 2 n 




26 


Moore, Robert -~ 


1814 


30 


Nevins, Robert 


1764 


5<5 


Nevins, Samuel 


1765 


2 


Nevins, Marion 


1770 


17 


Nevins, Robert 


1780 


21 


Nichols, Cyprian 


1756 


84 


Nichols, Cyprian, son of William 


1749 


6m 


Nichols, Abigail, dau. of William 


1750 


s 


Nichols, Rachel, wife of James 


1789 


26 


Nichols, Catharine, daughter o 


f 




Cyprian 






Ogden, Clarissa, dau. of Jacob 


1794 


15 


Olcott, John 


1794 


59 


Olcott, Sally 


1794 


15 


Olcott, Roderick 


1801 


36 


Olcott, Jonathan 


1753 


57 


Olcott, Sarah, wife of Jonathan 


1776 


74 


Olcott, Samuel 


1781 


53 


Olcott, Mary 


1766 


35 


Olcott, Mary, wife of Capt 


.1792 


61 


Olcott, Sally 


1779 


16 


Olcott, Clarissa 


1704 


15 


Pitkin, W r illiam 


1694 


58 


Phippen, Rachael 


1721 


2 


Pierce, Anna and Samuel, ch 






of Pelatiah 






Pratt, Hannah, wife of Daniel 


1682 


50 


Pratt, Zachariah 


1805 


79 


Pratt, Timothy 


1783 


33 


Pratt, George 


1805 


50 


Payson, Nathan (Col.) 


1761 


4i 


Porter, John, comptroller of pub 


- 




lie accounts 


1806 


48 


Perkins, Mary, dau. of James 


1806 


5 


Perkins, Lucinda 


1805 


3m 


Payne, Benjamin 


1782 


54 


Payne, Rebecca, wife of Benj'n 


1786 


5i 


Payne, Mary Ann 


1797 


36 


Phelps, Sarah 


1758 


96 


Patten, Lucinda, wife of Nathan 






iel 


1789 


35 


Patten, Lucinda, J 


1807 


22 


Patten, Fanny, V ch. of Nathaniel 


11809 


15 


Patten, Sally, ) 


1810 


17 


Pantry, John 


1736 


90 


Powell, Elizabeth, wife of Wil- 






liam 


1725 


27 


Proctor, William 


1788 


23 


Richards, James 


1680 


47 


Richards, Thomas (Dea.) 


1749 


83 


Ridgaway, Naomi, wife of Samuel 


1773 


68 


Rabbins, Clarissa 


[801 


22 


Strong, Anna Smith 


1784 


25 


Strong, Anna McCurdy, wives 




of Rev. Nathan 


1789 


29 


Strong, John McCurdy, son o 


f 




Rev. Nathan 


1806 


29 


Smith Daniel 


1890 


29 


Smith, Solomon, Jr., 


1787 


25 


Smith, Solomon (Dea.) 


1786 


51 


Smith, Anna, wife of Dea. Sol 






omon 


1784 


49 



Died. 
Smith, George 1808 

Smith, Ann, wife of George 1796 

Smith, Martha 1756 

Smith, James 1798 

Smith, John 1801 

Sweetland, Sarah, wife of Benja- 

man 1805 

Sweetland, Eleazur 1798 

Sweetland, Polly, wife of Eleazur 1792 
Sweetland, Effingham 
Sargeant, John, son of Jacob 1802 
Steel, Elizabeth, wife of George 1800 
Steel, Ashbel 1790 

Steel, Nabby, dau. of Ashbel 1772 
Steel, Jonathan 1753 

Steel, Dorothy, wife of Jonathan 1775 



Sloan, Samuel 
Starr, Harriett 
Stone, Samuel 
First Church 
Sheldon, Joseph 



(Rev.), pastor 



1775 
1801 

1663 
1794 

Sheldon, George, son of Joseph 1764 
Sheldon, Deacon Isaac 1749 

Sheldon, Elizabeth, wife of Isaac 1745 
Sheldon, Anna, wife of Isaac 1802 
Sheldon, Daniel 1772 

Sheldon, Lucretia, wife of Daniel 1772 
Sheldon, William, son of Daniel 1758 
Sheldon, Isaac, son of Isaac 1754 

Sheldon, Sarah, wife of Joseph 1785 
Sheldon, Isaac 1786 

Seymour, Israel 1784 

Seymour, Jonathan 1776 

Seymour, Thomas 1740 

Seymour, Thomas 1767 

Seymour, John 1748 

Seymour, Mary Ann, wife of 
_^ Thomas Y. 1782 

Seymour, Mary, wife of Nathan- 
iel 1758 
Seymour, Zebulon 1765 
Seymour, Mary, wife of Thomas 1746 
Seymour, Jerusha 1753 
Seymour, Mary Ann 1766 
Seymour, Elizabeth, wife of Rich- 
ard 1759 
Seymour, Prudence, wife of Fred- 
erick 1799 
Seymour, Deliverance, wife of 

Jared 1799 

Seymour, Lovisa, wife of Joseoh 

W. 1798 

Spencer, Obadiah 1741 

Spencer, Abigail, wife of Disbrow 1725 
Sanford, Hulldah, wife of Robert 1759 
Sanford, Robert 1728 

Sanford, Zachariah, son of 

Zachariah 1683 

Skinner, Stephen 1758 

Skinner, Joseph 1748 

Skinner, John 1773 

Skinner, Mary, wife of John 1771 

Skinner, Mary, wife of John, Jr., 1772 
Skinner, Rebecca, wife of Na- 
thaniel 1780 
Skinner, Leonard 1746 
Skinner, Rachael, wife of John 1748 
Skinner, John 1743 
Skinner, Sarah 1750 
Skinner, Abagail 1750 



Age. 
82 
70 

5 

1 

9m 

33 
32 
22 
1 
II 
29 
59 
14 
60 
82 

4 
11m 

61 

65 

2 

63 
53 
73 
46 
47 
5 
2 
50 
63 
49 
73 
7i 
62 

84 

19 

54 
65 
69 
29 
6 

44 
30 
66 

39 

75 
46 
28 

72 



43 
79 
76 
67 
42 

31 
4 

77 

77 

1 

3 



THE ANCIENT BURYING GROUND OF HARTFORD. 85 



Died. Age 
Skinner, Abagail, wife of Elisha 1777 19 
Skinner, Hepzebah, wife of John 1791 54 
Stanley, Bennet, alias Wollterton 1664 
Stanley, Hannah I Children 1681 7 

Stanley, Susannah -j Nathaniel 1683 2 

Stanley, Sarah ( Stanley. 1680 20 
Stanley, Sarah, wife of Nathaniel 1716 76 
Stanley (one of his Majesty's as- 
sistants), Nathaniel 1712 
Stanley, Joseph 1675 
Stanley, Anna, wife of Col. Na- 
thaniel 1752 
Stanley, Nathaniel (Hon.), treas- 
urer of Connecticut 1755 
Stanley, Sarah 1698 
Stanley, Hannah (wives of Ca- 
leb) 1689 
Stanley, Caleb 1718 
Stanley, Caleb, son of Caleb 1712 
Stanley, Mary 1698 
Stanley, William, gave his prop- 
erty to Second Church 1786 
Thomas, Rachel 1760 
Thomas, Lydia, of Marlborough 1758 
Thomas, Mary 1764 
Tiley, Walter 1791 
Tiley, Susanna, wife of John 1724 
Thompson, Gideon 1759 
Tisdale, Emily 1802 
Talcott, Joseph (Hon.) Governor 

of Connecticut 1725-1741 1741 

Talcott, John, son of the Gov- 
ernor 1771 
Talcott, Abigail, wife of John 1784 
Talcott, Mabel, wife of Samuel 1775 
Talcott, Joseph, son of the Gov. 1799 
Toocker, Michael 1801 
Taylor, James 1772 
Van Norden, Anna, wife of John 1799 
Woolterton, Gregory 1674 
Woolterton, Susanna, wife of 

Gregory 1662 

Woolterton, Samuel 1668 

Wilson, Phineas 1692 

Wilson, Mary, wife of Phineas 1688 
Waters, Bevil 1729 

Wattles, Jonathan S 1779 

Wattles, Delight S 1780 

Webster, Sarah, wife of Robert 1725 
Walker, Marion, wife of John 1762 
Watson, Ebenezer 1777 

Watson, Elizabeth, wife of Ebe- 
nezer 1770 
Whitman, Elnathan (Rev.), pas- 
tor of Second Church 1777 
Wilson, Elizabeth, wife of Phin- 
eas 1727 
Welles, Hannah 1683 
Welles, Blackieach 1788 



74 
4 

66 

73 
44 

45 

75 

37 

6 

63 
2 

30 

34 

0:n 

43 

56 

7 



73 
80 
62 
62 
18 



40 
81 



75 
7m 

64 

29 

97 
1 
9 
53 
25 
33 



69 

87 
50 
64 



Died. 

1795 
1799 
1793 
I7II 
1796 
1795 



Welles, Mary 
Welles, Julia 

Welles, Britty, wife of Ashbel 
Wentworth, Samuel 
Watson, Sally, wife of John 
Watson, John 

Watson. Hannah, wife of John 1799 
Woodward, John 1703 

Walked Marian, wife of John 1795 
Wb;ce, Elizabeth, wife of John J. 1804 
White, Susan S. 1804 

Williamson, Caleb 1738 

Williamson, Mary, wife of Caleb 1737 
Williamson, Anna, wife of Ebene- 
zer 1750 
Wadsworth, Joanna, wife of Jo- 
seph , 1762 
Wadsworth, Daniel 1762 
Wadsworth, William 1771 
Wadsworth, Thomas 1716 
Wadsworth, Daniel (Rev.), pas- 
tor First Church 1747 
Wadsworth, Abigail, wife of Rev. 

Daniel 1773 

Wadsworth, Daniel 1750 

Wadsworth, Ruth 1750 

Wadsworth, Jeremiah (Col.) 1804 
Wadsworth, Mehitabel, wife of 

Col. Jeremiah 1817 

Wadsworth, Elizabeth 1810 



Wadsworth, Eunice, daughters of 



Rev. Daniel 
Wadsworth, Millicent, wife 

Capt. Samuel 
Willet, Nathaniel 
Winchester, Elhanan (Rev.) 
Whiting, Joseph 



of 



1790 
1608 
1797 
1715 



Whiting, Anna, wife of Joseph 1735 



1714 



1 7 l >5 
1701 
1807 

1 79S 
[803 
[806 



Whiting, Mary 

Whiting, Abigail 

Whiting. Calvin (Rev.) 

Weare, Caty 

Weare, William T. 

Weare, Martha, wife of William 

Watson, Joseph 

Watson, Joseph 

Weedcn. Marv. wife of Henry 1803 

Wood. Lucy l8oa 

Wood, William i~'>. ; 

Wood. Benjamin S. 1793 

Warner. Azubah. wife of Eh 1774 

Wav, Mary l 7° l 

Woodbridgc. Timothy (Rev.). 
pastor First Church _ ^ K3- 

Woodbridjre, Abigail, wife of Rev. 
Timothvand formerly of Rich- 
ard Lord 

Westcoate. Samuel 



Age 

6 

15 
31 
20 

38 
66 
72 
4 
42 

29 

7 

87 
77 

49 

73 
42 

49 
26 

43 

67 
10 

5 
61 

82 
72 



1825 89 



67 
80 
46 

82 
26 

4 
24 

1 

10m 

38 

29 

3 
19 
. ; ~ 

4 

1 
43 
70 



n 
16 




AMONG THE LITCHFIELD HILLS. 



BY EDGAR DEANE. 



At the advice of his physician, who charged only two dollars for telling 
him, Uncle William was induced to take a short rest from his arduous duties. 
His consultation with Cousin Jim resulted in their deciding to take a driving 
trip down the *Housatonic Valley from Canaan. They were to drive as they 
pleased, with no particular point for destination, and get back when they 
chose. 

Arriving in Canaan rather too late in the afternoon to start the same day 
down the valley, Uncle William, who had brought his camera, started out to 
cultivate his artistic eye. His operations were not complete, of course, with- 
out "Let's see the picture, mister," from the omnipresent small boy, whom a 

*As to the meaning of Housatonic, in his book, "Indian Names in Connect 
Trumbull says, " Eunice Mahwee (or Mauwehu), the last Full-blooded survivor of tiu S 
cook band, in 1859, pronounced the name 'Hous'ateHUC,' and interpreted it 'over the D 
tain.' The tradition received by the Scaticook Indians of the discovery of the river and 
valley by those who came over the mountain from the west, establishes this Interpret) 
beyond a doubt." It is also interpreted " River o\ the Mountains.'' 



88 



AMONG THE LITCHFIELD HILLS. 



companion soon accosted with, " Say, Sammy, yer mother wants yer ; you'll 
ketch it when you git home." This cheerful announcement abated Sammy's 
ardor in the investigating line, and he hurriedly departed for that place unlike 
any other. The explanations which would have been necessary to enlarge 
Sammy's knowledge of photography reminded them of the experience of a 
dealer in photographic supplies. A purchaser complained of the plates he 
bought. " Did you follow directions ? " asked the dealer. " Oh, yes, very care- 
fully. I loaded the holders, exposed the plates, took them in the dark room 













. _ w9Jm 

VIEW IN CANAAN. 




and looked at them, but not a trace of a picture could I find." "Did you de- 
velop them ? " " Develop ! what's that ? " asked he, in utter amazement. This 
customer must have been related to the young man who bought a printing 
frame at a store and took it back two days later, mad as the proverbial " wet 
hen." He gave them to understand that he had bought and paid for a good 
printing frame and they couldn't push off any second-hand goods on him. They 
said they were very sorry, they supposed the frame was all right and would do 
anything they could to rectify a mistake. " Well," said he, pointing to the dial 
on the back of the frame, used for registering the number of prints, "I had a 
print in that frame all day yesterday, and that pointer never stirred." 

As Sammy could not see the picture, neither could Uncle William, and this 
was the beginning of a series he was taking on faith, the results to be found 



AMONG THE LITCHFIELD HILLS. 

after his return home, where in the seclusion of his private apartments, " he'd 
do the rest." 

Early the next morning the journey was begun, they starting for Falls 
Village by the way of Twin Lakes, and from thence to Lime Rock and Sharon 
where they stopped for the night. 

It has been said that one takes away from a place only what he brings to 
it. In a certain sense this may be true. One has to have the ability to appre- 
ciate what he sees, in order to absorb it. Aside from that he may learn many 




TWIN LAKES. 



things and gain much knowledge and pleasure from traversing a country new 
to him, although he will realize what he misses, because it is new to him. The 
wealth of reminiscence which an inhabitant of the region can impart, the his- 
torical detail familiar to the student of that section, the abodes or sometime 
homes, of well-known people, — all these the traveler likes to know about and 
feels his loss if the knowledge is lacking. The exception to this is when he goes 
to a cemetery and finds out what a number of saintly people formerly lived in 
that region. Let the tombstones tell their own story, and have no wily Dfl 



90 AMONG THE LITCHFIELD HILLS. 

appear to disillusion the stranger by hinting that so-and-so's epitaph and truth 
are total strangers. 

In few sections of the country of equal area could one find more to interest 
him when thoroughly familiar with the history of the inhabitants than in Litch- 
field County. In an address delivered before the Litchfield County Historical 
and Antiquarian Society, April 9 th, 1856, Mr. G. H. Hollister said : "Many of 
you are doubtless aware that Litchfield County has from the first been distin- 
guished for its intelligence and enterprise, and that its little county townships 




frfr%**m 



CANAAN FALLS. 



have contributed more to the forum, the pulpit, the bench, the academic hall, 
and the professor's chair, not only within our own limits, but in the several 
states of the union, than in any other portion of the continent occupied by 
an equal number of inhabitants." He then gives a few brief statistics in sup- 
port of his statement and goes on to look for the reason, which, after speaking 
of dissensions in church government and boundary lines inducing the removal of 
some to Litchfield County in the early times, then known as the " Northwestern 
Wilderness," he sums up in part as follows : "A variety of other motives led 
these adventurous men to subject themselves to the hardships incident to a 
warfare with the rugged obstacles of nature. A desire like that of Rasselas, to 
see what lay beyond ; a love of possessing land, for which the Saxon blood has 
been famous from the earliest times — that restlessness which belongs to an un- 
settled state of society ; a fearless courage stimulating the emigrant on from 
difficulty to difficulty, with an appetite which grew by what it fed on ; a fervent 




9 2 AMONG THE LITCHFIELD HILLS. 

imagination which always accompanies religious zeal, and lights up whatever 
is distant with rays of hope and promises of future glory ; a sublime trust in 
God, who made the winds that howled and the snows that drifted over the win- 
try waste, to be ministers of His wrath and the servants of His will ; these are 
some of the motives which led to the settlements of the forbidding hill-tops 
where the oak battled with the elements, and of the more inviting interval 

where the pine and hemlock sighed amid 
the tall grass of the hunting-ground. The 
elasticity of a ball is to be estimated by 
. the length and number of its rebounds. 
This is true of emigration. The toughness 
of fiber, the wiry strength of the adven- 
turer's nerves, is best known by the num- 
ber of removes that he made, and their 
distance from the secure abodes of his 
fellow men. Hence you will find that the 
settlers of Litchfield were from the first 
picked men. The love of luxury and ease 
was almost unknown to them. They built 

CHURCH PORTICO, LIME ROCK. , . . , .. - .... r /-a 1 t -^ 1 

their houses on the hills of Goshen, Litch- 
field, Winchester, Torrington, Watertown and Bethlehem, and made their 
roads to them from the valleys with a defiance of comfort and civil engineer- 
ing shocking to the nerves of their descendants." 

The last statement, anyone who has driven in that region can readily ap- 
preciate, for it seems as though the roads were built over the steepest hills that 
could be found. As another writer, in commenting on the same subject, has 
said : " Roads were laid out of a liberal width, usually six rods, but in other re- 
spects the layout fails to command our respect. To get to the top of the high- 
est hill by the shortest route, and thence to the top of the next, seems to have 
been the chief object in view, and though many of these old roads have been 
discarded, yet the traveler, if he has any taste for engineering, still has the op- 
portunity to exercise his propensity." 

The pleasant summer morning in a region abounding with enchanting 
views was thoroughly enjoyed by Uncle William and Cousin Jim, as they jour- 
neyed by the Twin Lakes, Washinee and Washining, and thence to that grand- 
est natural phenomenon in the valley, Canaan Falls. 

In the afternoon a pleasant time was had at the Barnum, Richardson Co's 
works at Lime Rock, where the superintendent entertained them by showing 
them about the shops. A new tire-setting machine interested Uncle William 
by its wonderful efficiency. To anyone in need of such a machine he would 
unhesitatingly say, " Look into the merits of this one." 

As the stranger drives through the beautiful streets of Sharon, his mind 
most naturally turns to the biblical phrase, "The rose of Sharon and the lily of 
the valley," and he thinks that surely those who christened the place must 
have had that saying in mind. Jt certainly is one of the most attractive towns 
in all New England. The extra broad, well-shaded street, or double street, for 
it is a regular boulevard, with nicely-kept lawns on both sides, extending 
through the center of the town, and the charming residences, are revelations 
to the traveler who comes upon it for the first time, having known nothing 



AMONG THE LITCHFIELD HILLS. 



f ;> 



about it and expecting to find in this far corner of the state, remote from rail- 
roads, a primitive country village. It has an air of originality about it, too, 
that gives it a character all its own. This is evidenced more especially by its 
soldiers' monument, a huge stone cannon, with the inscriptions on its pedestal, 
so different from the conventional type of soldiers' memorials elsewhere seen, 
and by the stone clock-tower in the center of the town, which musically chimes 
the hours. 

From Sharon over the mountain to West Cornwall and on to Kent was but 
a day's journey, allowing Uncle William ample time to photograph what took 
his fancy. ♦ 

The township of Cornwall, though composed of much good farming land, 
and especially land adapted to the turning out of dairy products, is quite hilly 
and mountainous. 

The Hon. T. S. Gold, in his " History of Cornwall," says : "The rocky sur- 
face of Cornwall gave large indications to the early settlers of mineral wealth, 
and the township was named after the rich mining region in the old country." 
Furthermore, the same author remarks : " When the question of a county seat 
was early agitated, and Cornwall put in her claim for the honor, ' Yes,' it was 
said, 'go to Cornwall and you will have no need of a jail, for whoever gets in 
can never get out again.' 




CLOCK TOWER, SHARON. 



"The old divine who, passing through Cornwall, delivered himself of the 
following couplet, gave more truth with his poetry than is considered essentia] : 



The Almighty, from His boundless store 

Piled rocks on rocks, ami did no more' 



94 



AMONG THE LITCHFIELD HILLS. 



" Another authority attributes it to Dr. Dwight, president of Yale College, who 
came up to look at the college lands, and thus expressed himself : 

' The God of Nature, from His boundless store, 
Threw Cornwall into heaps and did no more.' " 

Concerning the names of the several mountains, Mr. Gold gives some in- 
teresting information. Besides speaking of a number which were named after 
men who lived in their vicinity, such as Hough Mountain, Rugg Hill, Waller 
Hill, Bunker Hill, Dudley Town Hill, and Clark Hill, he says : '♦< About half a 
mile south from his house (Deacon Waller's, at the foot of Waller Hill), we 
find another large hill, properly called Tower Dale. This noble name, thus 
written by the early settlers, has degenerated in common speech, into the in- 
significant title of Tarrydiddle. Going in the same direction, but a little far- 
ther removed from the river, we find Buck Mountain, so called from the great 
number of deer that used to be found there. The first hill below West Corn- 
wall, and nearer the river, was called Green Mountain before it became de- 
nuded of its pines and hemlocks, which in early times covered it densely. 
Then next south and easterly lies a long and high hill called Mine Mountain, 
from the minerals it was supposed to contain. Cream Hill, lying in the north 
middle part of the town, received this appellation from the superiority of its 





VIEW IN WEST CORNWALL. 



soil and the beauty of its scenery. A pretty lake lies at its foot, and in fair 
view from its southern aspect, called Cream Hill Lake. A high and steep 
mountain range lies at the northwest of Sedgwick Hollow, called Titus Moun- 
tain, and was so named from a young man of that name who, with others, was 
amusing himself in rolling rocks down the steep side of the mountain, and who 
had the misfortune to break his thigh. 

" South of Cream Hill rises an isolated hill of no great height, but rough 



AMONG THE LITCHFIELD HILLS. 



95 



and uncomely, to which is given the name of Rattlesnake Hill. I set down 
here the tradition of fifty rattlesnakes killed at one time on this hill, lest the 
story grow larger and tax our credulity too much as to the origin of the name. 
This raid was too much for the snakes, as none have been found there in the 
period of authentic history. 

"Southeasterly from Clark Hill is the most elevated land in the state, lying 
mostly in Goshen, from the apex of which is a view of. Long Island Sound. 
This- is called Mohawk Mountain. 




RIVER VIEW AT WEST CORNWALL. 



" Three hundred acres of land given by the General Assembly to Yale 
College, is located in Cornwall, and goes by the name of College Land. Bloody 
Mountain, so named from a bloody tragedy not enacted there, lies north of the 
old Goshen and Sharon turnpike, northwest from the center of the town. 

"From the summits of many of these hills extensive and magnificent 
views are presented, extending west of the Hudson River and over a large 
share of Berkshire County in Massachusetts. There are many other minor 
hills, the beauty and picturesque appearance of which, to be fully appreciated 
must be seen." 

The keynote is struck in the last sentence. It is vain to attempt to 
scribe the endless number of mountain and valley views, each with some 
special feature of attractiveness, each grand and splendid in itself, that % 
the traveler through this region. To attempt the description is mere idle 
repetition of words that fail utterly to adequately express his feelings. 




KENT FALLS. 



AMONG THE LITCHFIELD HILLS. 



97 



Such were the sights that met our travelers' eyes throughout their whole 
drive. From Cornwall their line of travel for the next few days was through 
Kent, over to Roxbury, and then north through the Shepaug Valley to Wash- 
ington and Litchfield, then through Goshen back to their starting point at 
Canaan. 

And this short trip was but one of many of equal interest that could be 
taken in the same region, for the 
places necessarily omitted in trav- 
ersing the ground but once, were 
legion. 

The magnificent mountain 
scenery was diversified by the nu- 
merous beautiful water scenes 
constantly met with on the Hous- 
atonic Shepaug and the smaller 
streams, with here and there a 
pr< tty lake, besides visits to the 
ru^ ,ed and picturesque ravines at 
Kent and Roxbury Falls. 

Who of us would not say with 
Uncle William, when in such a 
spot as either of the latter places, 
"Like it ? Why I could stay here 
all day." 

Cool, restful and delightful in 
every way, there the lover of na- 
ture is in his element, and few 
there be of us who do not retain 
an instinctive passion for such 

scenes, though it be, perhaps, what remains to us of the most refined of 
savage instincts, stifled in vain through a thousand years of civilization. 

Perhaps because we associate with the Indian what is most rugged and 
wild, the mind naturally goes back to the aboriginal inhabitant when 
contemplating this region, despite all the evidences of the two centuries 
of the white man's occupancy. And this aside from the Indian names, which 
we hope will long remain. Barber, in his "Connecticut Historical Collec- 
tions," tells us that, " Gideon Mauwehu, the sachem of the Scaticook tribe, in 
one of his hunting excursions came to the summit of the mountain which 
rises almost precipitously west of Scatacook (Kent), and beholding the beauti- 
ful valley and river below, determined to make it the place of his future 
dence. It was indeed a lovely and desirable place ; there were several hur. 
acres of excellent land, covered with grass like a prairie, with some tew scat- 
tering trees interspersed. The river was well supplied with fish, and on the 
mountain, on both sides, was found an abundance of deer and other wild game 
At this place Mauwehu collected the Indians and became their sachem.'* 

Well has Mr. Hollister expressed it when he said, in the address pre 
alluded to : " All over the country lie scattered these simple mementoes of a 
race which held dominion over the soil for unknown ages before the 




MAIDEN S WELL — BLENT PALLS. 



9 8 



AMONG THE LITGHFIELD HILLS. 



emigrant ever set foot upon it. His implements of war, sharp as the fabled 
dragon's teeth, but not vital like them, still lie buried in the fields over which 
he once hunted the wi]d deer, the bear, the moose and the otter. The plow- 
boy whose mind is filled with stories of the Indian wars, continues to turn them 
up with the share from year to year, and stops his team with a shuddering- chill 
to handle the serrated arrow and grooved tomahawk. Their household uten- 
sils — the stone mortar and pestle, the pots in which they boiled their venison, 
the pans in which they fried their fish, the stone pipe that sent up its grave 
offering of peace around the council-fire, their grotesque attempts at sculpture, 




FALLS BELOW NEW MILFORD. 



representing their grim ideal of a god— are still extant in the country, but fast 
passing away. Although the war-whoop echoes no longer among the cliffs of 
Cornwall and Scaticook ; although the bark palace of the chief of Werauhau- 
maug has crumbled by the side of the Great Falls at New Milford, and his peo- 
ple no longer frequent the borders of the lake that still bears his name ; 
though the tribe of Pomperaug has melted away like the dew, and the mead- 
ows of Weatague are swept yearly by the scythe of the Saxon ; yet here and 
there in warm sheltered nooks, by river-bank or brook-side, the bones of the 
warrior rest in the alluvial mould. Whence came this wild fierce people, wan- 
dering without being nomadic, cultivating history without the aid of letters, 
generous without knowing how to forgive, scornful of death when called to 
look him in the face, yet lurking like the fox to avoid his approach ? Whence 
came they ? How long did they remain proprietors of the country, and why 
did they melt so suddenly away before the rays of civilization ? " 



AMONG THE LITCHFIELD HILLS. 



99 



We wish we could answer. Even Uncle William, who was of a reflective 
turn of mind and had given much thought to such problems, vouchsafed no ex- 
planation. Besides the scenery and thoughts of the noble red man, there were 
many things of more recent historical interest to claim his attention. At Kent 
and Roxbury the extensive iron works formerly in operation ; the reminder by 
a monument in the center of the latter town of that hero of the Revolution 
Colonel Seth Warner ; at Washington, Litchfield and Goshen, of many things 
that have made those places well known. 

Nor was the trip lacking in amusing and humorous incidents. Such were 



Mb* 




•> 

E 


V- m 




9L. 


MET 1 




^f ^_ • " — 










MBBPBPv^^BPMKr^^*^ l,p 




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" 





ROXBURY FALLS. 



the ones, to his regret, that Uncle William failed to get pictures ot. But that 
is the usual way of such things— the biggest fish get away. 

In due course of time, in spite of having the laziest horse in the county, 
Uncle William and Cousin Jim got back to Canaan, returned the horse to the 
stable, complimented the owner on possessing such a fine animal, and took the 
train for Hartford. 






BOOK NOTICES AND REVIEWS. 



I. NOTICES. 



Books in preparation or in press, 
authors. |» 



W Butler — A monograph on some families 
who descend from Richard Butler of 
Hartford, Ct. Emily Wilder Leavitt, 10 
Joy street, Boston, Mass. 

Cleveland and Cleaveland Families — 
Price $15.00 per set of 3 vols, to sub- 
scribers now. Edmund J. Cleveland, 43 
Beacon street, Hartford, Ct. 

Cone — Descendants of Daniel Cone, 
1626-1706. William W. Cone, 1405 Polk 
street, Topeka, Kan. 

Crow or Crowell and Kelley — Early 
settlers of Yarmouth, Mass. Henry G. 
Crowell, South Yarmouth, Mass. 

Nickerson — Descendants of William of 
Chatham, Mass. Wm. Emery Nicker- 
son, 12 Pearl street, Boston, Mass. 

Rockwell and Keeler Genealogy — 
James Boughton, 223 Keap street, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. 

Tinker — Descendants of John of New 
London, Ct. Price, $5.00 per copy. 
Rev. William Durant, Saratoga Springs, 
N. Y. 

Wakeman — Descendants of John, one 
of the founders and Treasurer of New 
Haven Colony. Price, $5.00 per copy. 
Robert P. Wakeman, Southport, Ct. 

Waterbury Genealogy — Early settlers 
in Stamford, Ct. William F. Waterbury, 
Stamford, Ct. 

Early Mass. Marriages — First book ; 
price, $2.00 postpaid. Frederick W. 
Bailey, New Haven, Ct. Box 587. 

Enfield, Conn., History — Francis 01- 
cott Allen, 340 South 16th St., Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 



Those interested are invited to communicate with the 



Staten Island, N. Y., Memorial His- 
tory — Ira K. Morris, New Brighton, 
N. Y. 

Goshen, Conn., History — Price, $3.25 
net, sent by mail. Rev. A. G. Hib- 
bard, Woodstock, Ct. Box 66. 

Amenia, N. Y. — Mr. William A. Ear- 
deley-Thomas, 5000 Woodland avenue, 
Philadelphia, Pa./ will publish all the 
Amenia records as soon as the 100 
advance paid-up subscriptions at $5.00 
per volume are received. No prom- 
ises will be noticed. The $5.00 must 
accompany every subscription. The 
book can be had only by subscription. 

Billings History, in preparation by 
Mr. C. Billings, Billingsbridge, Onta- 
rio, Canada. 

" Carpenter Family in America " — 
550 pp.; not over $7.50 per volume ; 
probably $5.00 if 250 copies are or- 
dered. Mr. Daniel H. Carpenter, Ma- 
plewood, N. J. 

Case and Hathaway Genealogies — 
Mr. C. V. Case, Ashtabula, Ohio. 

History of Guilford and Madison, 
Ct. — 500 pp., $2.50 — Bernard C. Stein- 
er, Baltimore, Md., care of Enoch 
Pratt Free Library. 

Hanford Genealogy — Mr. A. C. Gold- 
ing, Norwalk, Ct. 

Taylor Genealogy — Norwalk, Wil- 
ton, Danbury, Bethel, Newtown, New 
Milford, and Fairfield county gener- 
ally. Mr. W. O. Taylor, Orange, Mass. 



II. REVIEWS. 



"Records of the State of Connecti- 
cut," Vol. I, 1776-1778; Vol. II, 1778- 
1780; published by Charles J. Hoadly, 
LL.D , State Librarian, "in accordance 
with a Resolution of the General Assem- 
bly." They contain the Journal of the 
Council of Safety from Oct. 11, 1776, to 
April 23, T780, and an appendix in each 
volume. Each volume contains a fine in- 



dex, and is well printed and bound. 
These volumes exhibit the results of care- 
ful and painstaking labor in reading old 
documents, for which Dr. Hoadly is justly 
renowned. 



"The Munson Record: a Genealog- 
ical and Biographical Account of Captain 
Thomas Munson (a pioneer of Hartford 



BOOK NOTICES AND REVIEWS. 



101 



and New Haven) and his Descendants," 
by Rev. Myron A. Munson, M. A. Two 
volumes, royal 8vo., pp. 1267. We are 
especially attracted by the extent to which 
research in the original sources is repre- 
sented, the public records of 74 towns and 
cities in 9 different States having been 
studied by the author, besides visiting 39 
other places to consult church records and 
secure personal interviews. The most 
authentic way of presenting history is by 
largely quoting public records. Our author 
has done this, making hundreds of these 
quotations, many of which touch families 
of other names. Authencity, already re- 
plete, is intensified in eighteen or twenty 
instances by facsimiles of the original rec- 
ords. We have here a Connecticut sub- 
ject, by a Connecticut author and printer. 
Tables of Contemporary Events furnish 
a setting in general history for the family 
events of the first eight generations — a 
feature which has been fervently and re- 
peatedly commended. There is an at- 
tempt to record the political and religious 
preferences of all members of the family. 
A novel diagram is given exhibiting Mun- 
son Migrations from Connecticut. The 
great number of geographical elucidations 
and allusions of an illuming sort surprises 
one — there are 247 items in the geograph- 
ical index, such as Ball's Island, Ditch 
Corner, Landing Tree, Neck Rock, Ox 
Hill, Stable Point, etc., and likewise a 
great number of historical matters of a 
local and general character which are ex- 
plained or illustrated, e. g . , the Connec- 
ticut Standing Army, owning baptismal 
covenant, billeting act, courts of four or 
five kinds, project for founding a common- 
wealth at Delaware Bay, "divisions" of 
land, Quinnipiac ferries, hat-pegs in meet- 
ing house, King Phillip's War, first jury, 
lecture days, "ordinary," horse-book, 
origin of "towns-men," Long Wharf, 
whipping post, etc. — rarely has a family 
history, as a subordinate specialty, at- 
tempted to illumine general history. We 
have three fac-similes of Revolutionary 
documents, fac-similes of the signatures to 
the Fundamental Agreement at Quinni- 
piac and to the Planters' Agreement at 
Wallingford, and many other matters 
which are now first 'given to the public. 
The work may be had of the author, 202 
Exchange street, New Haven, Ct., for 
$12.00 per set. 



from the first Indian Deed in 1059 to 
1879, including tlic towns ol Washington, 
Souihbury, Bethlehem, Koxbury, and a 
part ol Oxiordand Miudlcbury," bawork 
in 3 vols, by William Cothrcn, L^q. , ol 
Woodbury, Ct. Volume 1 is out ol print, 
while the few remaining copies 01 Vol- 
umes II and ill may be procured 01 the 
author at $4.25 per copy, postpaid. I he 
work is devoted entirely to the genealog- 
ical statistics of Ancient Woodbury from 
1670 to 1879, and °* Ancient btratlora 
from 1639 to 1728, which then included 
Bridgeport, Huntington and Monroe. 
There are nearly 35,000 entries of births, 
baptisms, marriages and deaths, collated 
by years. Here is a first-class chance to 
get these volumes at more than a reasona- 
ble price. One is surprised that they can 
still be obtained at such a low figure. 



A. Vital Statistics of Seymour, Ct., 
Vol. II, pp. 59; $1.00; postpaid, ^1.06. 

B. History of Oxford, Ct., Part I, 
mostly a transcript of church and town 
records of births, marriages and deaths; 
paper covers, $1.00; postpaid, $104. 
Only one part issued. 

C. "TheSharpes," 1893-6; 212 pages; 
#3.00. Originally published monthly. 

These three works were published by 
W. C. Sharpe, Seymour, Ct., from whom 
they can be had at the above prices. A 
covers the period from Jan. 1883 to Dec. 
31, 1891, is neatly bound and has a good 
index. B also contains burials in /oar 
Bridge Cemetery and Old Quaker Fauns 
Cemetery. C, we regret to say, has no 
index. One was prepared, but never pub- 
lished. We are sorry to learn that on ac- 
count of so little interest being taken in the 
work, the editor feels compelled to stop 
publishing "The Sharpes." We heartily 
commend these works to our readers and 
friends. 



"Samuel Clark, Sr., and his De- 
scendants," by Rev. Edgar W, Clark, A. 
M., Pana, 111.'; second edition. Svo.. pp- 
122; price in muslin, £1. 25; paper. 
"This has Wen a gradual gatherii 
more than twent) years, and a work ot 
love." The family appeared in Bed 
N. Y . before 1681 in the person of Will- 
iam. Sr. . son of Samuel. Sr. 



History of Ancient Woodbury, Ct., 



"Littleton Historical Society, Pro- 
ceedings No. 1. 1 89 4- 1 895," Bvo . pp. 
186; $1.50 postpaid rne work 



102 



BOOK NOTICES AND REVIEWS, 



a mong other things of the Garrison House 
at Nashoba, John Eliot, the apostle to 
the Indians, the Work of Historical Soci- 
eties, the Indians of Nashobah, forty-six 
pages of epitaphs from the Old Burying 
Ground at Littleton Common, etc., and 
contains a fine index. A good share of 
the work has been done by Mr. Herbert 
J. Harwood, chairman of the committee, 
to whom much praise is due. 



''A Partial Record of the Descend- 
ants of John TefTt of Portsmouth, Rhode 
Island, and the Nearly Complete Record 
of the Descendants of John Tifft of Nas- 
sau, N. Y." compiled by Mrs. Maria E. 
Tifft, 196 Lin wood avenue, Buffalo, N. Y. 
It is an 8vo. volume, contains pp. 1594-14, 
printed on fine deckel edge paper and ru- 
bricated. The work, neatly bound, is a 
splendid contribution to genealogy and is 
a credit to the compiler. The work can 
be had of the author for $3.50. 



History of Montville, Ct., formerly the 
North Parish of New London, from 1640 
to 1896, compiled and arranged by Henry 
A. Baker, Esq.; price$ 1.00; press of Case, 
Lockwood & Brainard Company. The 
book contains 727 pages -fviii., is well 
printed and bound. There are 500 pages 
devoted to the genealogies of the early 
settlers and the appendix contains 11 
pages more. The work has a good index. 
There are over 40 illustrations in the 
work. All that it was possible for the 
author to obtain has been incorporated. 



"The Lineage of Rev. Richard 
Mather," by Horace E. Mather, Esq., of 
747 Asylum avenue, Hartford, Ct., is a 
work of 540 pages gotten up in an exceed- 
ingly attractive style, containing the por- 
traits of the Rev. Richard Mather of Dor- 
chester, Mass.; Rev. Dr. Increase Mather, 
his son, of Boston; Rev. Dr. Cotton 
Mather, his grandson, of Boston; Rev. 
Samuel Mather, his grandson, of Witney, 
Eng.; Rev. Dr. Samuel Mather, his great- 
grandson, of Boston. Also 17 other por- 
traits of prominent descendants of Richard 
Mather in the book with other engravings 
of historic interest. It also gives bio- 
graphical sketches of these and others 
connected with the family. Over forty- 
three hundred of the descendants in the 
male and female branches are indexed in 
the work. Mention is also made of a large 
number of the Mathers of other emigra- 



m. 

tions from England and Scotland, as well 
as those who are residents of Europe. 
The work can be had for $5.00 a copy. 

A. "Notes and Additions to the 
History of Gloucester, second series, by 
John J. Babson, with an appendix con- 
taining indexes to Parts I and II"; pp. 
187 ; price, #1.50. 

B. "Inscriptions from the Old Ceme- 
tery in Rowley, Mass., copied by Geo. 
B. Blodgette, M.A."; pp. 78; price, 75c. 

C. "Deaths in Truro, Cape Cod, 1786- 
1826, taken from the diary of Rev. Jude 
Damon, by John Harvey Treat"; pp. 26; 
price, 50c. 

These three works, of immense value to 
the genealogist, can still be supplied at 
the above price by Eben Putnam, Esq., of 
Salem, Mass. It would be of advantage 
to those purchasing genealogies and his- 
tories to communicate with Mr. Putnam. 



"Records ot William Spooner of 
Plymouth, Mass., and his Descendants, 
Vol. I," is a work of 694 pages, compiled 
by Thomas Spooner, Esq. The book is 
bound in green, is printed on good paper, 
and has a fine index. The foot-notes, 
scattered through the volume, give the 
ancestry of the wives or husbands of many 
of the Spooners, thus making the work of 
great value to other families. Volume II 
was prepared, but has never been pub- 
lished. It is already for the printer, and 
it is hoped that the remaining copies of 
Vol. I will find a speedy sale, so that Vol. 
II can be given to the printer. The Vol. 
I can be had at $3.00 a copy of M. Alice 
Spooner, Glendale, Ohio. 



"Genealogy of the Howes Family 
in America, Descendants of Thomas 
Howes, Yarmouih, Mass., 1637-1892, with 
some account of English Ancestry, by 
Joshua Crowell Howes, Dennis, Mass., 
with illustrations," is a work of 209 pages 
with blank pages for manuscript notes. 
The arrangement is clear, concise and can 
be understood by anybody. The work 
can be purchased from the author ; price, 
$2.00; by mail, $2.12. 



"The Descendants of John Porter of 
Windsor, Ct., 1635-9, compiled by Henry 
Porter Andrews, " is a work of 888 pages 
in two volumes. The book contains three 
splendid indexes. The author has wisely 
traced out the maternal lines to the 



BOOK NOTICES AND REVIEWS. 



first comer in the country. This is a 
splendid work and shows the results of 
careful research. It can be had for #12 
per set of Augusta Porter Wiggins, Sara- 
toga Springs, N. Y. 



"The History and Genealogy of 
the Colegrove Family in America, with 
Biographical Sketches, Portraits, etc.," 
by William Colegrove, D.D., LL.D., of 
Tallula, Menard Co., Illinois, is a i2mo. 
book of 792 pages, which can be had of 
the author for $4.00 cloth, #5.00 morocco 
with gilt edges; postage, 16c. There are 
over sixty blank numbered pages for man- 
uscript notes, and a good index, in two 
columns — the males in the left column 
and the females in the right. The work 
takes up the line of Francis Colegrove 
who came from London, Eng., to War- 
wick, R. I., about 1680. He was proba- 
bly born at or near Swansea, Wales. 



Lane Genealogies — Vol. I, by Rev. 
Jacob Chapman and Rev. James H. Fitts, 
contains the descendants of William Lane 
of Boston, 1648; John Lane of York Co., 
Maine, 1693, an d John Lane of Fishers- 
field, N. H., 1737. Copies may be ob- 
tained of Rev. Mr. Chapman, Exeter, N. 
H., for $3.50. Vol. II, by Rev. James 
H. Fitts, contains the descendants of 
William Lane of Dorchester, Mass., 1635; 
Robert Lane of Stratford, Ct. , 1660 ; John 
Lane of Milford, Ct., 1642; John Merri- 
field Lane of Boston, Mass , 1752 ; Dan- 
iel Lane of New London, Ct., 1651, and 
George Lane of Rye, N.Y., 1664- Copies 
may be had of Rev. 'Mr. Fitts, Newfields, 
N. H., for $3.50. These two volumes, 
bound in uniform size, present a neat ap- 
pearance, are well indexed, are illustrated 
and a credit to the compilers. Vol. Ill 
is nearly ready It will contain the de- 
scendants of Job Lane, Maiden, Mass., 
1644, and his brother James of Casco Bay. 
Maine, 1660. Unconnected families will 
be added. Additional information should 
be sent at once to Rev. Mr. Fitts. 



"The Genealogy of the Hamilton 
Family from 1716 to 1894, compiled by 
Salome Hamilton, Faribault, Minn.;" 
8vo.,pp. 133+vi, records thedescendants 
of James Hamilton, a Scotch-Irishman 
who came to Worcester county, Mass., 
before 1720. The author, of whom this 
neat volume can be had for #2.00, is still 
collecting data on all of the name. 



"A Peters Lineage — Five Genera- 
tions of the Descendants of Dr. Charles 
Peters of Hempstead, compiled by Mar- 
tha Bockee Flint," of No. 3 Barclay St., 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y.; price, $2.00; pp. 
164 -f- xi. This is a splendid volume and 
shows the result of careful compilation. 

"A Genealogical History of the Har- 
wood Families Descended from Andrew 
Harwood, who was born in England 
and resided in Boston, Mass." (freeman 
there 1643), by Watson H. Harwood, M. 
D., of Chasm Falls, N. Y.; price, $2.50; 
8vo., pp. 91-f-x; second edition. Dr. 
Harwood, we are pleased to say, is col- 
lecting additional materialfor a third edi- 
tion and would especially like to learn 
where Andrew 1 Harwood was born and 
the exact year when he came to America. 



'■* Hall Ancestry — A Series of Sketches 
of the Lineal Ancestors of the Chil- 
dren of Samuel Holden Parsons Hall 
and his wife, Emily Bulkeley of Bingham- 
ton, N. Y., with some account of nearly 
one hundred of the early Puritan families 
of New England ; also tables showing 
royal descents of Mary Lyman and Sarah 
Chauncy and of their descendants," by 
Charles S. Hall, 86 Court street, Bing- 
ham ton, N.Y.; price, -^5.00 net ; pp. 507- 
x, pica type, laid paper ; edition 200 cloth 
copies; 8vo., gilt top. It is a splendid 
volume, and the aim has been to collect 
all the information accessible as to the 
Hall-Bulkeley ancestry. There are 10 
pedigrees showing descent from Alfred, 
William the Conqueror and the Edwards : 
Kings Malcolm and David; Charlemagne 
and the Louis; Royal Houses of Germany. 
Spain and Naples. 



"Lewis Walker o\ Chester V 
and His Descendants, with some o\ the 
Families with Whom they arc Conn 
by Marriage, 1686-1896, collected, com- 
piled and published by Priscilla VI 
Streets," of 100 East 19th St., New York 
City; price, $5.00; 8vo., pp. 443 i illm- 
trated. This is a splendid contribution 
to Pennsylvania genealogies. The full 
and very complete index makes it I pleas- 
ure to use the book, evidencing as it 

careful and laborious research and cc 
Lewis Walker came from Wales in i68| 

and settled on the Welsh Tract in Radnor 
and later moved to Che-:,-' Ya'.lev. 



io4 



BOOK NOTICES AND REVIEWS. 



"An account of the Descendants of 
Thomas Orton of Windsor, Ct., 1641 
(principally in the male line)," by Prof. 
Edward Orton, LL.D., of 100 Twentieth 
street, Columbus, Ohio; price, $2.00; 
8vo., pp. 220. The attractive make-up of 
this, volume ought to find it a ready sale. 
It has an index, and the presswork is well 
done. 



"Ancestry of Nathan Dane Dodge 
and of his wife Abigail (Shepherd) Dodge 
with Notes," by Mary A. (Dodge) Par- 
sons, is an 8vo. cloth volnme, pp. 76. 
This has a fine index, neatly bound in 
black, and is illustrated with two por- 
traits. It consists of sketches of the an- 
cestors of the persons named. 



Collections of the Connecticut His- 
torical Society. Vol. VI. Hartford, 
1897.— Hartford Town Votes, Vol. 1, 
I ^35-i 716; 410 pages and two plates. 
The preparatory note signed by Charles 
J. Hoadley, LL D., the president of the 
Historical Society, says: "The records of 
the town of Hartford were begun with 
Jan. 1, 1638, or 1639, according to the 
present mode of accounting. Many of 
the early leaves (of the original record 
book) are badly frayed, and possibly some 
are lost." The town clerk of Hartford 
certifies over his official seal that the vol- 
ume "is a true and correct copy of all the 
records contained in the earliest vol- 
ume of the town votes of Hartford." 
The first entries concern the allotment of 
lands in 1635. It is safe to say that no 
book has appeared since the publication 
of the Colonial Records covering this pe- 
riod which will so well repay the student 
of Connecticut colonial history and the 
origin and development of its institutions, 
or the family historian and genealogist. 
He must be a sorry student indeed who 
cannot now add to his knowledge of the 
workings of the little municipality or give 
leafage and color to the dry boughs of his 
genealogical tree. The town of Hartford 
is to be congratulated that such an addi- 
tion has been made to its available his- 
tory, while the example set to other of the 
old towns should not be lost. The town 
and county history as usually published 
concerns the living rather than the dead, 
and the beginnings fade into insignificance 
beside the accomplishments of "our 
esteemed fellow townsman." Publish the 
records. 



The book is a handsome specimen of 
typography, but must have been a sore 
trial to everyone concerned in its produc- 
tion. A manuscript almost illegible ; an 
ortography of puzzling illiteracy, and the 
attempt to make the printed arrangement 
conform to the original in the smallest 
particular — all must have tried the pa- 
tience of the editor, proof-reader and 
printer. But the result is a pattern to be 
followed. To Frank F. Starr, the well- 
known genealogist, and Albert C. Bates, 
librarian of the Historical Society, thanks 
for all this faithful editorial labor is due. 
An altogether too modest mention is made 
of Mr. James J. Goodwin, who bore the 
expense of preparing and publishing the 
volume. 

The desire to quote arises at almost 
every page. For an instance of that pe- 
culiar temperament which has made the 
Connecticut Yankee famous, seepage 236. 
As showing the danger from fire, under 
date of 1635 : "It is ordered that eury 
howse shall haue a ladder or tre at Most 
who shall reach (within) Two ffoote of 
the Topp of his howse vppon (the) forfe- 
tuer of fave shillings A mounth for (each) 
mounth he shall want the same." In 1661, 
"ye Jews who at present live in Jon 
Marsh his house haue liberty to soiorne in 
ye Towne/' and some months earlier it is 
recorded " Ther remaineth in John Allyns 
hand for the Jews o 10-0" (p. 133,5) for 
aid (?) A "Husband for ye Towne" was 
chosen in February, 1660, and "ensine 
John Tallcott" was the town husband or 
treasurer. 

In 1694 a meeting of the town "Con- 
sidered ye motion of our Neighbours of 
the East Side (East Hartford) in refer- 
rance to their desire of Setteling of a min- 
ister." The good people of Hartford 
objected, and those pious citizens and 
church members, after stating that "if the 
Gen r11 Court See Cause to Over Rule in 
this Case (i. e., grant permission for the 
settling of a minister) we must Submit/' 
then entered the following record : "But 
those of the East Side that Desire to Con- 
tinue with us of the west side shall soe 
Doe, that all the Land on the East side 
that belongs to any of the people of the 
West side Shall pay to the ministry of the 
west side and that all the Land on the 
west side shall pay to the minister of the 
west side tho it Belongs to the people of 
the East side." In 1681 a ferry was 
established, and it might be presumed 



BOOK NOTICES AND REVIEWS. 



f -°5 






that it was to encourage the people of the 
East side to visit the growing capital. It 
was to be in the "keepe" of Thomas Cad- 
well "att the Common Landing place att 
Hartford." The fare as established was 
"for the Caring ouer horse and man six 
pence per time in money if they be not of 
this Towne and two pence for a single 
man an money ; and if they be of this 
Town thay are to pay a peney in silluer a 
single person or Two pence in other pay 
and for a man and horse three pence in 
silluer or six pence in other pay ; and for 
those of this Towne hee Carrys ouer after 
the day light is shutt in Thay shall pay 
six pence a horse and man in money 
or eight pence in other way ; and ffor 
single persons Two pence in siluer or 
Three pence in other pay/' The spirit 
of the Golden Rule was even thus early 
not allowed to interfere with business. 
Did the people of the east side retaliate in 
any way? 

The omissions shown in the printed text 
by brackets are very tantalizing. What a 
pity we are never to know why in 1639-40 
"it is ordered that mr Hopkins mr wells 
mr Taylcot and william Spencer shall 
Deall with mr Chaplin aboute ( ) 

are fforfeted into the Towns hands." (p. 
13). What had Mr. Chaplin done or left 
undone and what did he forfeit to the ' 
town ? Time, the ravager, has blotted 
it forever from the old record ; but we 
would willingly forgive the learned ed- 
itors or Dr. Hoadly if they had hazarded a 
guess at the matter. Here, and in many 
other places where the meaning is lost or 
doubtful, a note from the rich stores of 
knowledge of Dr. Hoadly or the editors 
would have illumined darkness. Not 
everyone can read between the lines, and 
the few notes given whet the desire for 
more. The honest but unlearned searcher 
gets little help. For example: In Sep- 
tember, 1640, is given to " richard Church 
the persell of swompe" one end of which 
"buts vpon the soldyer field." (p. 3?.) 
Neither here or at other references to the 
soldiers' field is its nature shown. Tt was 
not a burial or parade ground, but the 
choicest meadows in the town, which was 
divided among those who went against 
the Pequot Indians in 1637. What was 
"the diucth hous"* mentioned on p. 72 ? 

With so much that deserves the highest 
commendation, how could the Historical 
Society of Conn, let the volume go out 

r The Dutch fort, or House of Hope, possibly. 



with such a badly made index? It rills 
seventy pages of the volume, but tails to 
show the subjects a student would turn to 
first. Tne index of personal names is 
very complete and all possible variations 
in spelling are apparently given, but 
when will indexers learn that a subject in- 
dex should show sitbjects, ideas, general- 
izations, collations, and by relcreuces 
bring together in an alphabetical arrange- 
ment related things, not simply make a 
cumbersome list ol prominent words and 
page numbers, lake the following ex- 
amples which fail of entry in this sub- 
ject index : education, taxes, crime or 
criminals, bounds or boundaries, Indians, 
town meetings, drainage, civil actions, 
liens, military, fines, and other matter 
with which the book is filled. The town 
had often recurring troubles with neigh- 
boring towns over the boundaries. A 
bright thought may lead the reader to 
look at the word "line," and there he will 
find among many references that Windsor 
was the most harrassing neighbor. Why 
enter "meeting-house" and not church 
or religion with a reference ? No more 
interesting subject to the student than the 
land tenure is found in the record. Here 
the index, though minute, is not appar- 
ently arranged ; so you look after "pro- 
portions of division" to find "allotment 
of" lands. The straying cattle, hogs and 
other beasts occasioned many votes, but 
under pounds there is no reference to the 
fines or poundage. Cattle are mentioned 
but not hogs or horses. "Highways" is 
also badly digested. Provision was early 
made against the danger of fire, but one 
must look under "ladder" to tiiul it. 
Why both "OusatuniK k" and "Hi 
tunuck" with differing references? It is 
not a pleasant task to single these out from 
dozens of others for censure, but the vol- 
ume deserved a better index. H. 



" Historical Sketches o\ Now 
Haven," is the title of a book written 
and published by Miss Ellen Strong 
Bartlett. The articles included arc. 
"The New Haven Green," "A New 
Haven Church," " The Grove S 
Cemeterv," " Hi 11 house Avenue,' 
" John Trumbull, the Patriot Paint 
The author, in her prefatory 
says : " These papers have ap- 
peared by request, from tin- 
time, in The Connecticut Quartsrli 
and the New England M . and 



io6 



PUBLISHERS NOTES. 



as some of them are out of print, it 
has seemed best to bring- them to- 
gether in this volume. 

" Although they are an humble con- 
tribution to the literature that is ac- 
cumulating with reference to New 
Haven, they are the result of loving 
and careful research in the most trust- 
worthy sources of information, and it 
is earnestly hoped that everything 
therein stated as a fact rests on un- 
doubted testimony. 

" We cannot too often recount the 
efforts made in planting the tree, if 
thereby those who eat the fruit are in- 
cited to till the soil about the roots." 

This book can be had at book stores, 
or of Miss Ellen Strong Bartlett, Red- 
ford Park, Stamford, Conn. Price, 
$1.50. 



We are glad to see another book 
from the pen of Rev. Frank Samuel 
Child, author of " An Old New Eng- 
land Town," "The Colonial Parson of 
New England," etc. Whatever Mr. 
Child writes, we may be sure is of 
highest excellence. His latest book, 
" A Colonial Witch," is of this order. 

This book is a keen and sympathetic 
study of the social conditions which 
prevailed in Connecticut between the 
years 1640 and 1660. 

The author is a ripe scholar in colo- 
nial history, and has given special at- 
tention to the psychology of the witch- 
craft delusion. His treatment of the 
theme takes the form of a well sus- 
tained and fascinating narrative. Mr. 
Child has made large use of town and 
court records, private journals and 
public documents in the historic set- 
ting of the narrative. 

The analysis of the witch's character 
is a deft and subtle piece of literary 



workmanship, suggestive of the deep 
problems connected with this popular 
superstition. Although the theme is 
a sombre one, the author charms his 
reader by the play of quaint fancy and 
genial humor. 

The black art was a tragic reality in 
the opinion of the masses. The colony 
of Connecticut was one with the whole 
world in its ready credence. In por- 
traying a remarkable phase of life in 
this early period of American history, 
the author has endeavored to incite an 
interest that shall prove charitable in 
respect to our ancestors, at the same 
time that it shall be intelligent in its 
survey of the subject. i2mo., cloth, 
gilt top, $1.25. Sent postpaid on re- 
ceipt of the price by the Baker & Tay- 
lor Co., publishers, 5 and 7 East Six- 
teenth street, New York. 



Free to Serve, a tale of colonial New 
York, by Emma Rayner, with 
cover design by Max field Parish. 
For the background of this roman- 
tic story the author has chosen a little- 
worked but extremely interesting time 
and place — New York in the early 
eighteenth century, when the man- 
ners and customs were part Dutch and 
part English, with Indians and 
Frenchmen lurking in the shadows. 
The romance has a new scheme of plot, 
and hurries on through a series of 
vivid adventures in the lives of two 
brothers and the handmaid who is free 
to serve, but not to plight her troth 
till the end of the story. A Puritan 
maid from New England lends a 
piquant contrast to her Dutch rela- 
tives, and thus all types of colonial 
Americans are on the stage. Large 
octavo, $1.50. Copeland & Day, pub- 
lishers, 69 Cornhill, Boston. 



PUBLISHER'S NOTES. 



With this issue of The Quarter- 
ly we begin our fourth year under 
most favorable circumstances, due to 
the generous reception accorded it 
by the public. 

This we have tried to deserve, and 
it is our desire and endeavor to still 
continue to merit even a greater 
patronage than we now have. 

To this end we have planned for an 



exceptionally interesting and valuable 
series of numbers for the coming year. 
Among other things it is our intention 
to give more in the line of biograph- 
ical sketches than we have heretofore. 
No state in the Union is richer in this 
field. Of the illustrated sketches of 
towns, we have several of the most 
interesting and important in prepara- 
tion. The article on early text books 



HISTORICAL NOTES. 



107 



to be found in this number will be fol- 
lowed up with more extended sketches 
of those early educators, such as Web- 
ster, Olney, Mrs. Willard, Daboll and 
others. It is fitting- in this connection 
to speak of a man that has been iden- 
tified with the educational interests of 
our state and country for a longer pe- 
riod and more prominently than any 
other, and our next issue will contain 
an article on Dr. Henry Barnard. 
Although a great deal has been writ- 
ten about Dr. Barnard of late, we in- 
tend to give much information that 
has never been published. 



We also are planning for more short 
stories of local color, which always 
interest. With interesting and effi- 
cient departments, genealogical, his- 
torical notes, etc., we are striving, as 
we always have been, to make each 
succeeding year of more value as a 
historical, literary and picturesque 
medium of Connecticut. We always 
keep in mind the ultimate object — to 
make it so that the file of The Quar- 
terly, as it goes on from year to year, 
will be of increasing and permanent 
value. 



HISTORICAL NOTES. 



[Contributed by David Coe, Stratford Conn.] 

LETTER OF JOHN COE, SON OF ROBERT 

COE, TO MARY HAWLEY COE, 

HIS WIFE. 

Westfield, Mass., Aug. 23d, 1708. 
My Dear Wife : 

Thies come to bring my harty love 
and efections to you and to tell you of 
my earnest desiar to imbrace you in 
the arms of my love hoping they may 
find you and ouers in health. 

I have been very well ever since I 
left you for which I prays God. The 
post from Abani last weeke brings 
news that the enimy disagre and the 
french indians are turned bak, the 
scouts from dearfield have not yet dis- 
covered the army we look for a post 
from Albani to morrow after which 
we are in great hops of being drawn 
ofe or the greater part of us. 

I am just now a going to Northamp- 
ton to wait on our govener, which 
makes me in so much hast. So I re- 
main til death your loving husband, 

John Coe. 

Our soldiers here are all well. 
Address to Mary Coe 

Living I at | Stratford | 

I three | d d d 



The following, taken from the Utica 
Observer, is of interest in connection 
with our article in this number on 
" Early Text Books in Connecticut." 
a great book. 

Theie is in Utica an old man of un- 
usual intelligence, who is known to 
have graduated from no college, and 
yet whose perfect English, including 
syntax, orthography and pronuncia- 



tion, would stamp him as an educated 
man in any company. One night this 
old man was seated in the rooms of 
the Cogburn club, when he consented 
to be interviewed as follows : 

" From whom did you get the foun- 
dation of your education ? " 

"From Webster." 

" Daniel Webster ? " 

" No, but Noah Webster, through 
his spelling book. When I was 12, I 
could spell every word in that book 
correctly. I had learned all the read- 
ing lessons it contains, including that 
one about the old man who found 
rude boys in his fruit trees one day, 
and who, after trying kind words and 
grass, finally pelted them with stones, 
until the young scapegraces were glad 
to come down and beg the old man's 
pardon." 

" Webster's spelling book must have 
been wonderfully popular." 

11 Yes." And a genial smile lighted 
up the ancient face. " There were 
more copies of it sold than of any 
other work ever written in America. 
Twenty-four millions is the number 
up to 1847, an d that had increased to 
36,000,000 in i860, since which time I 
have seen no account of its sale. Yes, 
I owe my education to the spelling 
book." 



[Contributed by Edward S. Boyd, Woodbury. Conn. J 

The following is a copy of the First 
Records of the 1st Co. 13th R 

Light Infantry Connecticut Militia, 
organized at Woodbury in 1705. and 
having its first drill July 25. 1 

We whose names are underwritten 
do hereby enlist into the first Light 



io8 



HISTORICAL NOTES. 



Infantry Company 13th Reg't and en- 
gage and bind ourfelfs to conform to 
all the rules and regulations adopted 
by sd comp'y 

Nathan, Hurd jr Richard man 

Bethuel Tompkins Judson Morris 

Simeon H. Minor Nathan Galpin 

David Roots Jamaes Clark 

Samuel Asa Galpin Truman Foot 

Phineas Martin John Marshall 

Samuel Atwood Ichabod Prentiss 

Abram Crouchright Daniel Mitchel 

Daniel Stilson jr Samuel Spolding 

Matthew M. Morris Christopher Prentiss 

Iohn Judson jr William Lum 

Truman Percy Thady Crammer 

Amos Tuttlc David Hinman 

Uri Gillct Dennis Bradley 

Oliver Judson James Moody 

Bishop Cramer Gideon H. Botchford 

Solomon Root. Charles Thompson 

Rewben Mallory Truman Martin 

Garrick Bacon Noah B. Benedict 

Peter foot Samuel Martin 

Elijah Calhoon Amos Smith 

The above has recently come into 
the hands of Edward S. Boyd of 
Woodbury, as Librarian of the Wood- 
bury Library. The book was pre- 
sented to the library by Mrs. Carr, 
daughter of the last captain of the 
company, and contains the records 
from 1795 to 1 81 7. 



[From the Stafford Press.] 

Stafford's early days. 
Speaking of the old and new brings 
to light an interesting reminiscence of 
Stafford's earlier days. The place half- 
way between the Springs and the 
Hollow, on the east road, and now 
called the Wright place, was originally 
known as the Old Dr. Stanton place. 
The house must be an ancient one, for 
the doctor was a very old man in 1801, 
but he practiced for some years after 
that, for just how long we are unable 
to state. There are at the present 
time men living in town who posi- 
tively know that he was practicing in 
their father's families along about 
1800. The late Governor Hyde used 
to relate many interesting anecdotes 
of the old doctor which he obtained in 
his youth. In those days nearly every 
one rode horseback, and the doctor 
and his mare was known for miles 
around, it being stated he always owned 
the best horse in town. He was a 
very eccentric old fellow, but withal 
he must have been a very celebrated 
physician, as he was often called in 



council many miles away. The singu- 
lar fact in connection with the old 
doctor's life is that he lived to be 115 
years of age, and was in active prac- 
tice at 105. It is further stated as a 
fact that for the last fifty years of his 
life that he drank a quart of Santa 
Cruz rum every day. 

The doctor was an inveterate snuff- 
taker, and in connection with this 
habit quite a remarkable cure of his 
is related. He was called to Wood- 
stock to attend a lady suffering with 
a severe attack of quinsy ; in fact, so 
bad was the case that the local physi- 
cians had given her up and Dr. Stan- 
ton was sent for as the last hope. 
This lady stood very high in the social 
circles of that place, and much interest 
was felt by the townspeople in the re- 
sult of the doctor's visit. Dr. Stanton 
arrived and immediately went into 
the sick room. After a short examin- 
ation of the patient he took out his 
snuff-box, and after taking a pinch 
himself, offered it to the lady, which, 
of course, she indignantly refused. 
But the doctor insisted, saying that it 
was his prescription, and compelled 
her to fill her nostrils full. Of course 
she commenced to sneeze, and sneeze 
she did with a vengeance. During her 
struggles the swelling broke and all 
danger to the patient was over. Dr. 
Stanton, without waiting longer, 
started for his horse, and as he pre- 
pared to mount he remarked to the 
bystanders, "The absurdity of these 
fool-doctors sending all the way to 
Stafford for me to come and save a 
woman's life, when all she needed was 
a pinch of snuff." a. h. s. 



PRIVATE HOWE S FUNDS, AND HOW THEY 

FURNISHED A PAY DAY FOR A 

CONNECTICUT REGIMENT. 

[B'rom the Youth's Companion.] 

When the civil war broke out an 
immense meeting was held in Bridge- 
port, Conn., and many men volun- 
teered for the army. To the great 
surprise, one of the richest men in the 
state, Elias Howe, the inventor of the 
sewing machine, arose and made this 
brief speech : 

" Every man is called upon to do 
what he can for his country. I don't 
know what I can do unless it is to en- 
list and serve as a private in the 



HISTORICAL NOTES. 



109 



Union army. I want no position ; I 
am willing to learn and do what I can 
with a musket." 

But it soon proved that the chronic 
lameness from which Howe suffered 
incapacitated him from marching with 
a musket, even to the extent of stand- 
ing sentry. Determined to be of use, 
however, he volunteered to serve the 
regiment as its postmaster, messenger 
and expressman. 

Sending home for a suitable horse 
and wagon, he drove into Baltimore 
twice a day and brought to the camp 
its letters and parcels. It was said 
that he would run over half the state 
to deliver a letter to some lonely 
mother anxious for her soldier boy, or 
bring back to him a pair of boots 
which he needed during the rainy 
winter. 

For four months after the Seven- 
teenth Connecticut entered the field 
the government was so pressed for 
money that no payment to the troops 
could be made, and there was conse- 
quently great suffering among the 
families of the soldiers, and painful 
anxiety endured by the men them- 
selves. 

One day a private soldier came 
quietly into the paymaster's office in 
Washington and took his seat in the 
corner, to await his turn for an inter- 
view. Presently the officer said : 

" Well, my man, what can I do for 
you ? " 

" I have called to see about the pay- 
ment of the Seventeenth Connecticut," 
answered the soldier. 

The paymaster, somewhat irritated 
by what he supposed a needless and 
impertinent interruption, told him 
sharply "that he could do nothing 
without money, and that until the 
government furnished some it was 
useless for soldiers to come bothering 
him about pay." 

" I know that the government is in 
straits," returned the soldier. " I have 
called to find out how much money it 
will take to give my regiment two 
months pay. I am ready to furnish 
the amount." 

The amazed officer asked the name 
of his visitor, who modestly replied, 
" Elias Howe." He then wrote a draft 
for the required sum — $31,000. Two 
or three days later the regiment was 



paid. When Mr. Howe's name was 
called, he went up to the paymasters' 
desk and signed the receipt for $28.65 
of his own money. 

The officers of a neighboring regi- 
ment sent over to the Seventeenth 
Connecticut to see if they could not 
"borrow their private." 



Our attention has been called to 
the title under one of the pictures in 
the photographic department of the 
Quarterly, in No. 3, Vol. 3, stating 
that Dr. Titus Coan was one of the 
first missionaries to the Sandwich 
Islands. 

Rev. S. W. Whitney of Saybrook, 
Conn., writes us that the statement is 
misleading, as " The pioneer group of 
missionaries to the Hawaiian Islands, 
which embarked from Boston, Mass., 
in October, 1819, and arrived there in 
April, 1820, consisted of Messrs. Hiram 
Bingham, Asa Thurston, Samuel 
Whitney, Samuel Ruggles, Thomas 
Holman, M. D., Elisha Loomis and 
Daniel Chamberlain. Dr. Coan did 
not go until more than fifteen years 
after that, he and his wife being a 
part of the sixth reinforcement of mis- 
sionaries, which left Boston in Dec. 
1834, and reached the islands the fol- 
lowing spring." 



The following, in reference to a 
statement on page 436 of the Quar- 
terly for 1897 has been sent us : 

" Far from sympathizing with the 
British during the Revolution, the 
Rev. Benajah Phelps, the first minis- 
ter of Manchester, then Orford So- 
ciety, was noted for his loyalty to the 
American cause. 

"He was born in Hebron in this 
state in 173S, graduated from Ya'.e 
College in 1761, studied divinity, was 
ordained in 1765. In response to a 
request from Cornwallis, Nova Scotia. 
for a minister, he was sent to that 
place, and succeeded in gathering a 
Congregational church there and in 
the neighboring town oi Horton In 
November, 1760, he married Phehe, 
daughter of Colonel Robert and Prud- 
ence Denison of Horton, and lived in 
Cornwallis twelve years after his mar- 
riage. In 1778 he returned to New 
England, having began to sutt'e 
sympathy with the American Revolu- 



no 



HISTORICAL NOTES. 



tion, and having been put to the alter- 
native of leaving the province or tak- 
ing up arms against his country. The 
following year he obtained permission 
to return to Nova Scotia for his 
family, but was captured by a British 
man-of-war. After some time he, with 
others, was put on a boat about four- 
teen miles from land in very rough 
weather, and left to the mercy of the 
seas. He finally reached land, but 
never returned to Nova Scotia, his 
family coming to him soon after. Iii 
view of his extraordinary sufferings 
and losses, the General Assembly 
granted him one hundred and fifty 
pounds. In 1781 he was installed in 
Manchester, Conn., the first minister 
of the church there, and spent the rest 
of his life in that town, dying in 181 7. 
" I have quoted very fully from Dex- 
ter's ' Yale Biographies and Annals,' 
also from Trumbull's ' Memorial His- 
tory of Hartford County,' for it 
seemed rather a pity, in view of his 
loyalty and his perilous journey back 
from Nova Scotia, where he had as- 
suredly done his duty toward his 
country, that the reverend gentleman 
should be classed among those who 
were in sympathy with the British." 

E. P. F. 



What may have been a typographi- 
cal error has called out the following 
interesting letter from one of our sub- 
scribers : 

" In the very excellent and interest- 
ing article on ' Our Neighborhood 
Churches During the American Revo- 
lution ' in The Quarterly, Vol. 3, No. 
4, are mentioned the Cousins Eells. for 
their adhesion to the cause of the 
Colonies. In the article the name is 
spelled ' Eels,' and of that I wish to 
speak. 

" Our ancestor, Major Samuel Eells, 
of Hingham, Mass., spelled his name 
Eells. It was he who immortalized 
his name in denouncing the action of 
the Trustees of Plymouth Colony in 
selling the 160 Indians as slaves to the 
West Indies, an act only eqaal in its 
infamy and cruelty to that of Judas, 
who betrayed our Saviour for a price. 



" His son, Col. Samuel Eells, of Mil- 
ford, was for more than forty years in 
employ of Connecticut provinces in va- 
rious public offices; at one time secre- 
tary of Governor Leete. Nathaniel 
Eells, of Scituate, a son of Major 
Samuel, married his wife, Hannah 
North, an aunt of Lord North, Prime 
Minister of George III, during the 
Revolutionary War, but her children 
were all loyal to the Colonies. An- 
other Nathaniel Eells, of Stonington, 
an ancestor of Rev. Cushing Eells, 
the founder of Whitman College ; 
Samuel Eells, of North Branford, a 
captain in the Revolutionary War, 
whose father, at the time of the Lex- 
ington massacre, preached a strong 
sermon in favor of the Colonies, dis- 
missed his congregation, came out of 
his pulpit, opened a recruiting office in 
the church and raised a company 
They chose him as their captain. On 
account of ill health he declined, and 
they chose his son for their captain. 
He went through the Revolutionary 
War. Rev. Edward Eells, who mar- 
ried Martha Pitkin, 1740, and whose 
son Ozias was for 29 years pastor at 
Barkhamsted, all spelled their name 
Eells. Harvey Eells, born 1 801, on ac- 
count of a foolish quarrel among 
school children, who made fun of the 
name and said it was squirmy, fool- 
ishly dropped one 1, and called himself 
Eels. Most of his descendants moved 
to Georgia and sided with the Re- 
bellion, and fought against us in the 
Civil war. There was one notable ex- 
ception, Major W. B. Eels, of Milford, 
of the 19th Connecticut Volunteers 
and 2d Connecticut Artillery, who was 
wounded and disabled at the battle of 
Cold Harbor, made Lieutenant Col- 
onel, but his wounds not allowing him 
to return to active service, soon after 
the war he died from the effect of 
those wounds at Terryville. 

" In Stonington there is a Hannah 
Eells Society, a branch of the Daugh- 
ters of the American Revolution." 

w. E. A. 

[We hope to have, sometime in the future, 
something more complete about this inter- 
esting family. — Ed.] 



FROM THE SOCIETIES. 



SONS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION. 



The board of managers of the Con- 
necticut Sons of the American Revo- 
lution met Monday, Dec. 20, 1897, at 
New Haven. President Jonathan 
Trumbull presided. They elected the 
following members : William Edward 
Gruman of Hartford, Edwin Comstock 
Johnson, 2d, of Norwich, Henry Isaac 
Boughton of Waterbury, George W. 
Moore of South Windsor, Herman 
Daggett Clark of New Haven, and 
William Skilling Mills of Bridgeport ; 
also these last "own sons," their 
fathers having served in the American 
Revolution : Justin , Hodge of River- 
ton, and George Dorr Goodwin of 
Sharon. 

Action on the proposed fusion with 



the "Sons of the Revolution" was 
made the special order for the next 
meeting. The next dinner, Feb. 22. 
will be in New Haven. It will be in 
a new large hall, capable of seating 
not less than 400, and a great time is 
expected. Gen. E. S. Greeley was 
made chairman of the banquet com- 
mittee, as Gen. S. E. Merwin will be 
away at that time. The governors of 
what were the 13 original states will 
be invited to the banquet. 

A reception will be tendered the in- 
vited guests at 11.30 a. m., and dinner 
will be served at 12.30, in order to 
give ample time for the addresses. 
President Trumbull will preside, and 
Col. Osborn will officiate as toast- 
master. 



DAUGHTERS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION. 



Greenwoods Chapter No. 38, of the 
Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion was organized in this place, Wed- 
nesday, Dec. 22, 1897, by Mrs. Sara T. 
Kinney, the state regent. There are 
twenty-six charter members, and the 
chapter is proud and happy to reckon 
among the number a real daughter. 
Mrs. Mary Steele Cleveland, who is 
seventy-nine years old, the daughter 
of John Steele of Hartford, who 
entered the Revolutionary army Jan- 
uary 3, 1777. Mrs. Cleveland was pre- 
sented with the souvenir gold spoon of 
the order, to which every real daugh- 
ter is entitled. Officers were elected 
as follows : Regent, Mrs. C. J. Camp ; 
vice-regent, Mrs. George S. Barton ; 
registrar, Mrs. Henry Gay ; recording 
secretary, Mrs. J. H. Alvord ; corre- 
sponding secretary, Mrs. Alice D. Vail ; 
treasurer, Mrs. David Strong ; histor- 
ian, Mrs. Harvey L. Roberts ; assist- 
ant historian, Judith B. Phelps ; lib- 
rarian, Mrs. E. P. Wilcox ; board of 
management, Mrs. William G. Coe, 
Mrs. L. M. Blake, Mrs. George W. 
Phelps, Mrs. Edward Clarke, Mary B. 
Dudley ; programme committee, Mrs. 
Emily G. Steele, Mrs. Gertrude S. Mc- 



Clelland, Mrs. John Rippere, Mrs. Ed- 
ward P. Jones, Mrs. T. M. Clark, Alice 
Coe. 



D. A. R. CENTENARIAN. 

Mrs. Abigail Foote Loomis, of East 
Hampton, who, if she lives, will be 
100 years old next June, has been given 
one of the gold spoons which are pre- 
sented to all real daughters of the 
Revolution, by the National Societv, 
D. A. R , of Washington, D. C. Mrs. 
O. V. Coffin and Mrs. James H. Bunce 
came over from Middleton to make 
the presentation on behalf of the so- 
ciety. The spoon is of appropriate 
design with Mrs. Loomis' initials en- 
graved on the back of the handle, and 
on the bowl " Presented by the Na- 
tional Society, D. A. R." It was the 
intention to have a little party 0:" 
friends and relatives, but this was 
finally abandoned. Both Mrs. Loomis 
and her daughter, Mrs. Philo Bevin, 
with whom the aged lady now makes 
her home, have been made men 
of the James Woodworth Chapter. D, 
A. R., Middleton. Mrs. Loomis is still 
hale and hearty, and hopes to reach 
the centurv mark. On Thursday she 



FROM THE SOCIETIES. 



sat down with the family to Thanks- 
giving dinner. She was born in West- 
chester, her father, Nathaniel Foote, 
being a descendant from one of the 
settlers of Wethersfield of that name. 
Four children are living, Mrs. E. A. 
Bliss of Hartford, Mrs. Philo Bevin of 
East Hampton, and Israel and Milton 
Loomis of Westchester. There are 
also twelve grandchildren and nine 
great-grandchildren. 



The occasion of the presentation of 
the charter to the Hannah Woodruff 
Chapter, D. A. R., of Southington, was 
an event worthy of record. 

The chapter was organized June 25, 
1897, was admitted to the national or- 
ganization October 25th, and the char- 
ter was presented to the members 
Thursday, December 9th, 1897. The 
order of exercises on the latter occa- 
sion was as follows : 

Music — The Star Spangled Banner Chorus 
Invocation Mrs. H. T. Buckley, State Chap. 



Music — Trio 

Mrs. W. H. Cummings, Mrs. E. W. 
Twitchell, Mrs. E. B. Kilbourn 
Address of Welcome 

Mrs. F. B. Bradley, Regent 
Music — Piano Duct 

Mrs. L. K. Curtis, Mrs. R. G. Andrews 
Historical Sketch— Hannah Woodruff 

Mrs. A. M. Lewis 
Music— Solo Mrs. E. B. Kilbourn 

Presentation of Charter — 

Mrs. S. T. Kinney, State Regent 
Acceptance of Charter, Mrs. F. B. Bradley 
Violin Solo— Miss Anita Lewis 

Recitation— A Daughter of the Revolution 

Mrs. Anna D. Pollard 
Music — Trio 

Address— Mrs. S. T. Kinney 

Music— America Chorus 

The historical sketch by Mrs. A. M. 
Lewis, containing much interesting 
information, Mrs. Kinney's address, 
full of patriotic sentiments admirably 
expressed, and the shorter addresses 
by the regent and others, incident to 
the meeting, were of more than ordi- 
nary merit. 

The chapter has four "real daugh- 
ters," one of whom was present at this 
meeting. 



MAYFLOWER DESCENDANTS.— ANNUAL MEETING OF THE CONNEC- 
TICUT CHAPTER, HELD AT NEW LONDON. 



The Connecticut Chapter, Society of 
Mayflower Descendants, was very 
largely represented at the meeting 
held in the west parlor of the Crocker 
House, on Monday evening, Dec. 20, 
1897. William Waldo Hyde of Hart- 
ford, Governor of the chapter, presided 
at the business meeting, when reports 
of the secretary, treasurer and histor- 
ian were read and approved. 

The old board of officers was re- 
elected as follows ; Governor, William 
Waldo Hyde of Hartford ; secretary, 
Percy C. Eggleston of New London ; 
historian, Edward A. Hill of New 



Haven ; treasurer, Laurance W. Miner 
of New London. 

At the close of the business meeting 
George W. Stone of Boston, a member 
of the Massachusetts Chapter, read an 
original paper on " Pilgrim Days." 
Mr. Stone has presented this paper 
before the chapters of New York and 
Philadelphia, and his reading gave 
pleasure to all. It was full of interest 
to the chapter members. 

An informal banquet followed. 
There was a gratifying attendance of 
the society members. 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT. 



Of the "Genealogical History of Families" Sir Robert Atkyns writes: 
"This has its peculiar use; it stimulates and excites the brave to imitate the 
generous actions of their ancestors; and it shames the debauched and repro- 
bate, both in the eyes of others and in their own breasts, when they consider 
how they have degenerated." Page II, 2nd ed., folio, London 1768, Preface to 
the Ancient and Preserved State of Gloucestershire. 

Querists should write all names of persons and places in such a way that 
they cannot be misunderstood. Always enclose with queries a self addressed 
stamped envelope and at least ten cents for each query. Querists should write 
only on one side of the paper. Subscribers sending in queries should state 
that they are subscribers, and preference in insertion will always be given them. 
Queries are inserted in the order in which they are received. On account of 
our limited space, it is impossible that all queries be inserted as soon as 
querists desire. Always give full name and post-office address. Queries and 
notes must be sent to Wm. A. Eardeley-Thomas, 50th street and Woodland 
avenue, Philadelphia, Penn. The editor earnestly requests our readers to as- 
sist him in answering queries. His duties are onerous enough in other direc- 
tions, so that only a limited amount of time can be devoted to query researches. 



Notes. 

36 Abington, Ct., Cong' I Ch. Deaths. 

[Continued from page 482.] 
1793. — Nov. 3, widow Stowel, inthe 

86th year of her age. 
1794. — Nov. 18, Hezekiah Griggs. 

Dec. 6, Elliot, child of Dr. Jared 

Warner, aged 2 years. 

1 795. — March 27, Hannah Griggs, 17, 

and March 28, Elizabeth Griggs, 

12, daus. of Mr. Sam'l Griggs. 

Oct. 6, Marcia, child of Mr. Amasa 

Goodell. 
Oct. 17, Mr, Pelatiah Lyon. 
1796. — Jan. 17, Esther, wife of Lieut. 
Joshua Grosvenor, set. 65. 
Jan. 31, Miss Nancy Sumner, 

set. 32. 

Feb. 6, infant child of John Morse. 

March 29, Sally Griggs, 15, and 

March 31, Polly, wife Samuel 

Bowing, daughters of Mr Sam'l 

Griggs and Elizabeth, his wife. 

April 2, the youngest child of 

Samue, Bowing. 
April 10, Betsy, daughter of wid- 
ow Hannah Lyon. 
May 25, Mr. Amsdell, an old man 
who moved from Southboro, 
Mass. 



Aug. 20, Mr. John Morse. 

Aug. 22, the wife of Mr. Uriah 
Kingsley. 

Sept. 12, Jerusha, the wife of Oli- 
ver Goodell. 

Oct. 10, Walter, child of Deacon 
Joshua Grosvenor. 

Oct. 13, Joseph Crafts, aged 22. 

*797- — J a n. 9, the wife Mr. Thomas 
Dennison. 

May 17, the wife of Mr. Levi Day. 

Oct. 27, infant child of Amasa 
Goodell. 

Dec. 28, Mr. John Wheeler. 
1798. — Within the local Bounds of the 
Parish of Abington : 

Jan. 6, M. infant child of Capt. 
Peter Cunningham, aged 1 hour. 

Feb. 22, M. child of Appleton Os- 
good, aged 7 weeks ; hooping 
cough. 

April 29, F. infant child of Ste- 
phen Utley, jun'r, aged 4 days. 

June 8, Mr. Benj'n Hicks, aged 88; 
disease, dropsy. 

Aug. 9, F. child of Daniel Ingals, 
aged 3; supposed worms. 

Aug. 11, Mr. John Bennet, sup- 
posed to be nigh 100: old age. 



8 



M 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT. 



I799 _Jan. 3, Mr. Amos Grosvenor, 

aged 75; consumption. 
Jan. 6, M. Nelson, child of Wil'm 

Trowbridge, ae. 5 weeks; con- 

vultion Fits. 
Jan. 17, Mr. Sam'l Carpenter, ae. 

82; mortification. 
Feb. 6, F. A., child of Isaac Farn- 

ham, ae. 4 months; plague in the 

Bowles. 
Mar. 30, Miss Lucinda Goodell, ae. 

35; consumption. 
June 5, Widow Griggs, ae. 82; old 

age. 
June 13, Leiut. Zachariah Good- 
ell, ae. 62; palsy. 
June 14, the wife of Capt. Nathan 

Paine, ae. 39; consumption. 
Oct. 21, Leiut. Joshua Grosvenor, 

ae. 74; fever. 

1800 — Jan. 14, F. child of W'm Trow- 
bridge, ae. 6 weeks ; consump- 
tion. 

Feb. 2, F. child of D'n Joshua 
Grosvenor, ae. 5 weeks ; rattles. 

July 7, wife of Mr. Amasa Good- 
ell in the 46th year of her age; 
died in Travail. 

Aug. 29, wife of Mr. Sam'l Sum- 
ner in the 67th year of her age; 
Bilious Fever. 

Oct. 11, Mr. Benj'n Ingals, ae. 85. 

Oct. 12 wife of Mr. David Ingals, 

*• 55- 
Oct. 14, child of Silas Rickard. 

In this year died Widow Chandler, 
mother of Silas Chandler, not re- 
corded in the season of it. 

[To be continued.] 



37. Inscriptions from gravestones in 
Lieutenant Henry Bennett's Bury- 
ing Ground in Sherman, Ct., copied 
and contributed by Wilford C. Piatt, 
Esq., New Fairfield, Ct. 
[In this burying ground some of the 
stones are standing, some pulled up 
and set by the wall, and when it was 
ploughed a great many years ago it is 
thought some of the stones were 
broken up and put in the stone wall 
and some used for steps to houses, so 
that very few are left. One very large 
stone was so heavy that it could not 



be moved to read the inscription, and 
as Samuel Ackley's stone was back of 
it the date of his death could not be 
obtained. The stones of Nathan Hub- 
bell, Mabel Stewart and Alexander 
Stewart were probably the foot-stones, 
and as the head-stones were not found 
it is thought they were destroyed.] 
Aaron Osborn, died Nov. 18, 181 4, in 

his 75th year. 
Phebe Osborn, wife of Aaron, d. April 

22, 1809, in her 57th year. 
Massa Osborn, daughter of Aaron and 

Phebe, d. Jan. 23, 1803, in her 25th 

year. 
Lieut. Henry Bennet d. Sept. 19, 1784, 

in his 73d year. 
Mr. Benjamin Bennett, deacon of 

Christ Church, died Feb., 1792, in 

his 79th year. 
Mrs. Mary Bennet, wife of Deacon 

Benjamin, d. Jan. 25, 1795, aged 70 

years. 
Mrs. Rebekah Northrop, wife of Mr. 

David, d. March ^o, 1791, aged 29 

years 2 months. 
Capt. Daniel Noble, deacon of Christ 

Church in New Fairfield, d. Oct., 

1757, aged 37 years. 
Sally B. Clark, wife of Adam S., died 

May 15, 1803, in her 32d year. 
Katherine Cowdrey, wife of John, d. 

Sept. 9J 1806, in her 57th year. 
Mrs. Mary Sill, wife of Rev. Mr. Elijah, 

d. Aug. 30, 1 761, aged 27 years. 
Thomas Major Hickling, son of Mr. 

John and Caty Hickling, d. July 25, 

1773, aged 1 year 7 mos. 15 das. 
Johannah Hubbell, wife of Esq. 

Ephraim, d. May 17, 1 781, in her 64th 

year. 
Dennis Hubbell, d. July 19, 1786, aged 

43 years. 
Mr. Levi hubbell d. Dec. 12, 1773, 

aged 25 years. 

[To be continued.] 

38. Quaker Hill, N. Y. Friends Rec- 
ords (copied by Wm. A. Eardeley- 
Thomas) with original pagination: 

P. 228, List of Heads of Families on 
the Verge of our Monthly Meeting 
held on the Oblong and in the Nine 
Partners Circularly taken in the 3rd 
mo., 1760: 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT. 



PAGE 228. 


1ST — AT NEW MILFORD. 


Dobson Wheeler & wife 


James McKenney 
Lydia Norion 


Aaron Benedict " 


Joseph Ferriss 


Anne Pnillips 


Gains Talcott 




2d — AT 


OBLONG. 


John Bull and his wife 
Wing KelJey 


Nehemiah Merritt & wife 


. " " Jr. » 


Oliver Tryon " 


Elijah Doty " 


John Wing " 


Henry Chase '■ 


John Hoag ye 2nd & wife 


Abraham Chase " 


Benj'm Hoag & his wife 


Benj'm Ferriss " 


Abner Hoag & wife 


Timothy Dakin " 


Benj'm Hoag Senr & wife 


Elisha Akins children 


Philip Allen " 


Reed Ferriss & wife 


Moses Hoag " 


Zebulon Ferriss & -w ife 


George Soule " 


John H ' >ag, Sen' r " 


Wm. Russell 


John Hoag, Jr. " 


David Hoag " 


Jedidiah Wing 


Ebenezer Peaslee " 


Josiah Akin " 


PAGE 229. 


Stephen Hoag & wife 


Abraham Thomas 


James Hunt " 
Prince Howland lv 


Isaac Bull 


Patience Akin 


Isaac Haviland " 


Desire Chase 


Nath'n Birdsall 


Mary Allen, Widdow 


Nath'n Birdsall Jr. " 


Mersey Fish 


Daniel Chase " 


Margaret Akin 


Edward Wing " 


Margery Woolman 



[To be continued.] 

39. Danbury, Conn., Town Records of 
births, marriages and deaths (cop- 
ied by William A. Eardely- Thom- 
as.) The records of Danbury were 
burned by the British in the Revo- 
lution when the town was burnt. 
Only the recorded copies of the 
w r ills were saved. The following 
are from vol. i and were re-recorded 
as soon as possible after the burn- 
ing. The original pagination is 
preserved here. 

p 356, Hodges, James, son of Ezra, m. 
Sept. 14, 1803, Annis, 6th dau. of 
Eleazer Benedict. 

Benedict, Amos son of Theophilus, b. 
Nov. ii, 1778, m. Mar. 12, 1800, Sa- 
rah dau. of Jonas Benedict, b. Nov. 
23, 1780 and had 1, Nancy, June 3, 
1801. 2, Thomas Brigham, Sept, 
2 5, 1803. 

Bailey, Lemuel B., son of Samuel, m. 
Sept. 20, 1801, Abby, dau. of Abra- 
ham Gregory of Norwalk, dee'd, and 
had 1, Caroline, July 12, 1802. 2, 
Hannah Lurana, June 14, 1804. 

p 357, Ezra Hamilton, 5th son of Jo- 
seph, b. Dec. 3, 1768, m. Sept. 15, 
1793, Polly 4th dau. of Matthew 
Barnum and had 1, Daniel Ezra, 
Aug. 31, 1794. 

Levi Weed, son of Asa, m. Apr. 12, 
1803, Rachel, dau. of Benjamin Cro- 
fut all of Danbury. 



Abijah Peck, jr., 2d son of Abijah of 
Danbury, b. Sept 30, 1768, m. Oct. 
4, 1790, Clarissa, dau. of Thomas 
Stedman of Hampton, and had : 

1. Henry, b. Nov. 21, 1 791. 

2. Frederick, b. Sept. 18, 17 

3. Sophia, b. Jan 16, 1796. 

4. Edwin, b. Mar. 18, 1798. 

5. Abijah, b. Mar. 9, 1800. 

6. James Stedman, b. Apr. 19, 

1802. 
Abijah Peck, the elder, d. Feb. 5, 1804. 
[To be continued.] 

40. Marriages on records of St. John's 
Protestant Episcopal Church, Stam- 
ford and Greenwich, (copied by 
Wm. A. Eardely-Thomas.) 
Oct. 26, 1748 the missionary arrived 
at the mission. The records are 
missing for almost ten years. 
1758 — Mar. 28, Stephen Fowler and 
Hannah Fowler, both of North 
Castle. , 

Apr. 18, Samuel Seward and 
Phebe Ghorum both of Stam- 
ford. 
May 25, Abijah Seely and Lucy 

Hait both of Stamford. 
June 27, John Ketchum and Eliza- 
beth Brown both of Norwalk. 
Dec. 25, John Hoy, a soldier and 
Hannah Welch of Stamford. 
1759 — Jan. 4, Thomas Bekell, a sol- 
dier and Mary Dibble of Stam- 
ford. 
Feb. 11, Bezaleel Brown and Ra- 
chel Mead both of Stamford. 
Aug, 23, James King oi New 
Castle in one of ye Southern 
Provinces and Keziah Cor 
Greenwich. 
Dec. 13, Lemuel Raymond S 
lem and Lydia Seely oi Stam- 
ford. 

, 7 6o— Jan. Ezekiel Seely 

Catherine Welch both oi Stam- 
ford, 
(torn), John Holly and Elisabeth 

King both oi Stamford 
Apr. 6, Phut Townsend oi t 

Bay, L, 1.. and Elizabeth Hub- 
bard of Stamford. 
Aug. 10, Nathaniel Sacket and 
wid. Sarah Lock wood both 
Greenwich. 
Oct. John Loder and Han- 
nah Sherwood both oi Stam- 
ford. 



n6 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT. 



(torn) Nathan Smith of Stamford 
and Elizabeth Betts of Green- 
wich. 
1 761— July 2 3) Wm. Hunt of West- 
chester and Susanna Fowler of 
North Castle. 

Aug. i, Stephen Piatt and Jane 
Rogers both of Stamford. 

Aug. 22, Selleck Holly and Abi- 
gail Waterbury both of Stam- 
ford. 

Oct. 1 8, Henry Johnson and Amer 
Peck of Greenwich. 

Nov. 10, Nathaniel Seely and 
Elizabeth Scofield both of 
Stamford. 
jy6 2 — Jan. 7, Israel Knap and Eliza- 
beth, wid. of Dr. Hugford both 
of Greenwich. 

Feb. 2, Sands Sutton and Mary 
Fowler both of North Castle. 

Apr. Nath'l Jessup and Sa- 
rah James both of Greenwich. 
1763 — June 18, Fyler Dibblee and Pol- 
ly Jarvis both of Stamford. 

June 27, Epinetus How and 
Elizabeth Cramner both of 
Stamford. 

July 25, Wm. Dodge of New 
York and Jamima Mead of 
Greenwich. 

Jan. 1, William Thompson and 
Hannah Pangbon. 

Oct. Silas Lockwood and De- 

b -rah Lockwood both of Green- 
wich. 

[To be continued.] 

Queries. 

113. Bishop, Silvanus M., Nov. 16, 
1 761, Sarah Beecher in New Haven. 
This is the first record we have of 
him. They are both buried in Dan- 
bury, Ct. He d. Sept. 2, 1824, aged 
86. Who were his parents? A tra- 
dition not yet authenticated, says 
he came from about Middletown. 

B. B H. 

114 (a) Ailing, Asa, b. Jan. 18, 1723, 
N. Haven, son of Caleb first, settled 
at Nine Partners, Dutchess, Co., 
N. Y., where he was living in 1755, 
since which his record and that of 
his family is lost. There are or 
were Allingsin Dutchess Co., claim- 
ing descent from Roger Ailing, one 
of the original settlers of N. Haven. 
Have they not sprung from this 
Asa? 



(b) Ailing, Ruth (second wife of 
the 3d Roger m. abt. 17 13 ) and Ke- 
ziah (wife of Samuel, son of the 3d 
Roger, lived in Woodbridge, Conn., 
m. abt. 1736); who were parents of 
Ruth and Keziah ? G. P. A. 

115. Payne, Joseph of Columbia, 
Conn., now called Prospect, d. there 
in 1805. His ancestry is desired. 
Was he a descendant of William 
Payne a freeman of the New Haven 
Colony 1669? A. L. 

116. Wyman, Dr. Solomon, b. Mar. 12, 
1766, d. June 20, 1857, m. 1st, Cla- 
rissa, dau. of Enoch and Phoebe 
(Owen) Ashley. He graduated at 
Lebanon, N. H. medical school, mar- 
ried at Milton, Vt., and had son 
Ashley b. there Dec. 19, 1801. His 
wife d. soon after. He settled in 
Constable, Franklin Co., N. Y., 1805. 
He was a practicing physician, a 
leading and highly respected citi- 
zen, and d. there at the age of 91. 
Who were his parents and where 
was he born ? His mother's name 
is said to have been Elizabeth Ha- 
zen. Who were parents of Enoch 
Ashley and Phoebe Owen, where 
and when were they born ? 

F. W. A. 

1 1 7 (a) Adams, John of Plymouth, 
came in the Fortune, m. Ella New- 
ton and had James, who m. a Vas- 
sall and had 1, Richard, the Indian 

fighter, and 2, William William 

was at one time in Norwich and had 
a son James. James of Westerly 
cannot be accounted for nor James, 
son of William, disposed of. It is 
desired to prove them one and the 
same person. 

(b) Hancox, Abigail, m. 1759 in 
Stonington, Wm. Middleton. Was 
she dau. of William and Hepzibah 
(Winslow) Hancox ? 

(c) Cole, Lucy, b. Sept. 16, 1773, m. 
Mar, 11, 1792, Joseph Bennett. Who 
were parents of Lucy Cole ? Her 
father was a Revolutionary soldier. 
The Bennett's were from Lebanon, 
Ct. 

(d) Allen, Hannah, m. Apr. 17, 1738, 
James Comstock; she was 63 years 
old in 1 781; perhaps dau. of Samuel 
Allen. What was her ancestry? 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT. 



"7 



(e) Brown, Hannah, b. i69i,d. June 
6, i77i,m. 1708, Edward Cogswell, 
b. in Gloucester, lived for a time in 
Preston, Ct., and d. 1773 in New 
Milford, Conn. What was her an- 
cestry? 

(/) Wheeler, Hannah, b. May 12, 
1707, m. Jan 23, 1731, Nathaniel 
Adams. Was she dau. of David 
Wheeler of Groton. F. P. B. 

118. (a) Williams, William, b. Oct. 12, 
1 7 10, m. Tabitha Parsons, b. Mar. 
11, 1 7 13. Where were they born 
and who were their parents? Their 
son William Williams, b. June 11, 
1738, commanded a regiment at 
Bennington in the Revolution; he 

m. Zilpah or Zippqrah ; both 

d. in 1822, in Stewartstown, P. Q. 
What was the family name of Zil- 
pah? Zipporah Williams dau. of 
William and Zipporah m. Gilbert 
Parmelee of Wilmington, Vt., who 
was b. at Killingworth, Ct, Jan. 23, 
1764. Wanted date of m. and place 
of b. of Zipporah (Williams) Parme- 
lee. 

(b) Parmelee, Nathaniel, (great 
grand-father of above Gilbert) m. 
Esther supposed to be dau. of John 
Ward and grand-dau. of Andrew 
and Esther Ward. According to 
Middletown, Conn., Town Records, 
this Esther Ward m. William Corn- 
wall. Can any descendant of Na- 
thaniel and Esther Parmelee tell me 
the maiden name and parentage of 
Esther ? 

(c) Button or Bouton, Mary (or De- 
borah) m. Thomas French of 
Charlestown, Mass, (1638) who d. 
abt. 1665 at Guilford, and had Sarah 
French mother ot Nathaniel Par- 
melee. Who were the parents of 
Mary (or Deborah) Button (or Bou- 
ton) ? 

(d) Field, Zachariah of Hartford, 
moved to Hadley in 1659, m. Mary 
Stanley. Who was she ? 

(e) Parmelee, Lemuel, son of Na- 
thaniel and Esther, b. 1704, m. 
Sarah Kelsey. Her mother was 

Jane . What was the 

maiden name of Jane ? E. M. 

119. Austin, Anthony 1 came from 
Eng. in 1638 with parents and set- 



tled in Charlestown, Mass.; Na- 
thaniel 2 1678, Suffield, Conn.; Capt. 
Daniel 3 1720, Suffield; Linus^ 1773,, 
Wilmington, Vt.; Alvin^ 1806, Xenia, 
Akron and Cincinnatti, Ohio, and 
Chicago; Andrew C., 6 Detroit, St. 
Louis and Kansas City. How did 
Daniel get the title of Captain ? 

F. D. A. 

120 (a) Shepard, Jonathan of Coven- 
try, Ct , his genealogy is being com- 
piled and information is desired. 
He married 1st, Love Palmer of 
Stonington, Ct., and had: 1. Jona- 
than. 2. Oliver. 3. Nathaniel. 4. 
Amos. 5. Simeon. 6. Joshua. 7. 
Rosswell. 8. Prudence. ( m. in 
Coventry, John Ladd.) 9. Anne'm. 
Silas King of Coventry). 10. Love 
(m. in Alstead, N. H., Daniel Mar- 
ley of that place). Jonathan m; 2nd 
Polly Underwood and had one 
daughter. Jonathan, jr., m. Hannah 
Benjamin of Hartford and had 6 
sons and 1 dau. Information de- 
sired about Polly Underwood and 
her dau. Prudence (Shepard) Ladd, 
Anne (Shepard) King, Jonathan 
Shepard, jr. 

(b) Hamblin, Joel, m. Polly Chan- 
ning and had Oliver, b. Sept. 3, 
1 731 in Enfield, Ct., m. 1777 at Tol- 
land, Ct., Rachel Cleveland — moved 
to Brookfield, Vt. The descent 
from Oliver and Rachel is traced to 
the present day. I wish to learn 
more about the Hamblin familv. 

V. EC. 

121. Skinner, Richard, b. abt. 1688, 
d. 1758, came to Haddam, Ct., and 
established there the family ot that 
name. From whence did he come 
and who were his parents ? 

K. A. S. 

122. Curtis, Daniel, of West Hart- 
ford, Ct., m. Oct. 14, 1736, Rebekah 

_. His ancestry is de- 
sired. It is believed he was a son ot" 
Thomas Curtis oi Wethersfield. Would 
like to know how ho is connected 
with the Stratford Curtis familv. 

G, H T 

123; (a) Malt by, Timothy of Conn, 
m. Mabel Dimnnvk. What was 
his ancestry and who were his chil- 
dren ? 



n8 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT. 



(J?) Parmelee, Rhoda, dau. of Jere- 
miah of Wilmington, Vt.; Rhoda, 
b. 1744, d. 1784, dau. of Asahel; 
Rhoda bapt. Apr. 17, 1767. New- 
town, Conn., dau. of Stephen. 
Who did these three Rhodas marry 
and what children did they have? 

(c) Terry, George, m. Abigail, dau. 
Robert and Hepzebiah Gibbs. Who 
were parents of George and Robert ? 

(d) Slade, Henry, m. 1776 Naomi 
Chase. Who were their parents and 
what children had they ? J. W. E. 

CORRECTIONS AND ADDITIONS. 

Query 103, p. 485, October quarterly, 
should be John T Peters, not John 
S. Sarah Farnhatn m. Zelotis Lord. 
There was a Sarah Farnhatn m. 
Wyllis Lord but we want informa- 
tion about Sarah and Zelotis. 

W. L. M. 

CHASE GENEALOGY. 

[From "A Chase," Providence, R. L] 

12. Thomas Makepeace, m. 2nd, Jan 
10, 1697-8, Mary Burt by Thomas 
Leonard of Taunton. Mary Chace 
probably d. 1697. 

13. Austin (p. 309 Gen. Diet.) an 
Freetown records say that Benjamin 
Grinnell was b. Jan. 12, 1696, in- 
stead of Daniel. 

14. '-Ensign" Jacob 4 (John 3 , John 2 , 
Nicholas 1 ,) and Philip (Chase) Hath- 
away had : 

1. Jacob, m. wid. Deborah (Kent) 

Hathaway. 

2. Philip, m. Martha Simmons. 

3. Joseph, m. Alice Strange. 

4. Isaac, m. Rebecca Warren. 

5. Melatiah, m. 1st, Anna Hoskins. 

2d, wid. Sarah King. 

6. John, m. Merriba Simmons. 

7. Benjamin, m. Mary Davis. 

8. Guilford, m. Lydia Simmons. 

9. Ja (el?) m. 1st, Rebecca Simmons. 

2d, Elizabeth 

10. Hannah, m. Lot Strange. 

11. Betty, m. John Winslow. 

17. Bethiah 3 Chase m. Joseph Dunham 
of Edgartown, Mass. He was a car- 
penter. They lived in Freetown, 
Norton and Middleboro, Mass., the 
last place was where she d. May 20, 
1753, a widow. She was one of the 
original members of the Congrega- 
tional Church of Christ in Freetown. 
Joseph the husband was one of the 



original members of the Church in 
Norton, Mass. They had : 

1st, Hannah 4 , June 1, 1707. Whom 
did she marry? 

2d, Stephen 4 , May 5, 1709. What be- 
came of him? 

OTHER CHASE ADDITIONS AND 
CORRECTIONS. 

5. There is no possibility of Mary 
Hall having m. a Wm. Chase; she 
m. either Jacob 3 or was 2d wife of 
John 3 . 

9. Sarah, wid. of Joseph Chase, m. 
8 m, 3, 1737, Sw. Fr., John, son of 
John Reade of Freetown; he was 
dead before 1-25-1742. 

10. Amey, died before Feb. 24, 1 715-6 
as stated by John Borden, her 
father, in his will made at this date. 

11. Samuel Sherman was son of Phil- 
ip not of John. Philip* Sherman 
(Samuel 3 , Henry 2 , Henry 1 , m. Sarah 
Odding, and had among others : 

vi. Samson 6 m. Isabel Tripp and had 

2, Sarah 6 m. 1st, Joseph 3 Chase 
(William 2 , William 1 ); m. 2d, John, 
son of John Reade. 

viii. John 5 m. Sarah Spooner and had 

3, Abigail 6 m. Nathaniel 4 Chase 
(William 3 , William 2 , William.') 

x. Hannah 5 m. William 3 Chase (Wil- 
liam 2 , William 1 .) 

xi. , Samuel 8 m. Martha Tripp and had 
1, Sarah 6 m. Samuel 3 Chase (Wil- 
liam 2 , William 1 .) 

xiii. Philip 5 (pe) m. Benjamin 2 Chase 
(William 1 .) 

27. Thomas and Mary 4 (Chase) Wood- 
mansee, had also a dau. vi. Hannah 5 
Woodmansee, b. Nov. 15, 1730, m 
Jan. 15, 1756, Nicholas Cornell. 

24. T. R. Chase of Detroit, Mich., says 
he never heard of an Ezekiel in this 
family. I am certain I had this on 
reliable authority. Mr. Chase also 
says that No's 114 and 115 both 
married men named Peleg Sher- 
man. He says there were 3 cousins 
of that name living at this time. It 
seems to me that Dartmouth T. R. 
would have said Elizabeth Sherman 
d. 1747, if she, No. 125 had mar. a 
Sherman. I concluded that because 
Dartmouth T. R. said Elizabeth 
Chase d. 1747, that therefore she 
was not married. 



DESCENDANTS OF WILLIAM CHASE OF YARMOUTH 



BY WILLIAM A. EARDELKY-THOMAS. 



PART IV. 



185— iii. Mary, 5 May 6, 1735; m. int. June 25, 1770 (Rehoboth T. R.), Thomas Horton, and had there 

1. Thomas, 6 Aug. 9, 1773. What became of him ? 

2. Hozia, 6 Feb. I, 1775. What became of this person ? 
186 — iv. Sarah, 5 . What became of her ? 

187 — v. Ann, 5 An Anne Chase, b. , 1737, d. Sept. 13, 1807, m - 

Nov. 23, 1760, in Scituate, R. I., Robert 4 (b. 1715, d. Aug. 1792), son of I J eleg :i (Dame),* 
Roger 1 ) and Elizabeth (Carpenter) Williams, and had, I. Ephraim ; 2. Wilbour ; 3. Robtrit; 
4. Sarah. 

188 — vi. Samuel, 5 June 15, 1741. What became of him? 

32. Hannah 4 (Jacob 3 Chase, William, 2 William 1 ) Read m. Dec. 1, 1720 (Sw. T. R.) f 
Benjamin (b. 1700, d. Mar. 19, 1733), son of Joseph Read. Ch. b. Swansea: 

i. Benjamin 5 Read, May 31, 1 72 1. 

ii. David 5 Read, Jan. 20, 1 722-3. 

iii. Barnard 5 Read, Feb. 12, 1724-5. ( What became of these 

iv. Hannah 5 Read, Jan. 29, 1729-30. ( children? 

v. Samuel 5 Read, April 7, 1 727. 

vi. Stephen 5 Read, Nov. 7, 1732. 

33. John 4 Chase (John, 3 William 2 , William 1 ) d. Nov. 26, 1 75 5 ; m. July 17, 1700, 
Swansea, Sarah Hills ; she d. May — , I757. Who were her parents? On p. 455 
of Otis Barnstable it is stated that John Chase m. Mercy, dau. of Gershom and 
Bethia (Bangs) Hall. I can find no authority for the name of John Chase. Bethia 
Bangs was b. 1642 (d. 1696, aet. 54), m. abt. 1665 (as her second child Samuel was 
b. 1669 ' Gersham Hall, b. 1647 (d. 1732, aet. 85). Their dau. Mercy was b. 167 1. 
I incline to the belief that she m. Jacob 3 Chase (5), as both were of age by 1689 a "d 
his wife was named Mercy. Still she may have m. John 3 Chase (6) as his second 
wife; but she certainly did not m. (before 1727, date of father's will) John 4 C 
(33). since his wife Sarah did not die before 1757. Ch. were: 

189— i. Charity, 5 1701. What became of her ? 

190 — ii. Ebenezer, 5 1704. What became of him ? 

191 — iii. John, 5 1706; m. pub. Jan. 19, 1732-3, Thinkful Berry. 

192 — iv. Btnjamin, 5 F708. What became 9f him ? 

193 — v. Earle, 5 1711. What became of him ? 

194 — vi. Elisha, 5 Dec. 15, 17 12; m. Jan. 30, 1733, Sarah Deen. 

195 — vii. Judah, ; d. Nov. 7, 1791 ; m. 1st, April II, 1734 (Taunton T. R.) Sarah Macoin- 

ber of Taunton (who were her parents?); m., 2d, April 24, 1737, Judith Leonard of K.iyn- 

ham; then he joined the Friends in Swansea ; (who were her parents ?) ; m.. 3d, 2 m. II, 

1749, Sw. Fr., Lydia 5 Chase (116). Did he have any issue ? 
196 — viii. Rebecca, 5 — ; m. April 19. 1736 (Sw. I'. R.)i Eatkiel Chase. 

Was he Ezekiel 5 (No. 115)? It is said he had a family in Dartmouth, but ilu\ do not appear 

on the T. R. What children did he have ? 
I97— ix. Elizabeth, 5 What became o( her ? 

34. Thomas 4 Chase (John, 3 William,- William 1 ) m. abt. 1704-5. Sarah 
It is said her name was "Guell," but I have no authority for this outside of tin 
that the first child is named "GtielP' Chase on Yarmouth Town Records, while 
several printed works call the name "Gowell." 1 have been able to learn nothing 
of her ancestry. Yar. Town Records — Jonathan Whilden, Thomas "Chaise" and 
Joseph "howes" grand jury men Mar. 23, 1714-5; Thomas "hallet," Jofhua In 

(17) 



1898. 



THIRTY-FOURTH ANNUAL STATEMENT 

...OF THE.. 



1898. 






Travelers Insurance Company, 

Chartered 1863. (Stock.) Life and Accident Insurance. 
JAMES G. BATTERSON, President, 



Paid=Up Capital, 



ASSETS. 



Real Estate, ....$) 

Cash on hand and in Bank, . . ] 

Loans on bond and mortgage, real estate, £ 
Interest accrued but not due, 
Loans on collateral securities, 
Loans on this Company's Policies, . 1 

Deferred Life Premiums, 
Prems. due and unreported on Life Policies 
United States Bonds, 

State, county, and municipal bonds, 3 

Railroad stocks and bonds, . . 4. 

Bank stocks, .... 1 

Other stocks and bonds, . 1 

Total Assets, 



,994,465.31 
355,412.83 
906,610.72 
227,730 38 
945,400.94 
,106,580.51 
299,990.19 
228,448.75 
14,000.00 
,612,646.78 
664,205.75 
064,047.00 
,449,455.00 



Hartford, Conn,, January I, 1898. 

$1,000,000 

LIABILITIES. 

Reserve, 4 per cent. Life Department, $16,650,062.00 
Reserve for Re-insurance, Accident Dep't, 1,365,817.22 
Present value Installment Life Policies, 426,288.00 

Reserve for Claims resisted for Employers, 299,066.30 
Losses unadjusted, . . . 269,794.94 

Life Premiums paid in advance, . 25,330.58 

Special Reserve for unpaid taxes, rents, etc., 110,000.00 



Total Liabilities, 
Excess Security to Policy-holders, 
Surplus to Stockholders, 



$19,146,359.04 
S3, 723,635. 18 
$2,733,635.12 



LIFE DEPARTMENT. 

Life Insurance in force, . $91,882,310.00 

New Life Insurance written in 1897, 14,507,349.00 
Insurance issued under the Annuity Plan is entered 
at the commuted value thereof as required by law. 
Returned to Policy-holders in 1897, 1,335,585.39 

Returned to Policy-holders since 1864, 13,150,350.57 



$33,868,994.16 

STATISTICS TO DATE. 

ACCIDENT DEPARTMENT, 

Number Accident Claims paid in 1897, 
Whole number Accident Claims paid, 
Returned to Policy-holders in 1897, 
Returned to Policy-holders since 1864, 



Returned to Policy-holders in 1897, 
Returned to Policy-holders since 1864, 



15,611 

307,990 

$1,381,906.81 

31,210,095.96 

$2,617,492.20 
34,360,626.53 



GEORGE ELLIS, Secretary, 
JOHN E. MORRIS, Assistant Secretary. J. B. LEWIS, M. D , Surgeon and Adjuster. 

EDWARD V. PRESTON, Supt. of Agencies. SYLVESTER C. DUNHAM, Counsel. 



J TH 

\ FIRE 

C 
J OF 



The Leading \ 

Fire insurance t 

Company \ 

of america. { 




INCORPORATED 
1819. 

Charter 

Perpetual. 



CASH CAPITAL, 

CASH ASSETS, 

TOTAL LIABILITIES, 

NET SURPLUS, 

LOSSES PAID IN 79 YEARS, 



WILLIAM B. 



W. H. KING, Secretary. 

HENRY E^ilES, I Assistant Se <^ ies - 



$4,000,000.00 

12,089,089.98 

3,655,370.62 

4,433,719.36 

81,125,621.50 

CLARK, President. 

E. O. WEEKS, Vice-President. 



WESTERN BRANCH, 413 Vine St. Cincinnati, Ohio, 
NORTHWESTERN BRANCH, Omaha, Neb., 
PACIFIC BRANCH, San Francisco, Cal. - - - BOARDMAN & SPENCER, Gen'l Agents. 

INLAND MARINE DEPARTMENT : 



KEELER & GALLAGHER, Gen'l Agents. 
(WM. H. WYMAN, Gen'l Agent. 
t W. P. HARFORD, Ass't Gen'l Agent. 



CHICAGO. ILL., 
NEW YORK, 



145 La Salle Street. 
52 William Street. 



BOSTON, 
PHILADELPHIA, 



12 Central Street. 
229 Walnut Street 



1851 1 8 97 

The Phoenix Mutual Life Insurance Company, 




HOME OFFICE 

PHOZNIX MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE CO. 
HARTFORD, CONN. 



OF HARTFORD, CONN. 

Issues all the modern forms of Life and In- 
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Examine our new EXCHANGEABLE LIFE and 
Return Premium contracts, also our 5 per 
cent. 20 Year Income Bond Policy. 

Send your age to the Home Office, and u ,- 
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Jonathan B. Bunce, Pres. John M. Holco.wbe. Vice-Pres 

Charles H. Lawrence, Secretary. 

JAMES E. SMITH, 

General Special Agent, 
No. 49 Pearl St., Mart ford. Conn. 



We Have Enlarged Our Plant, 

Put in New Machinery, 



to meet the demands of our growing business, and now, 
with one of the best equipped establishments, we are 
prepared to do all kinds of Photo-Engraving in a First- 
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Connecticut Quarterly. 




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*h Where to go for Good Printing and Bookbinding, ^ 

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Have one of the best equipped plants in the state for turning out 
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Steel Plate Engraving and Printing, 

IN' UP TO DATE STYLES. 
OPERA HOUSE BLOCK, MERIDEN, CONN. 



Vol. IV. 



April, May, June, 1898. 




$1.00 a Year. 



HARTFORD, CONN 



25 cts. a Copy. 










Hew ^yGbAjvi!) 
^Summer Borne Book for w$ 

IS NOW READY FOR DISTRIBUTION. 

It contains over one hundred attractive half-tone illustrations and is with- 
out doubt the handsomest book of the kind ever issued by any railroad. It 
contains an increased list of Hotels and Boarding Houses, gives rates for 
board and all information sought after by those intending to summer in the 
country. Don't neglect getting a copy — sent free for postage, 6c. t to 

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. '4*8- '<£? '4j& '-^ %■' -^ ''4S ''^jf '<^'- '-W . '«4, '-«W '-^ '-^ "%v ^ %v ^ "//. -* ' 

■ 7^e Connecticut Quarterly ♦ 



An Illustrated Magazine 

Devoted to the Liter ature, History, and Picturesque Features 
of Connecticut 



♦ 






PUBLI8HED QUARTERLY 

By THE CONNECTICUT QUARTERLY COMPANY 

66 State Street, Courant Building. 



George C. Atwell, Editor. 




HARTFORD. CONN. 




CONTENTS. 


Vol. IV 


April, May, June, 1898. 


No. 2 



From a painting by A. C. Fenety. 



Henry Barnard, LL.D. 
Henry Barnard, Educator. Illustrated. 
The Lesson of the Rain. Poem. Illustrated. . 
The Tories of Connecticut. . • • 

The House of the Kindly Smile. Poem. 111. 
A Reminiscence of the Snowstorm of February 1, 
An illustration drawn by 
The Black Dog. Story. Illustrated. 
Arbutus. Poem. .... 

Mistress Mary's Wedding Apron. Poem. 
The Last Shot in the Arctic. Illustrated. 
The Sea was in Frolicsome Mood To-day. Poem. Ill 
Nerva. Story. Part II. (Concluded.) 
A Midnight Song. Poem. 



Frontispiece 



Frederick Calvin X or ton. 
Louise P. Mcrriit. 
James Shepard. 
Mary A. Hoadlcy. 

1898 

H. Phelps Arms. 
IV. H. C. Pynchon. 
Sarah F. Bel. 
Ellen Brainerd Peck. 
Charlotte M. llolloway. 
Arthur Cleveland J fall. 
Milo Leon Norton. 
Minnie Louise Hendrick. 



Mary K. 7 alcott '. 
Alice F Pt'nney. 
Delia P. War,!. 
Joseph II. laill. 
Alice //'. ( \>c swell. 
Pier a Foot Newell. 



List of Burials, Center Church Burying Ground, Hartford. 

Copied and annotated by 
Ellington, Illustrated. 

Tempest. Poem. .... 

Augustus H. Fenn. Illustrated. 
Art Education in the ** Rose of New England/* I 
The Bristol Historical and Scientific Society. 111. 

Pen and ink sketches by Antoinette Newell 

Departments. — Genealogical Department. 
Historical Notes. 

Descendants of William Chase ok Yarmoi m 
Editorial Notes. 
Publisher's Notes. 
From the Societies. 
Book Notices and Reviews. 



Copyright, i8 Q 8, by GEO. C. ATWELL [AU rights reset 
Entered at the Post Office at Hartford, Conn., as mail matter of the second claas. 



123 
138 
139 
151 





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Provide lor itie Future 

The FIRST payment upon shares 
in Class A or B in the Connecticut 
Building and Loan Association secures 
to a shareholder's family protection to 
as large an amount as would take 
twenty years to accumulate by saving. 

Ten dollars a month for 120 months 
in Class A, or for 108 months in Class 
B, will produce $2,000, or pay that 
amount to one's estate in the event of 
prior death. 

Assets, over $800,000.00 




Guarantee, Reserve 
Fund and Surplus, 



$102 J 00. 85 

The Connecticut 
Building and Loan 
Association... 

252 Asylum Street, Hartford, Conn, 



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Herald- 



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Hartford, Conn, 



Congregational Weekly 
of Connecticut. 



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New Subscribers (in clubs of five), 



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Editor and Proprietor. 



^%QW 




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entertainment of any kind, or PERFORMERS DESIRING 
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Connecticut Entertainment Bureau 



252 ASYLUM STREET 
HARTFORD, CONN. 



P. O. Box 588 



We furnish at short notice solo artists for concert, oratorio and opera ; readers, 
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Remittances should be by Check, Express Money Order, P. O. Money 
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NOTICE-Do not subscribe of a person unknown to you. Our lotborbtd %*u* 

have full credentials. 



The ^ETNA LIFE Insurance 
Company, Hartford, Conn., 

with Assets of over $47,000,000 and Surplus over 
liabilities (upon a conservative basis) of $7,000,000, 
has unparalleled Strength, Lowest Rates, Largest 
Dividends, and is the only Company in existence 
which has increased its Dividends to its Insured 
each year for the past twenty = five years. Its 
policy contracts are Incontestable, Non=forfeita= 
ble, and have Cash and Loan Values. 

AN UNRIVALLED RECORD. 

JOHN GEMMILL, a Merchant of Hartford, Conn., insured in the ./Etna Life, 
under Policy No. 70,088, for $5,000 on the Thirty Year Endowment Plan. The policy 
was taken out in 1870 (he was then thirty years of age) and will mature and become 
payable to the insured in the year 1900. His twenty -eight annual payments aggregate 
$4,330.20. His twenty-seven annual cash dividends amount to $1,481.23. The 
cost to date is $2,848.97. He has two more premiums to pay, amounting to $309.30. 
If the Company's present rate of dividends is maintained he will receive $333.82, or 
$24.52 more than his two required annual payments, reducing the net cost 
of the policy at its maturity to $2,824.45. He will receive in the year 1900, $5,000, 
being* $2,175.55 in excess of the net cost of the policy, $177.02 for each 
$100 paid to the company. Other as favorable examples will be given if requested. 

The JEtsa Life writes every approved form of Life, Term, Endowment and Acci- 
dent Insurance. 



MORGAN G. BULKELEY, President. 

W. S. ROBERTS, Manager for Eastern New York Agency, 

35 and 37 State Street, ALBANY, N. Y. 

C. E. SHEPARD, General Agent, Life Department. 

J. I. HUTCHINSON, General Agent, Accident Department. 

HOME OFFICE, HARTFORD, CONN. 




/ : rom a painting by A. C. Fenety, /Sqj. 



HENRY BARNARD, I.L.D. 



The Connecticut Quarterly. 

" Leave not your native land behind."— Thoreau. 

SECOND QUARTER. 

Vol. IV. April, May, June, 1898. No. 2. 



HENRY BARNARD, EDUCATOR 



BY FREDERICK CALVIN NORTON. 



" I consider a human soul without education like marble in the quarry, which shows none 
of its inherent beauties until the skill of the polisher fetches out the colors, makes the surface 
shine, and discovers every ornamental cloud, spot, and vein that runs through the body of it. 
Education after the same manner, when it works upon a mind, draws out to view even- 
latent virtue and perfection, which, without such helps are never able to make their appear- 
ance. What sculpture is to a block of marble, education is to the human soul." 

— 'Joseph A ddison . 

On the 24th of January, 1897, there was gathered in the hall of representa- 
tives at the State Capitol at Hartford one of the largest assemblages of public 
educators and friends of education ever convened in this country, and all to 
do homage to one man. It was primarily a State demonstration, yet by look- 
ing over the audience 
one might notice the 
representative of the 
United States Gov- 
ernment, William T. 
Harris of Washing- 
ton, commissioner of 
education ; the Hon. 
James L. Hughes, in- 
spector of schools in 
Toronto, Canada; 
Professor William G. 
Sumner, one of the 
most distinguished 
scholars and writers 
on political economy 
that Connecticut has 
ever produced ; the 
Hon. Charles R. 
Skinner, superinten- 
dent of public schools 
of New York ; Pres- 
ident Adams of Wis- 




consin University; 



FROM THE FIRST PORTRAIT OF OK. BARNARD— MAD1 IN 1836 



I2 4 



HENRY BARNARD, EDUCATOR. 



Thomas C. Stockwell commissioner of schools in Rhode Island ; the Rev. 
Thomas Shah an, D.D., of the Catholic University of America; and George 
H. Martin, superintendent of the schools in Boston. Thus the celebration 
assumed a national rather than a local character. 

At 10.30 a. m. the governor of the commonwealth, Hon. Lorrin A. Cooke, 
called the assemblage to order, and a chorus from the Hartford High School 
sang the following ode composed by Richard Burton for the occasion : 

"In the early days in the morning haze 
The builder builded his wall ; 
He heard the cry of the By and By, 
He harked to the future's call, 
He saw the hall 
Of learning uplift fair and high. 

And now our sage in his beautiful age 

Is pillowed in memories great; 

His work is blest, for his high behest 

Was the nurture of the State. 

Then let the children for whom he wrought 

Hail him as Hero now ; 

The sure eyed seer, the pioneer, 

With the silver sign on his brow." 







THE HOME OF DR. BARNARD, HARTFORD — FROM A DRAWING MADE IN i860. 

Governor Cooke then congratulated those present and also the State of 
Connecticut upon the remarkable and unique celebration. "This assemblage 
is to celebrate an individual birthday," said he. "The man we honor to-day 
was a pioneer and a hero. It was his hand that blazed the way for state super- 



HENRY BARNARD, EDUCATOR. 



**$ 



vision of public schools in our own and other states. The leaven introduced 
by him more than fifty years ago has continued to work until we have the 
present free school system, and still our educators, in the spirit and example 
of their great predecessor, are marching forward to other and improved condi- 
tions." After this the mayor of Hartford welcomed the visitors, and added: 
"Seldom is the opportunity given a community to honor itself by doing honor 
to one of its most distinguished sons in his day. But we have such an oppor- 
tunity, and on this day we do by fitting ceremonies demonstrate the apprecia- 



te -^fo^Z^ erf IGfruo-etLs '/i/Lc<s^c^ cw^.*t^ 

~£v c^^uf^y\yCty &7 fcfacs Attest" fL£>€/l^vif / * dsyy-i^z*s-rc<s £<-- <^/l-y 
TESTIMONIAL FROMjTHE GENERAL ASSEMBLY OK RHODE [SLAND TO I'K. BARN \RM. 

tion and esteem we have for our fellow honored townsman, the anniversary of 
whose birthday we celebrate and whose deeds fruitful for our good and that of 
all people call for our most profound veneration and gratitude.*' Following 
the mayor distinguished men testified in eloquent words to their appreciation 
of the life work of this one man, and in the evening his praises wore still fur- 
ther sung by those high in the educational circles of state and country. The 
man whose birthday this large and intelligent body of American cititens had 
gathered to celebrate was Doctor Henry Barnard o\ Hartford, whose wonder- 



126 



HENR Y BA RNA RD^ ED UCA TOR. 



ful career began sixty years before. As he sat on the platform before that 
audience the school children throughout the length and breadth of the State 
were listening to the story of noble efforts made in their behalf two genera- 
tions before by the " Nestor of American Education." 

Henry Barnard, known in this country and Europe as the greatest living 
educator, was born in the house where he now lives, at Hartford, on the 24th 
of January, 181 1. His family, which was an old one, had lived in Hartford 

from the first settlement of the colony. 
As a boy he attended the "district 
school," and he has often said that it 
took half of his long life to rid himself 
of the bad mental habits acquired there,, 
notwithstanding which he has always 





FROM A DAGUERROTYPE OF DR. BARNARD, PORTRAIT OF DR. BARNARD MADE IN 1854. 

Taken about i860. Engraved for the Conn. State Teachers' 

Association. 

remained deeply attached to this early seat of learning, not because of the qual- 
ity of education it dispensed, but because the institution represented the best 
ideal of American citizenship, where the children of the wealthy and poor 
were brought together on terms of absolute equality. 

In late years when he had become 
a great reformer, he valued the per- 
sonal knowledge which qualified him 
to speak of the defects of the district 
school. His especial college training 
was had at the Monson Academy (Mass.) 
and the Hopkins Grammar School in 
Hartford, and in these he formed the 
opinion held throughout his life that 
all subjects taught in institutions of 
their class could be easily introduced 
into a common or public high school* 
He has lived long enough to see the 
hope of his boyhood days fully realized.. 
Dr. Barnard was graduated with 
prof. r. h. quick. high honors at Yale College in 1830 in 




the class with Edward 
Hammond, Prof. Elias 
Loomis, Prof. A. D. 
Stanley, Judge Wood- 
ruff, and John C. Smith. 
During his course at 
Yale he paid particular 
attention to English 
Literature and to the 
practice of English 
Composition, for which 
the class room exercise 
and the literary socie- 
ties of the colleges then 
furnished such an invit- 
ing arena. The old Lin- 
onian Society received 
a large share of his in- 
terest and he was at 
one time president of 
the association. 

Having determined 
to prepare himself for 
the practice of law, he 
began, after leaving 
college, reading for that 
purpose. In the office 
of Hon. Willis Hall, 
afterward attorney-gen- 
eral of New York, and 
W. H. Hungerford, Esq. 
of Hartford, he con- 
tinued his studies of 
Kent, Blackstone, and 
other legal writers. 

Besides the law he 
pursued a course of 
general reading, and 
thus at the age of 
twenty - seven, he had 
gained a knowledge of 
ancient and modern lit- 
erature rarely attained 
by professed scholars. 

Upon the suggestion 
of President Day of 
Yale, as a means of re- 
viving and making per- 
manent his knowledge 



HENRY BARNARD, EDUCATOR. 



'27 



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rESTlMONlAl FROM VUV l N1VERSITY OF WIS SSIN 



128 



HENRY BARNARD, EDUCATOR. 



of the ancient classics, Mr. Barnard now took charge of the preparatory 
school at Wellesboro, Pa., which he found on about the same plane as the 
"district school" of his native state. 

Here he read and thought much upon the subject of perfecting the course 
of study, and also gained that wonderful practical knowledge of schools which 
afterward proved to be of such incalculable service to him. Returning to 
Connecticut in the winter of 1835, he was admitted as attorney and counsellor 
at law, but before entering upon his practice he decided upon a visit to Europe 
for the twofold purpose of study and travel. He carried letters of introduc- 
tion to Wordsworth, Lockhart, DeQuincey, Carlyle, and other prominent liter- 
ary characters. 

Mr. Barnard returned from Europe more than ever attached to American 





BRONZE MEDAL — AWARDED — VIENNA, 1S73. 
Two-thirds actual size. 



institutions, and in an address soon after uttered those memorable words : 
" Here at least no man can live for himself alone. Individual happiness is 
here bound up with the greatest good for the greatest number. Every man 
must at once make himself as good and as useful as he can, and help at the 
same time to make everybody about him and all that he can reach better and 
happier." 

This was the ruling sentiment of his life. This it was that induced him 
to abandon the prospects of professional eminence and a lucrative practice, 
and after a brief but noteworthy career in the legislature to devote himself to 
the work of educational reform. 

While a member of the General Assembly in 1837 he originated and se- 
cured the passage of a resolution requiring the comptroller to obtain from 
school visitors official returns respecting public schools in the several school 
societies; and in 1838, of an "Act to provide for the better supervision of the 
common schools." 

At the time of which we write (1838), doctors', lawyers' or clergymen's 
sons were not sent to district schools to prepare for college, because only the 
ordinary branches were there taught; they were obliged to attend private insti- 
tutions of a rather exclusive character. This state of affairs had been careful- 
ly noted by Dr. Barnard, who now began a systematic campaign to revive educa- 
tional matters in the state. "A Board of Commissioners for Common Schools " 



HENRY BARNARD, EDUCATOR. 



190 



was organized by this act, and Mr. Barnard was chosen the first secretary after 
the Rev. Dr. Gallaudet had declined. He devoted all the resources of his intel- 
lect to the severe duties of this office until 1842, when, by adverse political action 
the board was abolished. But during four years of arduous labor he had 
fought an uncompromising battle for school reformation. That he was the 
man destined for the work is evidenced by the words of a writer of the time 
who spoke of Henry Barnard as "possessing fine powers of oratory, wielding a 
ready and able pen, animated by a generous and indomitable spirit, willing to 
spend and be spent in the cause of benevolence and humanity." 

Horace Mann, his great coadjutor and friend, said in the Massachusetts 
Common School Journal : "It is not extravagant to say that if a better man be 



DIE INTERNATIONALE JURY 
D R HENRY BARNARD 

IN til Ml. >k I I 1 iNN'fci riCl'T VI .'.lll'lk \ 

VERDIENsf-MEDAI-LLE 







DIPLOMA AWARDED BY VIENNA EXPOSITION. [873. 

required we must wait at least until the next generation, for a better is not to 
be found in this present." These remarks of a fellow worker's were justified 
by the four very able "reports" presented by him to the legislature, and the 
four volumes of the Common School Journal. The reports have been very 
highly prized by the leading educators in this and other lands. Chano 
Kent, the great jurist, in his "Commentaries on American Law" \ i S .4 4 . s.. 
the first report: " It is a bold and startling document founded on the most 
painstaking and critical inquiry." Commentating on subsequent reports, the 
same distinguished writer refers to Mr. Barnard as "the most able, effic 
and best informed officer that could perhaps be engaged in the service." His 
publications, he said, contained "a digest of the fullest and most valuable in- 



i 3 o HENRY BARNARD, EDUCATOR. 

formation that is to be obtained on the subject of common schools both in 
Europe and the United States." 

During the four years of his incumbency the state allowed Dr. Barnard 
#3>747 ou t of its treasury, but the entire amount of this salary he expended in 
promoting the prosperity of the schools. After his retirement from the board 
he visited every portion of the country, collecting data for a book he intended 
to write, entitled "A History of Public Schools and the Means of Popular Ed- 
ucation in the United States." Boston, New York, Cincinnati, and New 
Orleans invited him to superintend their schools, and positions of a similar na- 
ture came to him from all parts of the land. His literary project was post- 
poned by an invitation from Governor Fenner of Rhode Island to accept the 
position of superintendent of education in that state. In five years he 
revolutionized the educational views of the people, vivified their existing edu- 





GOLD MEDAL — PARIS EXPOSITION, 1878. 
Four-fifths actual size. 

cational system, framed and secured the enactment of the first efficient school 
code adapted to the wants of the state, organized upon it an excellent system 
of popular education, and on retiring from office in 1849 received the unani- 
mous thanks of the state legislature and a grateful testimonial from the teach- 
ers. Through him, for the first time in the history of Rhode Island, taxation 
for the support of the schools was obtained. 

During this very busy period Mr. Barnard published many pamphlets and 
several volumes to arouse sentiment and advance the schools of Rhode Island. 
He also edited (1845-9) the Journal of the Rhode Island Institute of Instruction. 

Before accomplishing all his plans Dr. Barnard was forced to retire from 
office, owing to the precarious state of his health, yet even during this retire- 
ment he received invitations to professorships in two colleges and to the 
superintendence of schools in three states. 

But a work far more congenial in every way, and in his native state, 
awaited his restoration to health. By the year 1849 every individual measure 
destroyed by the political schemes of 1842 had been restored, not only on the 
statute books, but in the minds of the people as well. The work commenced 
by the courageous, self-sacrificing educator twelve years before, had brought 
forth an abundant harvest. Dr. Barnard was then considered one of the 
ablest living educators, and Thomas Rainey, editor of the Ohio Journal, wrote 
in 1852: "He has done more than any other ten men in New England for edu- 
cation." 



HENRY BARNARD, EDUCATOR. 



'3i 



In 1849 an act was passed to establish a State Normal School, the principal 
of which should be the superintendent of common schools. Dr. Barnard was 
the only man for the place, and he accepted on condition that an assistant be 
appointed to take charge of the Normal School. 

And now, after struggles and disappointments innumerable, Dr. Barnard 
saw Connecticut foremost among the States in the cause of education. 

From 1850 to 1854 he served in the dual capacity of principal of the Nor- 
mal School and state superintendent of the common schools, again editing the 
Connecticut School Journal during that period. As an instance of the repute in 
which he was held at this time as a great educational reformer may be noted 




DIPLOMA — PARIS EXPOSITION, I878. 



the fact that each of the corporations of Union, Harvard and Vale colic-, 
1851 bestowed upon Mr. Barnard— then only forty years oi age— the hon< 
degree of Doctor of Laws. Dr. Winmer, a famous German scholar and writer, 
called him " the veritable reformer of popular education.'' 

In 1855 he was unanimously chosen president of the American Association 
for the Advancement of Education, which had originated in 1S49 through his 
own efforts, and which he endeavored to imbue with a large national 
the central agency for school statistics and for the promulgation ol tt forma- 
tory measures in our state and city systems and institutions of learning. About 



1?2 



HENRY BARNARD, EDUCATOR. 



this time he commenced the publication at Hartford of a quarterly review, The 
American Journal of Education. This encyclopaedic work was conducted by 
Dr. Barnard until a short time ago. For a year or more he occupied himself 
with literary work connected with the Journal. In 1858 he became chancellor 
of the University of Wisconsin. It has been said that his principal reason for 
undertaking the office of chancellor was to unify educational interests through- 
out the state from the kindergarten to college halls, making them all free. 
While laboring here with his old-time zeal to establish an institution where 
young men or women might be prepared for college or a business life, he at 
the same time endeavored to raise the standard of the schools in order that 
these young men and women might be better prepared for admission to the 
colleges. 

Early in the year i860 he was attacked with nervous prostration, and after 
sending his resignation — which was reluctantly accepted eight months later — 
he remained idle for two years, being utterly incapable for work. But a Cen- 



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DIPLOMA — MELBOURNE EXPOSITION, ii 



tral Normal School and the Teachers' Institute were the direct products of his 
energetic campaign in Wisconsin for a change in the school system of that 
state. He also published four volumes, being the first of the series, "Papers 
for Teachers," and intended as a guide for teachers in the instruction of their 



HENRY BARNARD, EDUCATOR. , 33 

pupils. His work in Wisconsin alone was enough to win for any man fame of 
the most endurable character— nor is it forgotten, although a generation has 
passed since the performance of those labors. In 1866 Dr. Barnard became 
president of St. John's College, Annapolis, Md., where he remained a short 
time only, for the year following (1867), when the United States Bureau of 
Education was formed, he was chosen as first commissioner. 

He himself had for almost thirty years pointed out the need for such a 
bureau, and as James L. Hughes of Toronto wrote : " It was but fitting that the 






f M wif m t > k >t 1 ' k > y'»y r a r, K.yv tj-jpi'rn.Y 






Henry Barnard, Bureau of Education 



FOR PEDAGOGICAL LITERATURE 
)( IM.( ) MA ()!•' ( ( I ) S l )\; 



•> "y t ■ 







DIPLOMA — NEW ORLEANS EXPOSITION, [884. 



man who had done most to organize the state and city school systems of the 
United States, who had conducted the first County Teachers' Institute on lines 
similar to the present summer schools, who had championed the can- 
woman by demanding for her equal educational privileges with man as .. 
dent and as a teacher, who had established the first state system of libraries, 
who was the first to propose a national organization of teachers, and who had 
published more educational literature than any other man in the history of the 
world, should be the first Commissioner of Education appointed by the gov- 
ernment of the United States." 

He remained in Washington four years, and performed the duties of that 
high and honorable office with distinction. 

It has been said by the same writer (Mr. Hughes) that Dearly every re- 
form advocated by Dr. Barnard in his first report as Commissioner of Educa- 
tion has since been adopted by the United States. 

A separate article of great length would be needed to treat of the enor- 



*34 



HENR Y BA RNA RD, ED UCA TOR. 



mous amount of literary work Dr. Barnard executed during the sixty years of 
his active life. We can give only a very brief sketch of his publications, all of 
which were originally written to assist him in his work of educational reform. 
In 1839 he published "School Architecture," of which over 130,000 copies 
were printed by legislative authority; in 185 1, "Normal Schools;" in 1854, 
" National Education in Europe," a volume containing over 900 pages, 

which has been described as 
an encyclopaedia of educational 
systems and methods. The 
Westminster Review said it 
"contained more valuable infor- 
mation and statistics than could 
be found in any one volume in 
the English language, and it 
grouped under one view the 
varied experiences of all civ- 
ilized countries." His "Educa- 
tional Biography," a monumen- 
tal work and a veritable thesau- 
rus of pedagogical literature, 
data, reminiscence and statistics 
appeared in 1857. "Reforma- 
tory Education" was published 
in the same year ; " Object 
Teaching" in i860, and "Mili- 
tary Schools" in 1862. Later 
volumes of hisworks are "Tech- 
nical Schools and Education," 
" Universities and Colleges," 
" German Teachers and Educa- 
from photo taken 1870. tion," and "Pestalozzi." 

The crowning work of his long and busy life, however, is the American 
Journal of Education, beginning, as before stated, in 1856, and edited by him 
until 1893. This remarkable publication, which has now reached over thirty- 
one large octavo volumes of about eight hundred pages each, won for him a 
distinguished place in Europe and fame in all civilized countries. It is the 
only general authority in respect to the progress of American education dur- 
ing the past century. It includes statistical data, personal reminiscences, his- 
torical sketches, educational biographies, descriptions of institutions, plans of 
buildings, reports, speeches and legislative documents. These books contain 
facts, arguments and practical methods which no teacher or organizer can 
afford to be without. The Westminster Review said England had nothing in 
the same field worthy of comparison with it, and the Britannica says of it : 
" The Journal is by far the most valuable work in our language on the history 
of education." Besides devoting his time to the preparation of these works, 
Dr. Barnard spent more than forty thousand dollars from his private fortune 
to keep up the publication of them when other means failed. There have been 
several attempts to purchase the plates of the Journal (which are piled up in 
the cellar of his house in Hartford) and thus partially compensate this noble 




HENRY BARNARD, EDUCATOR, 



*35 



altruist for the large sacrifices he has made. Everybody admits the worth of 
this Journal, and Prof. Quick, the famous English educator, when he heard of 
the probable destruction of the plates, wrote to Dr. Harris : "I would as soon 
hear that there was talk of pulling down one of our English cathedrals and 
selling the stone for building materials." But in making this large financial 
sacrifice Dr. Barnard was only following out the spirit of his own memorable 
words uttered near the beginning of his career: " So far back as I have any 
recollection, the cause of true education, of the complete education of every 
human being without regard to the incidents of birth or fortune, seemed most 
worthy of the consecration of all my powers and, if need be, of any sacrifice of 
time, money and labor which I might be called upon to make in its behalf."' 

What else save for his love of humanity could have prompted a man to 
leave a profession in preparation for which he had devoted a large amount of 
time and money, in which he was sure to win fame and fortune, to leave 
all this and devote his time and all of a large fortune "simply to make 
accessible in book form what is recorded of the wisdom of the race as it 
relates to the instruction of children." 

Pestalozzi — Froebel — Mann — Barnard ! To these men, especially to Bar- 
nard, the United States owes its "new education." Have we as a people, as a 
state, as a nation, forgotten the debt we owe this man, whose self-sacrificing 
devotion founded our present magnificent school system ? 

No, Connecticut has not forgotten, nor has the nation; but both recognize 
the brilliant work Dr. Barnard has done for them. Probably no American, 
certainly no Connecticut man, ever received during his lifetime such universal 
and continued recognition. In forming an estimate of him, let us look at the 
opinions of his ablest coadjutors. More than a generation ago the Hon. John 
D. Philbrick said of him: "The career of Henry Barnard as a promoter of the 
cause of education has no precedent 
and is without a parallel. Mr. Barnard 
stands before the world as the national 
educator." 

"His Rhode Island work," wrote 
Horace Mann, " is the greatest legacy 
yet left to American educators." Dr. 
Noah Porter wrote his opinion of Mr. 
Barnard's work in the Connecticut 
School Journal forty-three years ago. 
These are his words published in Janu- 
ary, 1855: "But we will not forget in our 
hour of success the earnest and able 
advocate of that cause when neglected 
and unpopular. We will not forget the 
generous and indomitable spirit which 
prompted him in the outset of his public 
life to plead that cause without fee or 
reward, which induced him to abandon a 

professional career and in which steadily pursued he was sure to bring distinc- 
tion and wealth, which has enabled him to turn a deaf ear to the voice of 
ical ambition and to close his heart to the seduction of popular applause so easily 




FROM PHO 1 r \Kl N 1S86. 



136 



HENRY BARNARD, EDUCATOR. 



gained by one possessed of his power of oratory in the discussion of questions 
of temporary interest; which has led him to decline positions of the highest 
literary dignity in college and university that he might give himself up unre- 
servedly to the improvement of common schools — the long forgotten heritage 
of the many. His labors were arduous enough in themselves, being none 
other than to awake a slumbering people, to encounter prejudice, apathy and 
sluggishness, to tempt avarice to loosen its grasp, to cheer the faint-hearted 
and to sustain hope in the bosom of the desponding. The teachers of Connec- 
ticut and of the country can never forget his valuable services to them — to 
many of them individually — and to the measures and agencies which he has 
advocated and to some extent projected for the advancement of their 
profession." 

Professor Quick wrote twenty-two years ago : " Those who know the 
wealth of German paedeutical literature often lament the poverty of our own. 
Indeed the history of education and treatises upon everything connnected with 
education may now be read without having recourse to any foreign literature 
whatever. A great deal of this literature owes its origin to the energy and 
educational zeal of one man — the Hon. Henry Barnard." 

Another English writer said of him: " He gave himself to the work with 
the enthusiasm of an apostle. Probably no man in the United States has done 





BRONZE MEDAL — WORLD S FAIR, CHICAGO, 1893. 
Two-thirds actual size. 



so much to advance, direct and consolidate the movement for popular educa- 
tion. In looking back to the commencement of his lifelong labor, it would 
seem that he must contemplate with eminent satisfaction the progress of pub- 
lic sentiment and the good results already attained, as well as the brightening 
prospects for the future. He has done a work for which his country and com- 
ing generations ought to thank him and do honor to his name." 

The following is the deliberate opinion on Dr. Barnard's work by the 
Honorable William Torrey Harris, LL.D., United States Commissioner of 
Education: " It is deemed a piece of good fortune that we are able to recog- 
nize and acknowledge the services of a public benefactor while he is yet living 
in our midst. Most recognition comes too tardy for the purposes of comfort 
and consolation of the hero himself. We build high the monument and place- 



HENRY BARNARD, EDUCATOR. .37 

the portrait statue in our public square, not only to commemorate the pat: 
citizen who benefitted us by his life, but also to confess our churlish neglect of 
his service while he lived. 

" The nation rejoices with Connecticut in paying the tribute of respect to 
the great educational counsellor of the past fifty years — for Dr. Barnard has 
always been retained as a counsellor on all difficult educational questions by 
state legislatures, municipal governments and the founders of new institutions 
of learning. The nation assists you to-day in this celebration of the man who 
has expended his time and fortune to print and circulate an educational course 
of reading of 24,000 pages and twelve million of words. It assists you 'Con- 
necticut) in bearing testimony to Henry Barnard as the missionary of im- 
proved educational methods for the schools of the people, the schools which 
stand before all other philanthropic devices, because they alone never demor- 
alize by giving help — they always help the individual to help himself.*" 

Although Dr. Barnard has reached the eighty-eighth year of his life, he 
retains his old-time custom of- rising at 5 o'clock every morning, and accom- 
plishing his study and literary work before breakfast. It was the writer's 
good fortune, recently, to spend an early morning hour in his company. To 
see him in his ripe old age, with elastic step, upright form, manly and scholar- 
ly countenance; to hear the words of warm and courteous welcome with which 
he receives all who enter his home; to listen to the discourse with which he 
charms them, is truly a great pleasure and a great boon. 

Every teacher and pupil in the State should remember him and his sacri- 
fices in their behalf. 

In the words of Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes, one of the last of Dr. Bar- 
nard's early friends to leave him, we exclaim: 

"Before the true and trusted sage, 
With willing hearts we bend. 
When years have touched with hallowing age 
Our Master, Guide and Friend. 

"But when untamed by toil and strife. 
Full in our front he stands, 
The torch of light, the shield of life, 
Still lifted in his hand. 

"No temple, though its walls resound 
With bursts of ringing cheers, 
Can hold the honor that surround 
His manhood's twice told years:'' 




THE LESSON OF THE RAIN. 



BY LOUISE P. MERRITT. 



Through long days of darkness 
Fell the sad-voiced rain, 

Till the world seemed weeping 
Like a soul in pain. 



Vet we knew that slowly, 
Surely, hour by hour, 

Grew to full perfection 
Many a leaf and flower. 



Thus our days of darkness, 
Sorrow, pain, and woe, 

Are God's ways of making 
Wayward spirits grow. 



Then there came a Sunday, 
Clear with heaven's own blue, 

Fresh with bursting leaflets, 
Bright with crystal dew. 



Trees with feathery branches 
Caught the sun's bright rays, 

Softly sang the wild birds 
To their Maker's praise. 



Shy and sweet the violets 
Grew beside our way, 

And we knew that surely 
Spring had come to stay. 



Thus God grant our natures 
May attain full powers, 

By the loving chastening 
Of affliction's showers. 



THE TORIES OF CONNECTICUT. 



EY JAMES SHEPARD. 






Daring the first few years of the revolutionary war, this state was liter- 
ally full of Tories. They filled our jails to overflowing; many of them were 
confined within the court-house at Hartford, and others were confined under 
guard or within certain limits on parole in various parts of the state where 
they would be out of contrast with the British, while many others of fighting 
age and burning zeal for their King left their families, property and homes 
and took up arms against the American cause. 

In addition to our own Tories those of other states were sent here for con- 
finement. The Tories were so numerous that it would be impossible to notice 
them all in one paper and besides it would be an almost endless task to 
find in the voluminous manuscript records of the state, the various superior 
courts and towns, the names of those who were brought to answer. And even 
if one should do all this, there were many more bearing coldness or hatred to 
the American cause who by a judicious self-control kept their hands and 
tongues from committing any overt act and thus left no history. 

A Tory was an American who adhered to the King, and by sympathy or 
otherwise favored the part of Great Britain in the revolutionary war. They 
were sometimes called Loyalists, but the terms Loyalist and Tory mean pre- 
cisely the same thing, excepting as the word Tory may carry with it an ele- 
ment of contempt. Those who strenuously insist on saying Loyalist instead 
of Tory would be very likely to apply the name Rebel to our revolutionary 
Patriots. The Tories were certainly loyal to their King, they upheld the ex- 
isting state of affairs — in fact one of the principles of Tories in any country 
has always been "the maintenance of things as they were " 

In May, 1775, tne Colony of Connecticut passed an "act regulating and 
ordering the Troops that are or may be raised for the Defence of this colony," 
which act was called the articles of war. In December, 1775, an "act for 
restraining and punishing persons who are inimical to the Liberties of this 
and the rest of the United Colonies " was passed, which provided among other 
things "that if any person by writing, or speaking, or by any overt act. shall 
libel or defame any of the resolves of the Honorable Congress of the United 
Colonies, or the acts of the General Assembly of this Colony, and be thereof 
duly convicted before the Superior Court, shall be disarmed and not allowed 
to have or keep any arms, and rendered incapable to hold or serve in any office 
civil or military, and shall be further punished by fine, imprisonment or dis- 
franchisement." The same act provided also for the confiscation of real es 
At a special session in June, 1776, this act was amended to cover the cor. 
tion of both real and personal estate of all convicted Tories. Tin :' the 

King's reign headed the record of this act of '75 opposing the King, but that 
was the last time that such dating appears in the journal. 

The Governor and Council of Safety on July 18, 17:0. voted that, -Where- 



M o THE TORIES OF CONNECTICUT. 

as many persons inimical to the United States do wander from place to place 
with intent to spy out the state of the colonies," etc., and "no person be al- 
lowed to pass unless known to be friendly, or unless by proper certificate or 
otherwise they can prove themselves to be friendly to America." A more 
stringent act of the same nature was passed in May, 1777. 

In October, 1776, an act for the punishment of high treason and other 
atrocious crimes against the state was passed which provided "That if any 
person or persons belonging to or residing within this state and under the pro- 
tection of its laws, shall levy war against the state or government thereof, or 
knowingly and willingly shall aid or. assist any enemies at open war against 
this state or the United States of America by joining their armies or by enlist- 
ing or procuring or persuading others to enlist for that purpose * * * or 
shall form or be in any way concerned in forming any combination, plot, or 
conspiracy for betraying this state or the United States into the hands or 
power of any foreign enemy, or shall give or attempt to give or send any intel- 
ligence to the enemies of this state for that purpose, upon being convicted 
shall suffer death." At least six persons were convicted of high treason under 
this act, but Moses Dunbar of Waterbury is the only person who was ever ex- 
ecuted in Connecticut under the civil law. 

, It was further provided in May, 1777, "that all Tories confined within this 
state may at all times be taken for debt, provided they are returned after hav- 
ing worked out their indebtedness." In October, 1 777, it was enacted " that no 
person can be administrator on any estate till he has taken the oath of fidelity, 
and that anyone who refuses to take the oath of fidelity shall not be capable to 
purchase or hold or transfer any real estate without license from the General 
Assembly." 

It was not necessary that a man should be convicted of toryism by a jus- 
tice of the peace or a judge before he could be confined or removed and com- 
pelled to pay the cost of removal. In October, 1776, the General Assembly 
voted " That the civil authority, selectmen and committee of inspection within 
the several towns of this state shall have power to confine within certain lim- 
its or remove all such persons as they shall upon due examination judge to be 
inimical and dangerous to the United States, at the cost of such persons, and 
that His Honor the Governor and Council of Safety shall determine the place 
or places of confinement." 

In August, 1777, it was enacted "that any person convicted under the act 
relating to treason shall not be allowed liberty on bail, but shall be imprisoned 
until delivered by due course of law." 

The first record I find of any Tory in the doings of the General Assembly 
is that of Abraham Blakesly of New Haven, captain of a military company in 
the second regiment of this colony, who was complained of before the General 
Assembly in March, 1775, "for being disaffected to this government by speak- 
ing contemptuously of the measures taken by the General Assembly for main- 
taining the same." His case was referred to the next session, and in the fol- 
lowing May he was cashiered. In October, 1775, it was represented that Ben- 
jamin Stiles of Woodbury "hath publickly and contemptuously uttered and 
spoken many things against the qualification of the three delegates of the col- 
ony now belonging to the Continental Congress, &c, &c, whereof he hath 



THE TORIES OF CONNECTICUT. M i 

openly showed his inimical temper of mind and unfriendly disposition." Ife 
was cited to appear before the General Assembly at their next sessions. 

It was also reported that a major part of one company in Northbury (now 
Plymouth) was inclined to toryism, and a comrnittee was appointed to inquire 
and report. 

In November, 1775, "The Brigatine Minerva, an armed vessel in the ser- 
vice of the colony, was ordered on a cruise to the northward on an important 
enterprise for the defense and safety of the colony, when all hands on board 
except ten or twelve utterly declined and refused to go, so that the expedition 
wholly failed." All these disobedient hands were discharged and their title to 
receive their wages was suspended. 

In December, 1775, Lieut. Benjamin Kilborn of Litchfield was complained 
of as declaring "that he wished there were ten thousand regular troops now 
landed in the colony and that he would immediately join with them in order to 
subdue the Americans who were in a state of rebellion, that he was determined 
to join the Regulars and would kill some of the inhabitants of said colony! 
that the late oppressive measures of the British respecting America were con- 
stitutional and right and that the conduct of the United Colonies were uncon- 
stitutional and rebellious," etc. He was cashiered and directed to be prose- 
cuted in law for what he would call his firm adherence to the King, and yet 
the complaint against him was brought by the "Attorney of our Lord the 
King." The forms of various processes, oaths, etc., were soon afterwards 
changed to avoid all reference to the King. 

In June, 1776, Capt. Daniel Hill, Lieut. Peter Lyon and Ensign Samuel 
Hawley, all of the nth Company, in the Fourth Regiment, and Hezekiah 
Brown of the 12th Company, in the Tenth Regiment, were ordered to appear 
before the General Assembly for disobedience, etc. John R. Marshall of 
Woodbury, missionary, was cited to appear before the General Assembly for 
toryism. Capt. Isaac Quintard and Filer Dibble, both of Stamford, were sus- 
pected of assisting a British officer to the possession of certain barrels of pow- 
der stored at said Quintard's house, but Quintard claimed to be innocent and 
Dibble published a confession and recantation of toryism. He afterwards 
joined the British army. Capt. Nathaniel Shayler of Middletown refused to 
muster his company and march to assist George Washington at New York. 
He was cashiered and declared unfit to hold office. Thomas Brooks of Farm- 
ington, a lieutenant, openly professed that he could not join the army against 
Great Britain or against the King, and was therefore suspended. Jacob Per- 
kins, captain of the First Company, in the Twentieth Regiment, and Samuel 
Wheat, captain of the Second Company, in said regiment, refused to muster 
and march for the defence of this state and were ordered to be brought before 
the General Assembly, but in December, 1776, upon satisfactory information 
that they had acknowledged their fault, " have since complied and declared 
themselves sorry and are now ready to defend their country with their lives 
and fortune, this assembly ready to forgive have and do revoke the aforesaid 
order." In January, 1778, Capt. James Landon of Salisbury, for neglect of 
duty and great unfriendliness to the American cause, cited to appear before 
the Assembly and later was cashiered. Capt. Solomon Marsh was also 
iered for the same cause, while John Marsh the 3rd declared his willingness tfl 
risk his life for America and the complaint against him was dismissed. M Bpau 



1 42 THE TORIES OF CONNECTICUT. 

phras Sheldon, Esqr., Colonel of the Seventeeth Regiment of militia, was dis- 
missed for disobedience and Lieut. Ira Beebe of Waterbury was dismissed for 
leading off a number of his company from Fishkilllast October." 

In February, 1778, it was represented to the General Assembly "that Rob- 
ert Martin hath been chosen Captain of the 15th Co. 10th regiment, and Reu- 
ben Rice, junr. Lieut, and that they are unfriendly to the liberties of America 
and its independence." A committee was appointed to examine them, but 
they subsequently received their commissions. 

In May, 1778, "three alarm list Companies of Newtown made choice of 
persons for their officers that were inimical to this and other of the United 
States, and for that reason their commissions were refused and a new election 
ordered." 

Fairfield county was a Tory center. The first Episcopal church in Con- 
necticut was founded at Stratford in November, 1722. The Rev. John Beach, 
rector of the churches at Reading and Newtown, said in 1767: "It is some sat-, 
isfaction to me to observe that in this town (Newtown) of late in our elections 
the church people make the major vote, which is the first instance of this kind 
in this colony, if not in all New England." This was the only town in the 
state in which Episcopalians were in the majority during the war. In 1775, it 
was represented to the General Assembly " that the towns of Ridgefield anc| 
Newtown had come into and published certain resolutions injurious to the 
rights of this colony and of a dangerous tendency." A committee was 
appointed to examine said matter and report. In October, 1777, it was repre- 
sented to the General Assembly " that a number of inimical persons in the 
western towns in the state are forming dangerous insurrections and taking 
every method in their power to communicate intelligence to comfort, aid, and 
assist the enemies of these United States and to distress the inhabitants of said 
towns," etc. Whereupon a committee was sent to these towns to "examine all 
such persons with full power to confine them as deemed best." The town 
officers may have been Tories, or the towns may have instructed them not to 
take any action. Such votes were passed in several towns. Even in Middle- 
town several resolutions to have the town authorities take action against the 
Tories were voted down. That place was probably a Tory center, for in July, 
1776, the Council of Safety voted " that none of the prisoners residing at Hart- 
ford or Wethersfield be any longer permitted to go into the town of Middle- 
town without a special license." 

In October, 1776, Ralph Isaacs and Abiatha Camp, both of New Haven, 
were before the Assembly and adjudged to be " so dangerous to the state that 
they ought to be removed." They were sent to Eastbury, in the town of 
Glastonbury, to be retained there in care of the civil authority of the town, 
and it was further resolved, " That if said Isaacs and Camp shall receive any 
letter or letters from any person or persons, or send any, they shall offer such 
letters to some one of said civil authority or selectmen to be by them read and 
inspected." It was also provided that in case they should leave Eastbury, any 
officer can take them and put them in jail. In December following, Isaacs 
asked permission to reside in Durham under the same conditions. His petition 
was granted, but still discontented, in February, '77, he complains of his quar- 
ters, and at his own request he is ordered to Wallingford. In response to an- 
other petition the following June, the still discontented Isaacs is removed to 



THE TORIES OF CONNECTICUT. 143 

his farm in Branford. In October of the same year he is "granted liberty 
attend any of the Superior Courts in this state in which he has any action de- 
pending for tryal upon first taking the oath of fidelity. In January, 1 77.S, he 
states that he is the executor of his father's and brother's wills, that these 
estates and his own affairs suffer greatly by reason of his confinement, that he 
has taken the oath of fidelity and done much to promote the good of the 
United States, whereupon he was 4< discharged and set at liberty." 

His fellow prisoner remained for a while at Eastbury, and while there. 
Davis's History of Wallingford says that he applied to the General Assembly 
for " permission to be indulged the free exercise of his religion on Sundays at 
Middletown in attending religious worship by the Church of England, of 
which he was a professor and member," but the petition was denied. In De- 
cember, 1777, he asked to be removed either to his farm in North Branford or 
to his house in Wallingford. He was sent to Wallingford to stay within the 
limits of the Parish. He does not, however, appear to have been well received 
for the town " Voted, that Abiatha Camp, formerly of New Haven, now being 
in the town of Wallingford, shall not dwell in said town nor be an inhabitant 
of said town. Voted that the Selectmen of said town Go and Warn Said Camp 
immediately to Depart said town." He was certainly in a straight betwixt 
two. He could stay only in defiance of the town, he could leave only in defi- 
ance of the state. The state came to the rescue and discharged him in Janu- 
ary, 1778. He finally went to St. John, New Brunswick, and died there in 1S41. 
The selectmen of Stamford, when they warned Tories out of town, added the 
injunction that they were "never to return." 

On January 22, 1777, Ebenezer Hall of Fairfield was by the authorities of 
that town brought before the Governor and Council as a person dangerous and 
inimical to this and the United States that his place of confinement might be 
determined. His Honor the Governor fully instructed him in the nature of 
the dispute between Great Britain and these states and of the measures taken 
to prevent any rupture or disaffection between this and the mother country 
long before the commencement of any hostilities. The said Hall then declared 
himself fully convinced of the justice of the American cause and of her rights 
to take up arms in defence, whereupon he was released and allowed to return 
to his family on giving bail, etc. A similar petition and action was had as to 
Capt. Isaac Tomlinson of Woodbury. 

January 22, 1777, Lazarus Beach, Andrew Fairfield, Nathan Leo. Abel 
Burr of Reading and Thomas Allen of Newtown, being Tory convicts confined 
in the town of Mansfield to prevent any mischievous practice, having made 
their escape, and being taken up, were remanded back to the Governor and 
Council. They were all sent to jail in Windham "to be safely kept until they 
come out thence by due order of the General Assembly or Governor and 
Council." A Thomas Allen of New London was sent to Windham as a Tory 
in March, 1777. 

On January 28, 1777, Rev. John Sayer of Fairfield was before the Governor 
and Council as a Tory that he might be ordered to some safe place for confix 
ment. He was sent to the parish of New Britain to be under the cai Col 

Isaac Lee, and not to depart the limits of said society until further orders. In 
July of the same year the wardens of the Episcopal church and others at Fair- 
field, with consent of the selectmen and committee of inspection, petitioned for 



i 44 THE TORIES OF CONNECTICUT. 

his release and return to his people to remain within the limits of Fairfield and 
give bond with surety for good behavior, which petition was granted. He was 
probably the first Episcopal clergyman that ever resided in New Britain. In 
a letter he subsequently said: " I was banished to a place called New Britain, 
where I was entirely unknown except to one poor man, the inhabitants differ- 
ing from me both in religion and political principles; however, the family in 
which I lived showed me such marks of kindness as they could, and I was 
treated with civility by the neighbors." 

In January, 1777, Ebenezer Holby, Elliot Green, Jonathan Husted, Josiah 
Seely, Benjamin James, Isaac Hubbard, Jacob Scofield of Stamford, Nathan 
Fitch, Frank Smith, Gold Hoit, Stephen Keller and John Betts of Norwalk, 
convict Tories, were permitted to return home upon giving bond of ^1,000 
each for their good behavior, and not to give any intelligence nor do or say 
anything against the interests of the U. S. A. 

John Sanford, a person confined in Mansfield as an enemy to his country, 
was permitted to go to Reading to settle his mother's estate on giving bond 
for ;£ 1,000 to be forfeited if he did anything against the interest of this state 
or the other of the U. S. A. 

In February, 1777, Capt. Hall of Wallingford took considerable time of the 
General Assembly on business about Tories, and the 24th of that month was a 
day appointed for Tories to bring their cases before the General Assembly. 
Job Barnlock, Enoch Warren, Jos. Olmstead and Richard Patrick of Norwalk, 
residing in Coventry, Frederick Dibble and Stephen Wilson of Stamford, re- 
siding at Lebanon, were permitted to return home, having signed a full and 
ample declaration of the justice of the American cause with profession of their 
friendship to it. The next day three more Tories, viz., Gardner Olmstead of 
Norwalk, Nathaniel Munday and Samuel Crissey of Stamford came and signed 
the same declaration and were discharged. William Fitch of Stamford was also 
allowed to go home. John Wilcocks, Ira Ward and James Ward, all of Kill- 
ingsworth, and confined in Willington, repented and were released. George 
Folliot of Ridgefield, having been confined first in Fairfield jail and then in 
Hartford jail, was released on paying cost, etc. One Hubbard and Jno. Wil- 
son, of Stamford, visited houses and persons infected with small pox and then 
went about among people not so infected. They were consequently put in 
charge of the selectmen of Lebanon. 

Hanford Fairweather of Norwalk, sentenced to Windham jail for two 
years, had the privilege to work out days, but had to return to jail at night, 
asked permission to stay outside of the jail and also to go to Norwalk and re- 
move his family to Windham to reside there with him. His request was 
granted. 

Of Tory property that was confiscated, we find but little in the published 
state reports. In December, 1776, the property of John McKey of Norwalk 
was confiscated, and he was sentenced to two years' imprisonment for harbor- 
ing and secreting persons who were about to go over to the enemy. In May, 
1777, he was released and his estate restored to him. 

Sundry farms in Hebron, belonging to Barlow Trecothick and John Tom- 
linson of Great Britain and to the Rev. Samuel Peters, then in Great Britain, 
were confiscated in May, 1778, and the State Attorney for Hartford County 
was empowered to lease the said farms for the benefit of the state. 



THE TORIES OF CONNECTICUT. 



'45 



In May, 1777, Mary Hoyt, wife of Isaac Hoyt, late of Danbury, represent- 
ed to the General Assembly that she had ever been a true friend to the rights 
of her country, but that her husband, being an enemy to his country, joined 
the British during their raid on Danbury and thereby justly forfeited all his 
•estate, both real and personal, which had been seized and left her without the 
necessities of life. She requested that she might be allowed one-third part of 
said estate, which request was granted. Nicholas Brown of Hartford went 
over to the enemy in New York and left his wife Hannah and four children. 
•She was given liberty to follow him with her children to New York at her own 
pleasure and expense. Hannah Church, the wife of Asa Church of Danbury, 
was also given permission to follow her absconding husband to New York. 

In February, 1778, it was represented to the General Assembly that the 
property of Samuel Doolittle of Waterburyhad been confiscated, leaving a wife 
Eunice and three children to be supported by her father, Thomas Cole, and that 
a certain round table and other articles of the confiscated property were her wed- 
ding portion. It was therefore resolved "that the said round table and other 
articles, being 1 quart cup, 3 pewter platters, 6 plates, 1 pint cup, 3 pewter ba- 
sins, 3 porringers, 1 teapot, 1 pepper box, 5 spoons, 3 knives and forks, 6 plain 
chairs, 1 great wheel, 1 Dutch wheel, 1 feather bed, 1 bed quilt, 2 blankets, 2 
pair of sheets, 1 iron pot, 1 looking-glass, 1 beer barrel, 1 churn, 1 pair of flat- 
irons, 1 clock-reel, 1 bed tick, 1 meal sive, 1 frying pan, 1 chest with drawers, 
•6 black chairs, 1 warming pan, 1 brass kettle, a cow and a calf and ten sheep, 
which are now held in custody of Samuel Hickox, constable, be delivered to 
said Thomas Cole for the use and support of said Eunice and her children. 

In August, 1779, the town authorities of Derby applied to the General 
Assembly in behalf of the family of Azariah Prichard, who had gone to Cana- 
da and joined the enemy, and permission was granted his wife and children 
with wearing apparel and a bed and furniture to be removed to Canada. 

In May, 1778, the confiscation act was so amended that the constable was 
not compelled to take household goods away from the families, and all confis- 
cated estates were thereafter brought before the probate courts, who were in- 
structed to grant administration as in other estates, whereby a proper allow- 
ance for the wife and children could be made and also provision for the pay- 
ments of debts. 

In January, 1780, the administrators of the confiscated estate of Joseph 
Hanford of Fairfield, and of William Nichols of Waterbury, asked the General 
Assembly for certain instructions. In 1777 the town of Wallingford voted 
"That the families of all those who are convicted of Toryism and the heads of 
all the families that have absconded to Lord How, they and their families 
shall be removed to Lord How. Also voted that the selectmen of said town 
secure the estates of all those persons that are inimical to the States of 
America." 

In 1780, Pomp, a negro slave belonging to the confiscated estate of Rev. 
Jeremiah Learning, formerly of Norwalk, represented to the General Assem 
bly that he was "liable to be sold for the benefit of the state and to be contin- 
ued in slavery by act of the government, praying to be emancipated and set a: 
liberty." The petition was granted. In the case of a certain negro calling 
himself James Cromwell, who fled from his master, Major Hudson, a Tory en- 
emy at Long Island, the Governor and Council voted that " he may be and 



1 46 THE TORIES OF CONNECTICUT. 

ought to be protected until the pleasure of the General Assembly may be 
known." 

In February, 1778, "upon the memorial of Moses Northrup, Patience his 
wife, and Eunice Northrup his daughter, all of New Milford, showing to this 
Assembly that the said Patience and Eunice are confined in Litchfield goal 
upon suspicion of treason against this state, that no court proper to try them 
will sit in said county till August next and that their services are greatly 
needed at home," praying to be admitted to bail as they could not be under 
the law. This petition was granted. 

Various records show that those who were once Tories were not always 
Tories. The Loyalists of '75 and '76 were often the Patriots of '77 and '78, and 
in fact on or about 1780 the Tories were mainly banished or repressed. It is,, 
however, seldom that a Patriot has been converted to Toryism, but a few such 
cases are found, although they generally returned again to the American cause* 
Nearly all the petitions for favor that we find appear to be from good Tories 
or those who are weak in the faith. Our state reports are published only to 
May, 1780, and they contain only such resolutions as received an affirmative 
vote. Tory petitions that were denied are not placed on the records 6f the 
General Assembly and can be' found only in various manuscripts, and the trials 
of the incorrigibles who would suffer anything rather than ask a favor of their 
opponents can be found only in various court records. 

In May, 1777, Joseph Seely junr. had been sentenced to two years in jail 
and a fine of ^20. He says "that he had served the U. S. in the present war 
with faithfulness, and professing repentance for his evil conduct, promising 
reformation in the future " prays for release upon his enlisting into the conti- 
nental army. Granted, upon his so enlisting and paying or securing the cost 
of prosecution arising against him. 

Nathan Daton of New Milford took an active part on the side of his coun- 
try at the beginning of the war, yet in November '76, having his mind from 
some disastrous incidents of the war filled with gloomy apprehensions, sundry 
of his acquaintances, by the stratagem of magnifying the dangers of this coun- 
try and by the strongest assurances of the safety and peace he might enjoy under 
the protection of the regulars on Long Island, deluded and seduced him to so 
far join them as to put himself under their protection, but Col. Delancy, then 
commander, tyrannically forced him to bear arms under pain of military exe- 
cution. He finally escaped, returned to New Milford and was then sent to 
Litchfield jail. He was released and pardoned. 

Joshua Stone, confined in Hartford jail, was a hearty friend to his bleeding 
country at the beginning of the war, but by the crafty insinuations and persua- 
sive arguments of his near relatives to the contrary and the persuasion of his 
unfortunate father, he was influenced to go to the British at New York, where 
he was confined as a spy, but soon after made his escape to Stamford, where he 
was taken, bound over to the superior court of Fairfield county, then sentenced 
to three months' imprisonment and a fine of ^20, which he peacefully en- 
dured, but in working out the fine he was permitted to labor for one Elisha 
Wadsworth, who, being an enemy to the United States, persuaded him to run 
away. He was apprehended and confined in Hartford jail. " But by the pow- 
erful arguments of a worthy member of the General Assembly on the justice 
of the American cause, he is fully sensible of his error." He was discharged 



THE TORIES OF CONNECTICUT. , 47 

on paying cost, etc., and further that he "may enlist in the continental army 
for three years." 

Marchant Wooster, of Derby, represented that he was "always a friend to 
the United States and faithfully served as a soldier in '76, but was afterwards 
unhappily seduced by one Major French, a British officer, to join the enemy, 
where he was taken a prisoner of war." Professing a hearty and sincere re- 
pentance, he was discharged on taking the oath of fidelity. 

"John Elliott junr. of Middletown hath ever been friendly to the U. S.,but 
by means of a most trying scene of disgrace and disappointment he had met 
with, he rashly and unadvisedly went to New York, and, expressing deep re- 
morse and penitence, his request for a stay of prosecution was granted." From 
these and similar petitions, it appears that all able-bodied Tories who went 
into the territory in possession of the British were forcibly impressed into the 
service. 

Persons were sometimes unjustly detained as suspected Tories. Col. 
Wadsworth reported three prisoners of whom it was " highly probable that 
they had never shewn themselves inimical to or being active against the 
United Colonies," and consequently they were released. 

Benjamin Betts of Stamford was taken from his bed, carried to Long 
Island and forced into the British service. He subsequently escaped, and was 
then arrested, fined and imprisoned for Toryism. 

Twenty-six other prisoners whose cases require no special mention were 
before the General Assembly in various ways as follows: Seth Hall, Eben- 
ezer Sturgess, Timothy Beach, Gurdon Wetmore (probably of Middletown), 
David Adams junr., Squire Adams, Gideon Lockwood and Albert Lockwood^ 
all of Fairfield; Daniel Lockwood, Isaac Peck, Gilbert Lockwood, Solomon 
Wright, Isaac Anderson, James Merrill, Benjamin Wilson and Nathan Merrill, 
all released on request of the selectmen of Greenwich; David and Benjamin 
Peet, of Stratford; Jabez Sherwood, junr., Hezk. Holby, Solomon Merrit, junr., 
Silas Knap, Wm. Marshall, Joseph Gal pin and Jonathan Mead, of Greenwich, 
and Roger Veits of Simsbury. 

In October, 1777, "Eight Disciples of Robert Sandeman, viz., Daniel 
Humphreys, Titus Smith, Richard Woodhull, Thomas Goold, Joseph Pyn- 
cheon, Theophilus Chamberlain, Benjamin Smith and Wm. Richmond, all of 
New Haven, who, on account of their religion, were bound in conscience to 
yield obedience to the King, signified their desire, if they may not continue at 
New Haven, to remove to some place under the dominion of the King." The 
request was granted under certain conditions, excepting as to the daughter of 
Richard Woodhull, "who shall not be removed," as she was heiress to consid- 
erable real estate in New Haven. 

Seventeen prisoners from Farmington — Nathl. Jones, Siemon Tuttle. Joel 
Tuttle, Nathaniel Mathews, John Mathews, Riverins Carrington, Lemuel Cai 
rington,ZerubbabelJerom, jr.,Chauncey Jerom, Ezar Dormer, Nehemiah Rovce. 
Abel Royce, George Beckwith, Abel Frisbie, Levi Frisbie, Jared Peck and Abra- 
ham Waters — were released on taking the oath of fidelity and paying costs. 
The committee who examined these prisoners found that they had been much 
"under the influence of one Nichols, a designing church clergyman (the Rev. 
James Nichols of Bristol), that they had refused to go in the expedition to 
Danbury, that Nathaniel Jones and Simeon Tuttle each of them have as they 



■i 48 THE TORIES OF CONNECTICUT. 

TDelieve a son gone over to the enemy, that they were grossly ignorant of the 
true grounds of the present war, and that they were convinced since the Dan- 
bury alarm that there was no such thing as remaining neuters." Poor Mr. 
Jones thought that his son John was in the British service as captain of the 
marines, but he had been killed in his first engagement about six months be- 
fore this time. 

Dr. William Samuel Johnson of Stratford was one of the most noted men 
of Connecticut ever arrested for Toryism. In military affairs he was first ap- 
pointed a lieutenant in 1754, afterwards a captain, and in 1774 was made a 
lieutenant-colonel. He was a member of the General Assembly at various 
times from 1761 to 1775, serving in both houses. He was a representative 
from Connecticut to the Stamp Act Congress at New York in 1765. He drew 
up the petitions and remonstrances to the King, and about one year thereafter, 
when the Stamp Act was repealed, he drafted the " Address to the King " for 
the colony, "returning their most grateful tribute of humble and hearty 
thanks." He was made a Doctor of Laws by the University of Oxford, Janu- 
ary 20, 1766. In February of the same year he was appointed special agent 
•of Connecticut before the King and Lords in Council at London, where he 
remained until 17 71. He was a judge of the superior court of the colony from 
1772 to 1774. He was chosen to represent Connecticut in Congress at Phila- 
delphia, in 1774, but other duties prevented him from accepting. After the 
Battle of Lexington, in 1775, he was appointed by the unanimous voice of the 
Assembly one of the committee to enter Boston under a flag of truce with a 
letter from the Governor to General Gage, then in command of the British 
forces, pleading for a stay of hostilities. After the Declaration of Independ- 
ence he persuaded himself that he could not join in a war against England, 
and resolved to remain neutral. In the midsummer of 1779, after General 
Tryon raided Fairfield and Norwalk, it was rumored that Stratford was also to 
be destroyed. Knowing Dr. Johnson to be well acquainted with the British 
general, the frightened people insisted that Johnson should seek an interview 
with Tryon to dissuade him from burning the town. He reluctantly consent- 
ed. Major General Wolcott, in command of the Continental forces along the 
coast, sent an officer with a detachment of troops to arrest Dr. Johnson and 
send him under guard to the town of Farmington. The arrest was made, but 
Johnson persuaded the officer to accept his word of honor to proceed at once 
to Farmington and place himself in the custody of the selectmen. On arriving 
there, one of the selectmen proved to be an acquaintance of Mr. Johnson, and 
they declared that they "had no business with him," but at Johnson's request 
they accepted his parole and permitted him to go alone to Lebanon and pre- 
sent himself to the Governor and Council. Johnson solmnly declared " that he 
never hath communicated with the enemies of this state in any way, nor done 
or said anything in prejudice of the rights and liberties of this state." He had 
even "hired a soldier to serve during the war," that in the Stratford matter he 
only yielded at the "pressing importunity of the people." The board dis- 
proved of the course taken by the people of Stratford, commended the meas- 
ures taken by General Wolcott as prudent and necessary," etc., but nevertheless, 
being satisfied with Dr. Johnson's word and oath, he was released. 

But this arrest did not prevent him from receiving further positions of 
honor from our state. He was one of the three counsellors of Connecticut in 



THE TORIES OF CONNECTICUT i 4 < } 

the Susquehanna case, was a member of the Continental Congress from 1784 
to 1787, he aided in drafting the Federal Constitution, and Dr. Beardsley says 
that "the first action of the Legislature of Connecticut under the new Federal 
Constitution was the election of Dr. Johnson as a Senator in Congress." He 
held this office from 1789 to 1791, and was then president of Columbia College 
till 1800. 

The motives that may have induced many to join the enemy are set forth 
in an act of the General Assembly passed at its May session in 1779, which, 
after referring to the crime of treason when committed with deliberation as 
justly deserving the most severe and exemplary punishment, they say: " But 
whereas it is apprehended that very different motives and principles have in- 
fluenced the conduct of the deluded few who have taken part against their 
country — some through ignorance of the nature and grounds of the dispute 
between Great Britain and America, some through particular prejudice, pros- 
pects of reward and gain, others deceived by the treacherous acts of subtle 
and secret enemies, have without deliberation given way to the force of various 
temptations, which persons are now convinced of their error and lament their 
folly. This Assembly, taking the matters aforesaid into consideration and 
ever willing to exercise leniency and mercy according to the genius of this 
free and happy constitution as far as may be consistent with justice and public 
safety, do therefore in tenderness and compassion to such deluded persons 
resolve and declare, that any and all such persons who shall return into this 
state on or before the first day of October next and deliver themselves up to 
the civil authority of the town to which they belong, may and shall be suffered 
to remain and dwell in safety in such town, provided," etc. And His Honor 
the Governor was advised to issue a proclamation accordingly. 

But it appears that in the following August, the Governor, through a press 
of more important matters, had not issued said proclamation, and whereas it 
appeared that "the inimical persons described in said act both in this and the 
other states have been very active of late in favor of the detestable cause 
which they have chosen, and many of them on board and assisting the fleet 
and army who have lately committed the inhuman destruction of several im- 
portant towns in this state, and otherwise discover ^reat malignity against 
their country," etc., they advise "his Excellency the Governor not to issue said 
proclamation until otherwise advised " 

Resolutions desiring the Governor to iss^ie a proclamation of pardon had 
been passed at the May session in 1777. General Putnam had also issued such 
a proclamation. 

Seventeen persons, in addition to those hereinbefore named, escaped from 
the British and received pardon, as follows: Pardon Tillinghast Tabor, of 
New London; Elijah Elmore, of Stratford; Israel Rowland and Samuel Haw- 
ley, of Redding; David Manvill, Jesse Tuttle, Seth Warner, Bphraim Warner, 
Richard Miles and Daniel Finch, of Waterbury; John Moorehouse and Com- 
fort Benedict, of Danbury; James Benham, of Wallingf ord ; Michael Anus, oi 
New Haven; John Davis junr., of Derby; Elisha Fox ^residence not Stated) 
and Nathan Fitch, of Greenwich. 

In January, 1778, David Washburn of New Milford represented to 
Assembly that he was under the sentence of death, having been convict* 
November, 1777, of high treason, and that the particular species of treason tor 



I5 o THE TORIES OF CONNECTICUT. 

which he was condemned was going on board an armed brig belonging to the 
enemy. His sentence, with that of David Whelpley, Solomon Ferris and Wm- 
Peck, all of whom were to be executed on the 10th of November, 17 79, for high 
treason, was suspended until the first Wednesday of March, 1780; but before 
that time it was arranged to have these persons exchanged as prisoners of war. 
Probably they were not executed through fear that the British would retaliate. 

In January, 1779, Nehemiah Scribner of Norwalk, being under sentence of 
death for high treason, had his sentence changed to confinement and labor at 
Newgate prison ''during the pleasure of the General Assembly." Other per- 
sons whose names are not published in the state reports were held for high 
treason, as a resolution was passed in January, 1779, that all persons so held in 
the New Haven, Fairfield and Litchfield jails be transferred to the jail at 
Hartford. 

Moses Dunbar was hung for high treason at Execution Hill, Hartford, near 
the present site of Trinity College, on March 19, 1777. His treason consisted 
mainly of enlisting men for the British army and having a captain's commis- 
sion for that purpose. A full account of the affair, including his farewell let- 
ter to his children and his dying speech, may be found in the new History of 
Waterbury. His widow retired to the British army for a time, but afterwards 
returned to Bristol. 

Referring now to non-resident prisoners, Dr. Benjamin Church of Boston, 
a member of the 1774 Congress, was confined at Norwich from November, 
i775, t0 May, 1776, with the privilege of going into the jail-yard once a week. 
He was a supposed Patriot, but was sentenced for treasonable correspondence 
with the enemy, a letter written in cipher having been found on his person. 
Many Tories were sent here by order of the New York convention. In May, 
1776, a newspaper says that "forty -nine dirty Tory prisoners, taken at John- 
ston, N. Y., were brought under guard from Albany to Hartford, and others 
were on the way." 

Gov. William Franklin, a natural son of Benjamin Franklin, arrived here 
in July, 1776, and was confined for a time at Wallingford and afterwards at 
Middletown. He was the last royal governor of New Jersey, and was sent 
here by the New Jersey convention as a person "that may prove dangerous." 
In August, 1776, nineteen Tories from Albany arrived here and were sent to 
New London, and a little later were removed to the town of Preston. Mr. 
Mather, the mayor of New York, was confined at Litchfield. John Munroe and 
Henry Van Schaack, Tory prisoners from Albany, were sent to East Haddam; 
Munroe had served in the British army and Van Schaak had talked too much. 
He was released in January, 1777. Judge Jones, who afterwards wrote the 
History of New York in the Revolutionary War, was at one time a prisoner in 
Connecticut. In the latter part of 1776 it was found that these non-resident 
Tories were a great burden, owing to the scarcity of food. In fact, our own 
people were really suffering, and by the force of circumstances were compelled 
to send these non-resident prisoners home with the request that they deliver 
themselves up to the authorities who sent them here. This was done without 
the knowledge or consent of those who had placed these prisoners here for 
safe keeping. 

Nearly all the names thus referred to in this paper are found in the pub- 
lished colonial and state records, but they include only a small per cent of the 



THE HOUSE OF THE KINDLY SMILE. i 5 , 

Connecticut Tories. The new history of Waterbury republishes from Bron- 
son's history the names of sixty-eight persons who left Waterbury to join the 
enemy. I find only seven of these names in the colonial and state reports. 
The History of Stamford names sixty Tories of that town, only five of whom I 
find in the state reports. No mention has been made of court martials nor of 
deserters who did not go over to the enemy. 

[To be concluded.] 




THE HOUSE OF THE KINDLY SMILE. 



BY MARY A. HOADLEY. 



It stands by the road of every day 
This House of the Kindly Smile, 

About its porch the roses sway 
And butterflies flit the while. 

The heart bowed down by weight of woe 

Looks up when passing by, 
And its burden melts like April's snow 

When it meets the friendly eye. 



For she who dwells in this wayside house 
Well knows the way is rough. 

She gives the traveler heart again ; 
She smiles — and it is enough. 




THE BLACK DOG. 



BY W. H. C. PYNCHON. 



" And if a man shall meet the Black Dog once it shall be for joy ; and if 
twice, it shall be for sorrow; and the third time he shall die." 

TpN a corner of our country not far removed from two of its great cities. 
(|L there is a low range of mountains, the hoary evidences of ancient vol- 
canic action. Countless years have elapsed since the great tide of molten 
lava rolled over the region. Years fewer, but still countless, have passed 
during which the shattered and tilted remnants of the lava sheets have watched 
over the land. Deep gorges divide the masses into separate mountains, lonely 
and desolate, and the most desolate and the most conspicuous of all is the 
West Peak. 

The West Peak stands at an angle of the range. Though it is not very 
high by measurement, yet, by its wild and savage aspect, it makes a stronger 
impression on the traveler than many mountains of much greater altitude. On 
the northeast it presents a long, heavily wooded slope agreeing with the in- 
cline of the ancient lava sheet, but its southern and western faces and its east- 
ern flank are topped with perpendicular cliffs, their feet buried in a vast mass 
of broken rock, the wreck of ages, which the frost has rent from the face of 
the mountain. When summer is on the land, the gray cliffs rising from the 
forest which covers the base of the mountain give an impression of hoary an- 
tiquity that is almost oppressive. But when the winter winds roar tlr 
the stunted cedars and whirl the snows from the summit, when the I 
stand out black through the drifts that pile up under the lee of the cliffs, then 
the West Peak has a look of menace hard to describe. So it is not stv 
that weird tales have sprung up concerning this mountain, tales that arc 

3 



!54 



THE BLACK DOG. 



about the firesides in the few houses that stand on the lonely roads that trav- 
erse the region. There is one tale that is especially to be mentioned— the 
story of a black dog that is seen at times upon the Peak. Many have seen him 
once, a few twice— none have ever told of the third meeting. It is a short 
haired black dog of moderate size, with nothing particularly noticeable in its 
actual appearance. Yet there are two signs by which it is ever known:— men 
have seen it bark, but have heard no sound; and it leaves no footprint behind 
it on the dust of summer or the snow of winter. Yes, there is a third sign. It 
is told in different words by different people, but the meaning is always the 
same, and the words with which I have begun this narration are my own ren- 




THE MOST DESOLATE OF ALL IS THE WEST PEAK. 



dering of the common tradition. It may seem strange that a man of science 
should believe a thing of this kind — an idle tale for the ignorant and supersti- 
tious, you will say, — but I do believe it. And if you would know why, 
listen : 

It was late in the spring of 18 — that I visited West Peak for the first time. 
I was then a student at Harvard, and the work in geology that I had taken up 
made it desirable for me to visit the locality. At that time I had heard noth- 
ing of the legend. In the town of Meriden, which lies a few miles distant 
from the mountain, I hired a horse and wagon suitable for the trip and started 
out for the Peak in the best of spirits. From Meriden the road runs for about 
two miles in a generally northwest direction and then turns north into a deep 
valley lying between West Peak on the west and Notch Mountain, as it is called, 
on the east. At the farther end of this valley there is a seldom used road 
which turns toward the southwest again and winds up the easy slope at the 
back of the Peak. Guiding myself by the maps which I had brought with me, 



THE BLACK DOG. 



55 



I reached this road and there got out of the wagon to examine the vescicular 
lava of which there was a good outcrop at that point. I had been on my knees 
pounding away for dear life in my endeavor to get off a good cabinet specimen 
and had just gotten up to straighten my back, when I noticed trotting up the 
road a dog. I suppose he might have been called black, but it was the same 
degree of blackness that you see in an old black hat that has been soaked in 
the rain a good many times. His lineage was evidently uncertain. I think 
that, like the young man mentioned by Tennyson, he was " too proud to care 
from whence he came." But he seemed friendly, and when I drove on he in- 
sisted on following the wagon. So I let him go with me for the sake of his 
good company. Certainly that dog was a philosopher. In all that long day's 
journey — for after we left the Peak we went many miles beyond to visit other 
fragments of the lava-sheet — he followed the wagon. But this did not inter- 



Ic^ 






\ ;. - • 


f*sk 


/- - ■-.■■■• 






, 









ITS WESTERN FACE TOPPED WITH PERPENDICULAR CLIFFS. 



fere with his pursuing "original investigation." There was not a brook on the 
route which that dog did not wade. He scoured every patch of woods, he 
poked his inquisitive nose into every hole and behind every stump. We made 
a jolly trio — the rough, strong old horse, the faded dog, and the man whose 
appearance was not one whit better than that of his companions. At the little 
village of Southington we stopped for dinner and then pushed on until, under 
the shadow of yet more western hills, I found the last point to be reached in 
the day's march. Then we turned back and started for home, the dog running 
on ahead. I took a great liking to that dog. In the first place he was so quiet. 



i 5 6 



THE BLACK DOG. 



Not once in all that day did I hear him bark, even when a calf beside the road 
tried to coax him into a fight. And he was so light of foot ! Though the 
roads were very dry, yet I did not see a puff of dust rise from his feet as he 
trotted along ahead of the horse. On the return journey we traversed the 
same route that we had come in the morning instead of taking the direct road 
to Meriden, which passes south of West Peak. As we came toward the Peak, 
the last light of the setting sun was just touching the highest rocks, and by 
the time we had entered the valley of which I have spoken night had almost 
closed in. The dog still trotted on ahead until we came to the place where I 
had met him in the morning. Then he stopped, looked back at me a moment, 
and quietly vanished into the woods. I stopped and whistled and whistled 
again, but no dog appeared. So I drove on without much regret, as it is rather 
hard to tell what to do with a tramp dog even when he is a philosopher — par- 
ticularly when he is a very homely dog. There is a chance that your friends 
will not appreciate his philosophical attainments as highly as you do. 

The old horse knew that he was bound for home and he took the road at a 
very good gait. Soon the sharp summits of West Peak and Notch Mountain 
showed against the sky well behind us, and half an hour more brought us to 




WHEN THE ROCKS STAND OUT BLACK THROUGH THE DRI1 



Meriden again. After supper I sat before the open fire at the Winthrop— for 
the evenings were still cool enough to make a fire almost a necessity— and 
thought over the whole day's trip. I am supposed to be a civilized individual, 
but there is a great deal of the tramp in me for all that, and for that reason I 
had enjoyed the day all the more. The change from close laboratories to the 



THE BLACK DOG. 



'57 



fresh air of the hills was alone 
enough to pay for all the trouble I 
had taken. That, no one could fail 
to en j oy. But the long drive through 
the beautiful mountain region, fresh 
with the beauty of spring, appealed 
particularly to the tramp in me. 
Many a time since then, when I have 
been weary and discouraged, I have 
gone back in memory to that long 
day's drive through the sunny valleys 
and over the breezy hills, and have 
felt the old gray horse rub his nose 
against my arm, and have seen the 
tramp dog look up into my face with 
his knowing brown eyes. It is curi- 
ous how often it is that the little 
things leave the greatest memories 
behind them. 

And this is how I met the Black 
Dog the first time — for joy. 
* # * 

I don't know just how we came 
to do it. I think it must have been 
that that spring visit to the West 
Peak gave me a desire to see how it 




THE WEST PEAK HAS A LOOK OF Ml VV I 
HARD TO DESCRIBE." 




WHEN THE WINTER WINDS WERE HOWLING OVER THK HT11S. 



THE BLACK DOG. 



would look when its flanks were wreathed in snow and when the winter winds 
were howling over the hills. At any rate, the evening of February 5th, in the 
third year after my first visit, found me and my friend, Herbert Marshall, sit- 
ting again before the fire at the hotel where I had stopped before. It was 
then that I heard for the first time the story of the Black Dog. Marshall 

had been all over the re- 
gion thoroughly in his 
work for the United States 
Geological Survey and he 
had climbed West Peak 
many times and at all sea- 
sons of the year. 

We talked till late that 
night, and, as the fire died 
down to a mass of glow- 
ing embers, he told me 
how he himself had twice 
seen a black dog upon the 
mountain, but he laughed 
at the legend, saying that 
he did not believe in 
omens unless they were 
lucky ones. So we turned 
in and forgot all about 
omens, good or bad, until 
long after sunrise the next 
morning. 

The morning was clear 
and bright but very cold, 
and the light on the snow 
was dazzling. We started 
for West Peak at about 
nine o'clock. We both 
wore hip boots and had on leather jackets under our overcoats. We carried 
with us, beside our lunch and a coil of rope, a hand camera — for I had deter- 
mined to get some views from the top if possible. We found it heavy walking, 
for the snow was light and fine and fully a foot deep. 

We did not reach the Peak until about eleven o'clock, and then we found 
the woods on the back so choked with snow that it was impossible to make any 
considerable progress through them, so we determined to try to make the 
ascent on the southern face. This portion of the mountain is much steeper, 
but it is free from forest, and the mass of broken fragments of rock which runs 
up to the foot of the cliffs affords a fairly good foothold. The cliffs themselves 
are pierced by many clefts broad enough in many cases to admit a man, while 
in some instances the clefts have been broadened by erosion into actual 
gorges. 

The sharp, bracing air put life into us and we went at the ascent with en- 
thusiasm. It was hard work, for many of the fragments were insecure, and 
snow is always uncertain stuff under the best conditions, but in the course of 




"A DEEP VALLEY LYING BEEWEEN WEST PEAK 
AND NOTCH MOUNTAIN." 



THE BLACK DOG. 



'59 



an hour we were at the top of the "talus" and under the foot of the cliffs. 
Here we found one of the narrow ravines of which I have spoken, which gave 
a chance for further ascent, and then the fun began. But at last, by scram- 
bling, crawling and wriggling, we got to the top and pulled the camera up 
after us with a rope, much to the detriment of the former. Our lunch we left 
at the foot of the ravine until we should come down. Arriving on the top of 
the cliff, we found that the wind had risen and was blowing fiercely from the 
northwest, whirling the snow in great clouds over the plain below us. Never- 
theless, we determined to try for a few photographs, and here was where we 
made our fatal error. We had become very warm in climbing the Peak, but 
during that few minutes' halt on the summit the bitter wind chilled us to the 
bone. Our gloves, which we had laid aside while taking pictures because they 
were soaked with melted snow, froze, and it was with aching hands and feet 
and with stiffened 
limbs that we began 
our descent into that 
little gorge through 
which we had come 
up, the gorge of 
which I never think, 
since that fearful day, 
save as the Valley of 
the Shadow of Death. 
So long as we 
were in the sunlight 
we went on with some 
courage, but when we 
passed into the shad- 
ow of those black 
cliffs, courage seemed 
to die in our hearts 
and we struggled on 
blindly through the 
drifted snow, hoping, 
it seemed sometimes, 
almost against hope. 
Marshall was in the 
lead, and I was fol- 
lowing as best I 
could, when he sud- 
denly stopped and 
without a word point- 
ed to the top of the 
cliff. There, high on 
the rocks above us, 
stood a black dog 

like the one I had seen three years before, except that ho looked jot 
against the snow wreath above him. As wo Looked ho raised his 
and we saw his breath rise steaming from his jaws, but no soi 







^y& 



THE CLI1 



EMSELVES ARE PIERCED BY DEEP 



i6o 



THE BLACK DOG. 



the biting air. Once, and only once, he gazed down on us with gleaming eyes 
and then he bounded back out of sight. I looked at Marshall. His face was 

white and he steadied him- 
self against a rock, but 
there was not a tremor in 
his voice as he said: 

" I did not believe it 
before. I believe it now; 
and it is the third time." 

And then, even as he 
spoke, the fragment of 
rock on which he stood 
slipped. There was a cry, 
a rattle of other fragments 
falling — and I stood alone. 
Later — I cannot tell 
how much later — there is 
no measure of hours and 
minutes at such a time — 
bruised, bleeding, almost 
frozen, I stood by all that 
was left of my friend. He 
was dead; his body was 
already stiff, and I knew 
that unless I would share 
this, his last sleep, I must 
hasten. So I bent over 
him in a hasty farewell 
and then staggered on. 
What followed I can- 
not say. I only know that I came to a house and was taken in and cared for. 
Before long I was so far revived as to tell what had happened, and a party of 
men from the neighboring 
farms sought and brought 
back the body of poor 
Marshall. They found him 
where I left him, and by 
the body watched a black 
dog that as they ap- 
proached fled swiftly back 
into the shadows and 
of the lonely ravine where 
the brave life had ended. 
* * * 

I believe the story of 
the Black Dog. Can you 
wonder that I do ? More- 
over, I know that some 
time I shall see it again — "the valley ok the shadow of death. 




HERBERT MARSHALL. 




ARBUTUS. 161 

for the third and last time — and shall go even as my friend went. It may be 
years before my doom comes. The Survey cannot spare my services on the 
West Peak area. I must die some time. Why should I shirk my duty ? Yet, 
when I am gone, this paper may be of interest to those who remain, for, in 
throwing light on the manner of my death, it will also throw light on the end 
of the many victims that the old volcanic hills have claimed. 

* * -* * 

[From the New York Herald, November 12th, 18—.] 

" The body of F S of the U. S. Geological Survey was found on West Peak. 

near Meriden, Conn. , yesterday. Mr. S , who was at the head of the work on the West 

Peak area, disappeared on November 2nd, and all search for him has proved unavailing until 
yesterday, when his body was found at the foot of the southern cliff of the Peak. Apparently 
he had fallen from the top, a distance of some forty feet. It is a singular fact that the body 
was found on almost the identical spot where his friend, Herbert Marshall, met his death six 
years before. This makes the fifth man who has lost his life on the range within thirty 
years," 



ARBUTUS 



BY SARAH F. BEL. 



Treasure of wooded banks, 

Sweet is thy breath to me; 
Fragrance of sunny nooks, 
Neighbor of laughing brooks, 
Joy of the fields so free. 

Springing on red-brown stems, 

Fresh are thy leaves so green ; 
Bright are thy pink-white flowers. 
Kissed into life by showers, 
Sweetened by breath unseen. 

Beauty is all around ! 

Life is the same sweet thing, 
In birds of the air, 
In children so fair, 

Or the sweet flowers blossoming. 



MISTRESS MARY'S WEDDING APRON. 



BY ELLEN BRAINERD PECK. 



On Mistress Mary's wedding day, 

In the old colonial time, 
Sweet, the gardens were, and gay, 

Blooming, in their fragrant prime. 

They tell me roses were ablow, 
Making pink the country-side, 

In those hedges, long ago, 
Fitting for so fair a bride. 

I wis, the birds began to sing, 

When Mary to her marriage stepped, 

A vision, radiant of the spring, 

As down the quaint old hall she swept. 

And o'er her grand frock, daintily, 
In housewife fashion, fair of old, 

She wore an apron, brave to see, 
Embroidered, all, in pink and gold. 

The years, with tender touch and light, 
Have brushed its satins golden hue, 

The broidered roses still keep quite, 
Their first deep blush tint, too. 

Oh, relic rich in family lore, 

What pride of ancestry you bring 

Through generations passed before ; 
You almost seem a living thing. 

A gathered wealth of old romance 
Enfolds you with ancestral thought, 

The old-time beauty to enhance, 
As moonlight in a soft mist caught. 

And storied memories ever seem, 
That cluster round a dear heir-loom, 

As fragrance, faint, as in a dream, 

Of flowers that fade, no more to bloom. 



[Note: This beautiful apron is in the possession of Mrs. Carrie K. Bill, whose husband 
is a lineal descendant of the maker of the apron, Mary Wright of Norwieh, Conn., who was 
wedded to Amos Geer on June 14th, 1757.] 







THE LAST SHOT IN THE ARCTIC. 



BY CHARLOTTE MOLYNEUX HOLLOWAY. 



AS one walks along the winding streets of New London, one cannot help 
being impressed with the solid comfort and beaut}' - of many of the homos 
and the impression deepens into admiration when it is learned that the 
major portion are the result of the courage ("grit," he would call it), skill and 
endurance of the whaler of the days gone by. He began life on some sterile farm 
in Waterford, — take New London as centre and nearly the whole of the circle is 
Waterford, — and at fourteen, or before, tightened up his "galluses,"' put on his 
" Sunday go to meetings" and went into town to ship before the mast on some 
whaler bound for a cruise of two or three years. Then, if there was good stuff 
in him, he rose from boat-steerer to mate and "Cap'n," and had the felicity 
and profit of standing on the deck and roaring at the men in the choice ver- 
nacular of the seaman. 

But the captain had often the most perilous part of the work oi capturing 
the whale. He generally went in the first boat and quite often the whale 
"milling" gave the men a race for life rather than lucre. 

But they count their hardships small now that years have softened :':: 



,6 4 THE LAST SHOT IN THE ARCTIC. 



' ■'■■^Trf?'--'^ %% ft" 




NEW LONDON HARBOR. 

horrors, and they enjoy all the comforts of home with the consciousness, which 
is keenest pleasure to every true man, that it has all been earned by them- 
selves. 

It is a long time since New London saw a whale ship depart from her 
wharves, and to the present generation stories of whaling days have the flavor 
of antiquity. The Charles Colgate, belonging to one of the biggest and most 
successful firms in the business, Lawrence & Co., lies stripped and rotting, a 
veritable curiosity; but for tangible evidence of what whaling has ^done for 
the town, look at its Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, its Public Library, its 
handsome female academy, the two parks and the rows of substantial look- 
ing private houses which are sure to be well supplied within with mementoes 
of their owners' voyages in the shape of pictures etched on whales' teeth, eggs 
of penguins, and ostriches, feathers, stuffed birds, shells — all the thousand 
tokens of loving thought that the absent one gathers for those at home. 

On the street you will meet a hale old man carrying his three score and 
ten with ease, bluff and simple of speech, with the roll of the sea in his gait, 
and contempt for creased trousers in his attire. Or step into a bank and ask 
for the president. In the prosperous money class are many of the salts of the 
past, though a few have always failed to win fortune's favor. Stop one of these 
old sea dogs and start him away from his favorite occupation of worrying over 
the safety of his securities and bring him back to the days of "auld lang syne." 
The eye will brighten and the cheek gain color while the ring of the sea 
sounds clearer in his voice as he tells of the struggles and successes of his life. 
It is a yarn well worth hearing and having little of exaggeration, for these old 
heroes are modest and truthful men 
who religiously believe it was easier 
for the whale to swallow Jonah than 
a church member a landsman's fish 
story. 

About the best preserved and 
oldest of the whaling captains in 
the country is Capt. Samuel Greene, 
who for more than forty years never 
staid on land longer than was re- 
quired to fit out a vessel. Captain 
Greene celebrated his golden wed- 
ding seven years ago, and his friends 
aver he is younger and heartier look. » 
ing to-day than then. He was born hulk of the charles Colgate. 




THE LAST SHOT IN THE ARCTIC. 



l( >5 



in Waterford, November n, 1815 and went before the mast in the Neptuue 
under Capt. Nat. Richards in 1829, and after seven voyages in various ships 
he came at the age of 23 to his first vessel, the Neptune, as master. He mar- 
ried at 25 a very estimable lady, who, with two of his three children, bears him 
companionship. The captain's home may be said to have all the heart desires 
but as he rides his grandson on his knee, he turns back to the days of hard- 
ship arid peril with a sigh of regret that he stands alone of all the men who 
shared their struggles together in the beginning. 




RESIDENCE OF CAPT. JAMES SMITH. 



In the log book of the captain's memory is many a stirring tale, but none 
more exciting, more certain to arouse deepest feeling, than that of his capture 
by the Shenandoah in 1865. 

" Maybe it is a good thing, but I guess if you ask any old fellow to go back 
to the days of the war, it will seem to him as if it was so far off that it is dim- 
like and unsubstantial; but just give him a sight of Old Glory, and let him 
hear 'Marching Through Georgia' and he'll sniff the air like a battle horse. 
Anything like Grant Day is sure to make the blood tingle and quicken the 
memory till it all sweeps past like a grand panorama. It is a grand thing to be 
able to say that you have done something for the defence of the Union, but 
the whalers had not the least idea that the war was coming. They had little 
accurate knowledge of the progress of events which swept away all the weak 
subterfuges of compromises. Their business left them little chance to talk 
politics. And when the sudden storm burst the men who were out on voyages, 
voyaging four years at a time and only once or twice a year touching p 



i66 



THE LAST SHOT IN THE ARCTIC. 



where they received stale news, were the very last to believe there was any 
chance of any section trving to break up the Union. 

" Not that we need complain, though. I'd like to see some of these big 
bonus winners do a neater job than some of the old whalers that were almost 
condemned when Uncle Sam pressed them into service. Even their old hulks 
did their share in Charleston harbor. 

" Ever heard of the stone fleets Nos. i and 2 ? No ? Well, the rebels did. 

"Just as soon as the Confederates began to fit out privateers to cruise 
against Union commerce and destroy the whalemen in the Pacific, the owners 
of the latter were alarmed and withdrew all their ships which they could reach 
from service. If there was one thing which Uncle Sam did not have at the 




RESIDENCE OK CAI'T. SAMUEL GREENE. 



beginning of the struggle it was ships, and he eagerly accepted the offer of 
some of these well built vessels, which were used for blockade runners. A 
good use was found for the veterans which had been so long in service that 
they were thought deserving of retirement. The United States bought forty, 
and filling them with stone to the deck, divided them into two fleets and sunk 
them off Charleston harbor in 1861 and '62 to prevent the escape of priva- 
teers and the entrance of blockade runners. 

" It is worth while stopping a bit to think of the famous history that be- 
longed to some of these old ships which had so glorious an end. Many of them 
had been famed in the China and European trade. The Herald was nearly 
one hundred years old. The Corea was an armed store ship belonging to the 
English navy, and in the Revolution was driven into Long Island and an expe- 



THE LAST SHOT IN THE ARCTIC. 






dition of one hundred men and boys was planned from New Bedford to cap- 
ture her. When their schooner neared the Corea, all on board hid below 
excepting four men and a boy who seemed to 
be engaged in fishing. The Corea fired a gun, 
and bearing down upon them ordered them 
alongside. They grumblingly obeyed and were 
despoiled of their fish and the Corea's crew 
swarmed on their deck. The captured fishermen 
threw the fish into the sea, and at the signal the 
secreted men rushed forth, overpowered the Eng- 
lishmen, captured their vessel and brought it in 
triumph into New Bedford. The Corea, Fortune, 
Tenedos, Lewis and Phoenix, of New London; 
Meteor and Robin Hood, of Mystic; Timer, of Sag 
Harbor; Amazon, Harvest and Rebecca Sims, of 
Fairhaven; Potomac, of Nantucket; American, of 
Edgartown; and Archer, Courier, Cossack, Fran- 
ces, Henrietta, Garland, Herald, Kensington, 
Leonidas, L. C. Richmond, Maria Theresa, and South America, of New 
Bedford, were the first stone fleet. To the second fleet New Bedford sent the 
America, India, Valparaiso and Majestic; New London, the Montezuma, New 
England, and Dove; Newport, the William Lee and Mechanic; Sag Harbor, 
the Emerald and Noble; Salem, the Messenger; and Gloucester, the Newbury- 
port. 

"The Calhoun was the first in the Pacific whaling grounds to destroy the 




CAPT. JOHN IIAYN I 
Organizer of the Jib Boom Club. 




WHALING AND WAR RELICS,— JIB BOOM CLUB. 



i68 



THE LAST SHOT IN THE ARCTIC. 



whalers, and three from Provincetown— the John Adams, Mermaid, and Para- 
na—were captured and the vessels with their cargoes of oil set on fire and the 
sixty-three men composing their crew brought to New Orleans and set adrift. 
" The most formidable and destructive were the famous Alabama and the 
Shenandoah. These scourges of the sea ranged along the Atlantic Ocean and 
intercepted returning whalers. The Alabama was particularly clever in devices 
for alluring the unsuspecting into her power. After capturing a vessel she 
would wait until night and then set it on fire. All the whaleships seeing the 
blaze would start to rescue the men whom they thought were in peril, and thus 
fell into the trap. The Alabama decoyed and burned the ships Benjamin 
Tucker, Osceola, Virginia, and Elisha Dunbar, of New Bedford; Ocean, of 




IIARI'OONS, LANCF.S AND BOMB-LANCE GUN. 



Sandwich; Alert, of New London; and the schooners Altamaha, of Sippican, 
and Weather Gage, of Provincetown, who had hastened to rescue the men of 
the Ocean Rover, of Mattapoisett, which they thought had caught fire through 
accident. Many of the whalers would go into friendly ports and wait until the 
privateers went on their way; others were blockaded, and a good many excel- 
lent ships manned by resolute men gave the Confederates good doses of lead. 
The United States navy was largely recruited from the merchant and whaling 
services. 

"The men who went out in '60 and '6i had no way of getting to their 
home ports, and mighty few of them did; they used to go to Honolulu and San 
Francisco. Then some daring spirits did get out from New Bedford and New 
London and managed to make very good voyages. 

"There wasn't any more profitable season since the fifties than that end- 
ing in the spring of '65, and there was a big fleet of whalers in the Northern 



THE LAST SHOT IN THE ARCTIC. 



169 




Pacific and Behring Straits waiting for the advancing spring to let them start 
for home. Some had been out six months, some eighteen, some two years. 
Many had every bit of space filled, and others had just enough of success to 
make the men comfortably happy. None of them had any late home news. 
The latest comer, the Nassau of New Bedford, Captain Greene of New London, 
had brought the satisfactory tidings when she left the States in December^ 
1864, that there wasn't much comfort ahead for Johnny Reb. No one thought 
that there was a confederate privateer within a thousand miles. But the 
Shenandoah, under Waddell, was in the sea of Ochotsk, ruthlessly destroying 
every ship she met. There the Abigail of New Bedford, Capt. Ebenezer Nye, 
was her first victim in the 
middle of June. The Ab- 
igail was becalmed and all 
hands were at work clean- 
ing up when the lookout 
announced a ship in sight. 
The first mate after some 
scrutiny announced that it 
was a United States gun- 
boat. 'Give me the glass,' 
said Capt. E b. . 'It's 
darned suspicious that 
there ain't any flag. No 
United States skipper'd 
forget that in these times.' 
' She's making for us,' he 
added after a few moments. 'We'll find out pretty quick. I wish we carried a 
gun to pepper 'em if they are enemies and salute 'em if they are friends.' 
'We could pelt 'em with biscuit,' said the mate, who was sure they were 
friends. 

"As the stranger neared them, she ran up the stars and bars and they 
could see her ugly guns and her deck swarming with men. 

" 'Good God !' cried Capt. Eb., 'it's one of them devils, and we're done 
A boat was lowered from her and pulled directly toward the whaler. 
a few boat's lengths away at the hail of the captain. 

" 'The Shenandoah, and if you don't surrender at once we'll blow you to 
kingdom come !' 

" 'God help us !' groaned Nye. 'There's nothing else to be done. It is 
hard to be in a hole like this, but we shall be the only victims if I can help it. 
Get out two boats, men, while I parley with this fellow. We'll start off and 
risk it. There's about thirty ships in the straits, and maybe we can warn 
them.' 

"'What do you want to interfere with us for?' he shouted. 'Nice, manlv 
work it is for you. There ain't any fighting going on here, and you'd better 
have stayed where there was. You can burn this ship, but it ain't going to 
do you a sixpence of good.' 

" To his surprise the men in the boat looked listless and dispirited, and 
after he had said all that he could think of to take up the time, the officer only 
answered : 'Listen to the Yank scold ! He can do better at that than at fight- 
4 



THE HIBERNIA. 
The largest of the New London Whalers. 



for.' 
It halted 



170 



THE LAST SHOT IN THE ARCTIC. 



ing.' 'Oh, that's in line with your work,' cried Nye. 'You'd see what I'd do if 
I had a chance !' 'You are going to surrender, sensibly? We don't want to 
spill any blood.' 'Yes.' The boat turned back, and Nye, asking his men to 
keep the Shenandoah occupied as long as they could, hastened to the boats 
with those who had signified their willingness to go. They had pulled a good 
distance from the Abigail ere the Shenandoah, noticed their departure and 
trained one of her guns upon them, but the shot went wide. The men had 
tried to bring with them their precious possessions, and Capt. Nye • had 
judged it best not to seem to notice how heavily laden were the boats. They 
kept together for a time, not a word in either boat, but every man was stealing 
furtive glances back for the light he dreaded to see. It came at last, and a 



long drawn sob of agony 
ment they paused, then 
to foil the privateer stim 
petus they made rapid 
their keeping together and 
which was Capt. Nye could 
was hard to keep up the 
thick fog added to their 
had reached a point off the 
fifteen miles south of Cape 
fog through which they 
lifted, kept a sharp look 
which he knew must be 
afternoon of the 26th of 
at seeing a ship which 



burst from every throat. A mo- 
thought of others to save. Hope 
ulated them, and under the im- 
headway. Darkness prevented 
when morning dawned the boat in 
descry no sign of her mate. It 
spirits of the men, and a calm and 
gloom. On the fourth day they 
eastern coast of Siberia, about 
East, and Capt. Nye, now that the 
had been helplessly drifting had 
out for sight of the fleet of whalers 
in this region. It was late in the 
June when they were overjoyed 
hoisted the stars and stripes in 



whales' and walrus' teeth. 
The three Barnacles here shown were taken from the Heads of Whales. 

response to their signal. They were soon on board and received her sad 
news. She was a New Bedford whaler lately constructed, and her superior 
steam equipment had enabled her to escape the ravages of the Shenandoah, 
which that very morning had captured and burned the Isabella, Gypsy' 
Catherine, General Williams, and William C. Nye. 

"This news completely prostrated the captain, whose grief that he had 
vainly abandoned his ship was most poignant. But they cheered him up, say- 
ing he ought to be glad that he had escaped the mortification of being made a 
prisoner. As for the Shenandoah, it wasn't likely she would think there were 
more than the little fleet upon which she had pounced. But the Shenandoah 
was leaving nothing to presumption. Laden with everything of value from 
her five victims, she was steaming leisurely about, confident that she would 



THE LAST SHOT IN THE ARCTIC. 



'7' 



find further prey, and, smarting under the knowledge of continued and irre- 
trievable reverse to the Confederacy, vengefully determined to make the Yan- 
kee victory as dear as lay in her power. Fate seemed to delight in affording 
her opportunity. The 27th of June she spied a large fleet of whalers near 
Cape East apparently waiting for a wind. The sea was jammed with ice, and 
they had gathered there to assist the Brunswick, a New Bedford ship that had 
been badly jammed. To the powerful craft the ice was a mere shell, and she 
steamed her way toward them. Not one endeavored to escape, for the idea 
unaccountably possessed them that she was a government survey vessel 
sure were they, that impatience to hear the news from the States forced them 
to send Capt. Ludlow 
of Long Island to 
meet her. The She- 
nandoah disdained to 
resort to any of her 
usual tactics of con- 
cealment, and, exult- 
ing in the conscious- 
ness of the utter 
helplessness of her 
quarry, lay to and 
waited for the em- 
bassy. Ludlow had 
not put his foot on 
deck when he saw 
his mistake, but he 
boldly stated his er- 
rand. Waddell speed- 
ily convinced him of 
his error, and angrily 
ordered him to re- 
turn with the intelligence from the Shenandoah that their Union sympathies 
would not save their ships. , 'Well,' said Ludlow undauntedly, reckoning he 
might as well be hung for a sheep as a lamb, 'We won't begrudge them to 
Uncle Sam.' 

"A hurried council was held on his return. There were the Hillman. 
Howland, Nassau, Brunswick, Waverly, Martha 2nd, Congress, Covington. Milo, 
General Pike, Nile, James Maury, Nimrod, and Favorite. Their crows num- 
bered 400 men, but, according to the careless custom of the times before the 
Civil War, none of them had arms, guns, or facilities for running away from 
the formidable gunboat which could so easily annihilate them. So it was 
solved to swallow their bitter pill with what grace they could muster, with the 
hope that Waddell would be merciful enough to bond some of the ships and let 
them go. 

"They had good fighting blood in them, these old sea dogs, and it was like 
pulling a double molar to get some of them to consent. But the prudent 
the day, save with old Tom Young of Fairhaven, who swore in a way that 
would have made a Parkhurst jump, if the Fates had not mercifully [ 
to deal out Parkhursts in those davs of affliction. 




THE GEN. WILLIAMS. 



THE LAST SHOT IN THE ARCTIC. 



« Capt. Thomas G. Young was captain only in name, for he was close upon 
the patriarch's three score and ten, but his spirit was high, his heart full of 
courage and patriotism, and he swore with a deep and satisfying oath that no 
Johnny Reb could ever receive his surrender. If Waddell should destroy his 
vessel without his protest, he would never forgive himself. 

" 'Damn it all, men,' he said, 'don't let us be chickens. We can fight for 
the Union just as good here as anywhere. I've sailed with you all many a 
year, and the Favorite always knew she had a good crew and respected 'em. 
No true Yankee skipper'll give up his ship.' 

" But officers and men took a different view. They knew that Capt. Young 
was part owner of the Favorite, and that, personally, they would gain nothing 

by a resistance which 




might 
lives, 
their 
their 



imperil their 

To sacrifice 

kits and all 

treasures ap- 



THR CHELSEA. 
A typical Whaler of about 



(830. 



took his stand upon the cabin roof. 



peared enough to the 
men who had incen- 
tives to life in dis- 
tant wives and child- 
ren. Vainly they 
urged the captain to 
reconsider his de- 
cision. But he ap- 
pealed again to them 
to make a determined 
resistance, and find- 
ing them obdurate, 
loaded his bomb guns 
and fire arms and 
the other ships were 
saw the stand of the 



In the meantime 
submitting quietly to the Shenandoah, and, as they 
Favorite, the men were apprehensive lest a human sacrifice result. When 
the Shenandoah's boat brought the demand to surrender to Capt. Young, he 
yelled out : 'Stand off ! I'm going to shoot Waddell to-day !' 

" The sight of the guns, the look of his eye, were sufficient to emphasize 
his admonition, and the envoy precipitately returned. Waddell had already 
divined the Favorite's intention and had given orders to fire upon her, but the 
returning boat was in range. The captain of the Favorite was now surround- 
ed by his crew imploring him to desist, but being sharply repulsed, they re- 
moved the caps from the loaded arms, carried off the ammunition and rushed 
for the boats The Shenandoah's boat had reported progress to Waddell, also 
Capt. Young's declaration that he would shoot him. Waddell laughed. Tt 
isn't worth while wasting shot on the tub,' he said, contemptuously; 'let two 
boats go after him, and if the old devil is obstinate, pick him off.' 

"They pulled off with alacrity and were soon alongside. Alone, grim and 
gaunt, the old man stood on the cabin roof, one hand holding a pistol, a pile of 
small arms at his feet. He was ready to fire his bomb guns after the parley 
he expected. Not a thought of personal danger came to him, he was only sor- 



THE LAST SHOT IN THE ARCTIC. 



; 73 



ry that Waddell was not there. As the boats neared, the commanding officer 
called, 'Pull down your colors, resistance is useless.' 'I'll see you damned 
first,' retorted Young. 'If you don't,' said the officer of the boat, I'll shoot 
you.' 'Shoot and be damned !' invited the old hero, as he drew forth from be- 
hind him a small flag, and, waving the stars and stripes around his head, _ 
three cheers for the Union. Wrapping the flag about him he rushed to fire his 
guns. From one to the other he went. He hadbeen,betrayed: He snapped his 
pistol. That too had been tampered with. The privateer's crew were swarm- 
ing over his deck. With a scream of agony, the brave old skipper grasped a 
gun by the barrel and rushed forward to die fighting. A dozen strong young 
hands seized and disarmed him. He was put in irons in the top gallant fore- 
castle, and, though some were inhuman enough to suggest burning the ship, 
his captors contented themselves with tearing the flag to shreds before his 
eyes, taking from him his money, watch and shirt studs, and leaving him 
bound. 

"Some hours after the Shenandoah had gone sated with plunder, a crew 
which had left one of the ships, preferring the mercies of the seas to that of 
the privateer, rescued Capt. Young. 

" The Shenandoah burned thirty-four ships in all and bonded four — the 
Milo, General Pike and James Maury and the Nile of New London. These, 
loaded to suffocation with her despoiled victims, including Capt. Samuel 
Greene of the Nassau, proceeded to San Francisco. Thence Capt. Greene 
came home by the Panama route, to engage, after rest, in but one more thrill- 
ing experience ere he devoted himself to the enjoyment of the home he had 
gained by his unremitting patience and skill. 

" In the interim the Shenandoah went her way looking for other spoil. 
The afternoon of her wanton destruction of the whaling fleet she saw a pert 
steam whaler rapidly steam- 
ing through the straits and 
promptly gave chase. To 
her astonishment, as soon 
as she was seen by the whal- 
er, the latter veered about 
and came toward her, run- 
ning up the United States 
flag, and a boat was lowered 
and set out for her. Waddell 
waited, constructing an inso- 
lent reply to the entreaty for 
mercy he expected. The 
captain and one of the offi- 
cers of the whaler came on 
board. There was a bright 
light in his eye and perfect 
assurance in his voice as he asked for Waddell. 'You come U 5 
queried the latter, after they had exchanged greetings will-. 
liteness. 'Surrender be blowed,' answered the bluff old tar, l l 
to ask you to do that. I bring you news. The jig's up. 
pulling out a paper and waving it before WaddelPs eyes 




n sc \kor \. 



l Lee has - 



1 74 THE SEA WAS IN FROLICSOME MOOD TO-DA Y. 

dered to Grant at Appomattox. The Confederate States are in Davy Jones's 
locker'. 'I don't believe it,' blustered Waddell. 'Take them prisoners.' 

"But his officers protested as one man: 'We are willing to fight for a 
cause, but we are not butchers or buccaneers.' 'That's right,' said the whaler, 
as he took his leave. 'There's no cause since the ninth of April. It's buried 
under the apple tree at Appomattox.'" 




THE SEA WAS IN FROLICSOME MOOD TO-DAY. 



BY ARTHUR CLEVELAND HALL. 



The sea was in frolicsome mood to-day, 

And tumbled the pebbles within her reach, 

Across the sands of the curving beach, 

Like puss with a bundle of yarn at play. 

Far out on the blue I could see the spray 

Of the white caps, nodding each to each, 

I could hear the sea gulls' plaintive screech, 

As it circled, seeking its finny prey. 

And the sun shone bright for the sea's delight 

He has loved and wooed for ten thousand years, 

But the gay coquette is but laughing yet, 

Though her cloudy lashes seem wet with tears; 

Oh ! the sun may smile and the moon beguile 

But she clings to the old Earth all the while. 




NERVA. 

A Story of Pastoral Connecticut, 



BY MILO LEON NORTON. 



PART IT. — RESTORATION. 

Not for many years had there been so much activity displayed in the vicinity 
of Indian Hollow as took place during the summer and autumn following the 
purchase of the Weston farm. The dwelling had been put in good repair in- 
side and out. The barns had been newly covered and painted and stored with 
hay and grain. The capacious wood-shed was filled with wood ready for the 
fire. The cellar was stored with vegetables. The fences were repaired, the 
brush in the pastures and by the roadside had been cut and burned, the fruit 
trees pruned, and the unkempt grounds about the house had been graded and 
seeded down. 

The few thousand dollars that Nerva had at her command when she un- 
dertook the restoration of the old farm seemed to her a meagre sum indeed. 
But the neighboring farmers looked upon the newcomers as wealthy city peo- 
ple, with unlimited resources, driven to take up a residence in the count: - ; 
account of the poor health of the father. Attempts at familiarity, or shrewd 
efforts to obtain information as to their antecedents, met with no encourage- 
ment by the discreet young lady. She was gracious and cordial in her inter- 
course with her neighbors, but reserved and non-committal. 

There was one exception, however. 

In a previous chapter I mentioned that one of the residents of Indian Hol- 
low was a young man of progressive ideas, who had worked his way through 
an agricultural college and had adopted methods of farming unfamiliar to his 
neighbors. This young man, left to his own resources at majority, was the 
nearest neighbor of the Smiths, and to him Nerva looked for advic* 
assistance. 

Although five and twenty, and of pleasing manners and ap] he 

had never married. His widowed mother kept house for him, and wheth< 
was because he found her society all-sufficient, or because of his nati 
fulness, or because he was wedded to his books and studies, that he had not 
taken a wife, I will not undertake to say. At any rate, he was consider. 
great "catch" by the rural belles of the vicinity, but they had never I I 
to make much impression upon him. 

People misjudged Leslie Burton. He was pronounced "stuck up" 
young people. Yet there was nothing of egotism in his disposition. Hi 
retiring, thoughtful and studious, rather than social and demonstrative He 
was misunderstood. 

Being Nerva's confidential adviser and largely the originatoi of the Wes 
farm improvements, he was necessarily thrown into her society aim 
These frequent visits, of course, set all the feminine tongues v. ..but this 

was entirely unknown to Nerva, as she mingled with her neighbors but little. 
Leslie was to her an adviser, and she had found his advice m 
had not thought of him in any other light. 



, 7 6 NERVA. 

On the other hand, Leslie had looked upon Nerva as a superior being. 
Her refinement of manner, her reserve, her station as the daughter of a retired 
millionaire (as he supposed her to be) placed her so far above him that he 
never once permitted himself to think of her in any other light than as a 
wealthy city girl with quiet and eccentric tastes. Why she should prefer a 
residence in the wilderness rather than at some fashionable watering place he 
could understand only as an eccentricity. 

One year had passed quickly away since Nerva had become the owner of 
the farm.' The year had brought great changes to the old place. The house 
with its fresh paint and broad verandas; the neat barns; the rustic mill, where 
the fuel for the fires was prepared, and the corn and rye and oats were ground 
for the farm stock and poultry; the cultivated fields, and the smooth lawn, pre- 
sented a marked contrast to the desolation of former years. 

Nerva sat one May morning on the broad veranda. A cow-bell was tink- 
ling in the pasture. Bees were humming in the cherry trees that were in full 
bloom. Humming-birds were flitting from flower to flower. Robins were 
piping in their cheery way, and the woods were ringing with the music of the 
song birds. It was a beautiful scene that greeted her eyes. She had been 
very busy the past year, and had hardly taken time to think. But now. when 
everything had been reduced to a routine and she began to have more leisure, 
a feeling of loneliness took possession of her. She was thinking of other days. 
As she sat thinking, the "hired man," as the New England farmhand is 
called, drove up on his return from the distant village creamery, where the 
cream from the farm herd was taken. He tossed a letter upon the veranda as 
he passed, which Nerva quickly secured and read. 

It was from an old schoolmate, one of the few of her old associates who 
had not forgotten her since her change of fortune. It brought the welcome 
intelligence that she was coming to pay her old friend a visit. 

The next week Alice, the friend, arrived, making the whole place ring 
with her laughter, and declaring it "just the sweetest old place in the world !" 
Alice Van Brunt possessed one of those natures made of frolic and sun- 
shine that a kind Providence has wisely bestowed upon a few choice favorites 
as a blessing to mankind. They make everyone happy and joyful wherever 
they go. They see only the sunny side of everything, and when they go into 
shadowy places they light them up, disperse the gloom, and drive away haunt- 
ing melancholy. 

Alice was so delighted with this quiet nook in the country that she soon 
sent for her mother and two young lady cousins. As a natural consequence, 
masculine relatives found time to pay them a flying visit; and two young men, 
enamored of the two young lady cousins, also concluded to spend a two weeks' 
vacation there, finding lodgings at neighboring farm-houses. 

Nerva thus found herself obliged to play the hostess, which she did grace- 
fully, besides adding to her little store of cash something substantial in the 
way of remuneration. 

Adjacent lands were purchased by some of the visitors attracted to the 
locality by the glowing accounts of the summer sojourners; and Nerva parted 
with some of the waste lands bordering the mill pond at a good profit. This 
land was improved by the purchasers, who also contracted for the erection of 
two summer cottages in time for use during the following summer. 



NERVA. 1;7 

Following the advice of Leslie, Nerva cleared up adjoining lands, built a 
drive around the pond and through the neighboring wood, built a neat summer 
house upon the summit of the cliff overlooking a wide extent of country, and 
erected three neat cottages to be rented or sold the following season. An ice 
house was also erected in an out-of-the way nook convenient to the lake, which 
was filled during the winter. 

Nerva was not disappointed in her expectations. All the preparations she 
had made were needed the following summer, for people came and went, tax- 
ing the accommodations of the place to the utmost. More cottages were built, 
more lots sold, and greater improvements made. A large, marshy meadow 
adjoining the lake, was excavated, the muck being utilized as an absorbent for 
fertilizing purposes, and the capacity of the lake was doubled. Light row-boats 
were added to the attractions of the place, and a small wharf was constructed. 

The fourth summer brought a still greater influx of city people, and the 
place experienced quite a real estate boom. Building lots brought nearly as 
much as the whole original farm. All the milk, butter and eggs that could be 
produced were needed for the consumption of the summer residents. Vegeta- 
bles and fruit were in great demand. Butchers, bakers and grocerymen made 
daily trips for orders, and Indian Hollow became a flourishing summer resort. 

It was on a bright October day after the season was ended, and Nerva had 
settled down, rather enjoying the solitude after the excitement and rush of the 
summer, that she received a letter from her former lover. He had heard from, 
friends of the success she had achieved as a manager, and it occurred t<> him 
that such a woman would make a valuable wife, particularly as he had experi- 
enced reverses in business and found himself financially embarrassed. The 
letter was full of well-worded contrition for his hasty acceptance of his release 
from their engagement, and stated that he should follow up the letter with a 
personal appeal if she would consent. Very cautiously he also inquired if among 
her father's papers there were any bonds of a certain railroad, worthless, 
explained, but which might be made available at a very low figure toward re- 
organizing the road. If she would take the trouble to look them up, he would 
be able to offer a small sum — five hundred or so, for what had cost ten I 
sand dollars ! 

Nerva had not developed so much business talent during the • 
years for nothing, a talent no doubt inherited from her father and which w 
undoubtedly have remained dormant but for the necessity that brought it 
Before replying she reflected. She believed her former lover to be m< 
and heartless. Of this she had had ample proof. Why this solicitude »«n his 
part concerning the bonds? Questioning her father, she obtained such in- 
formation as he could recall with much effort, for a haze still hovered over his 
intellect. Correspondence with a former legal friend of the family ensued, ami 
the result was that the hitherto supposedly worthless bonds were , i 
for their face value in cash. 

Nerva had now ample capital for the development o\ In 
she invested it wisely. 

Again and again in quick succession she had been importuned by her for- 
mer lover for the privilege of a personal interview, but she had .. 
sively. Perhaps there was a spirit of retaliation brewing in the quiet 1 
lady's heart. Perhaps it was something else. At any rate, confidential 



i 7 8 NERVA. 

sultation with Leslie Burton was of frequent occurrence, and if that individual 
only had eyes to see, he might have seen that Nerva had a deeper interest in 
him than she would have had in a mere adviser. 

But Leslie was so deeply impressed with her superiority that he dared not 
even permit himself to think of her as ever holding any other relation to him 
than as a friend. Besides, he did not understand women. Books he could 
read, but women were sealed books to him. 

Nerva saw that if her plan was to be carried out — for she had thought out 
a plan — she would have to, Priscilla like, offer some encouragement that could 
not be misunderstood. 

Putting on her hat and a light wrap one sunny afternoon late in October, 
she set out, basket in hand, in search of chestnuts. Perhaps she did not know 
that Leslie was finishing up some fall seeding in a field adjoining the chestnut 
grove. It might have been a coincidence, of course. Perhaps it was her 
eagerness to obtain chestnuts that caused her to throw stones and sticks with 
all a woman's proverbial dexterity up into a tree in full view of the young 
farmer. Perhaps it was mere gallantry that made the young farmer afore- 
said hasten across the field, climb up the tree like a squirrel and shake the 
brown nuts from their prickly burs with his strong arms. Perhaps it was fear 
that she would injure her delicate hands with the sharp burs that made him 
stop, in spite of her protestation, to help fill her basket. Perhaps when this 
had been done and they stood at the barway together, it was her respect for 
him as a counselor that made her, somewhat shyly, request his advice on a 
very delicate subject. 

" I have had an offer of marriage," she said, "and you have been so good 
an adviser and so kind a friend that I wish to obtain your opinion about it." 

Poor Leslie turned pale an instant and then flushed a bright crimson. He 
could have sunk in his tracks. It was easy to persuade himself that he did 
not care for his pretty, confiding neighbor, but standing here as a disinterested 
judge on the merits of another man — that was another matter. Of course, she 
did not appear to notice his confusion. 

" If I only dared !" he thought. 

But he stammered out something about his inability to advise in such a 
case. She must consult her own heart. 

"That is just the trouble," she said. "I do not love the man. He has 
proved false to me once, but now professes to be very penitent. Indeed, my 
regard has gone out for another and a worthier man, but he does not — at least 
he has never spoken." 

She was almost frightened at her boldness. But it was a desperate case 

Leslie was not a coward. Who this other man was he could not guess. 
But something was choking him. A great lump was crowded into his throat, 
and he must speak or die ! 

" Miss Smith," he finally stammered. "I— I know I ought not to say it. 
I— I know you will despise me after it, you who are so far above me; you who 
seem to me as much above me as the stars (once his tongue was loosened he 
waxed eloquent); but I must speak even if you spurn me and never speak to 
me again in all your life. Miss Smith — " 

' You may call me Nerva, Leslie," said she gently, raising her hand which 
somehow came in contact with his and was seized with the grip of a vice. 



A MIDNIGHT SONG. , Jg 

" Then you don't hate me ?" he asked eagerly. 

"No indeed !" 

"And you won't think me a fortune hunter who cares nothing for you but 
your money ?" 

" No, Leslie, particularly as I have no fortune. It is because we have lost 
nearly everything that we are here. I am worth no more than you are, but 
you are worth more to me than — " 

When she recovered her breath she exclaimed, " You are a great bear, 
Leslie !" But she didn't seem to be displeased. 

Leslie's horses, tired of waiting for their driver, had dragged the harrow 
to which they were. attached across the field and were industriously grazing 
upon the headland at the margin of the field. It was a long time before they 
were disturbed. 

Mr. and Mrs. Burton now make their winter home in the city, but spend 
the greater part of the year on their united farms at Indian Hollow. The 
father's intellect and health being fully restored, he devotes his declining years 
to the care of his two lovely grandchildren — two as rugged, healthy, romping 
little urchins as one could find in the country. 

On every Thanksgiving day the entire family gather around the well-filled 
board at Weston farm. I say the entire family, for the elder daughter, whose 
career as a countess came to a disastrous end by the squandering of her own 
and her mother's fortune by her titled but dissolute husband, was only too 
glad, with her humbled and repentant mother, to accept the hospitality of a 
home they would once have spurned. 

So, on every Thanksgiving day, the entire family gather round the festive 
board and devoutly thank God for the restoration of family ties brought about 
through the restoration of an abandoned Connecticut farm. 



A MIDNIGHT SONG. 



BY MINNIE LOUISE HENDRICK. 



I awaked at midnight, through the city streets 
Came the sound of music rare and sweet. 
The song was of love, and rest, and peace. 
Like an angel's song to a restless throng, 
It fell on the city's star-lit streets, 
Like a benediction, so complete; 
It filled my heart with song. 



LIST OF BURIALS, OR "SEXTON'S LIST," OF THE CENTER 
CHURCH BURYING GROUND, HARTFORD. 



PREPARED FOR PUBLICATION AND ANNOTATED BY MARY K. TALCOTT. 



I. 

[It was announced in our October '97 and January '98 numbers, that the 
Sexton's List of Burials in the Center Church Burying Ground, Hartford, 
would be published in the Quarterly. This valuable list, as has been previ- 
ously stated, is from a copy made by Dr. C. J. Hoadly, by whose kind permis- 
sion we are enabled to use it. The remainder of the names will appear in 
subsequent numbers of this magazine.] 



1749-50. 

Feb. 22 

Mar. 24 

1750. 

April 4 
21 

Mar. 7 . 



June 

July 



24 

Aug. 5 



Sept. 



15 
25 



Infant child of Joseph Shepard. 
The wife of Joseph Shepard. 

John West. 

Abigail, daughter of Daniel Skin- 
ner, born Sept. 22, 1729. 

Jonathan Ashley [son of Jonathan 
and Sarah (Wadsworth) Ashley, 
b. Aug. 23, 1674]. 

Jonathan Shepard. 

John Spencer. 

Sarah, dau. of Daniel Skinner 
[bapt. June 3, 1749]. 

Justus Dickinson. 

Abigail, dau. of William Nichols 
[bapt. April 7, 1745]. 

Anna, the wife of Ebenr William- 
son [Anna Cadwell]. 

Elizabeth Wyllys [b. July 15, 1708, 
dau. of Hezekiah and Elizabeth 
(Hobart) Wyllys]. 

Mary an, infant dau. of Richard 
Edwards. 

Rebecca, dau. of William Cadwell. 

Andrew, son of Andrew Mumford. 

Thomas Wells [b Oct. 16, 1690, son 
of Thomas and Mary ( Black- 
leach ) Welles j. 

Widow Abigail Butler. 

Sarah, the wife of Thomas Burr 
[dau. of Thomas Wads worth J. 

John Barnard. 

Elisabeth, wife of Daniel Miles. 

Elisabeth, wife of Jonathan Taylor. 

Widow Lydia Dodd [dau. of Lara- 



25 

Oct. 12 
16 

Nov. 2 

4 
6 



Dec. 18 

20 

27 

1750-51. 

Jan. 9 



Mar. 28 
1751. 

May 26 
June 14 

23 



July 7 

29 
Aug. 10 



orock and Lydia (Smith) Flower, 

b. Mar. 22, 1686-7; mar. in 1705 

Edward Dodd]. 
William, son of Richard Goodman 

[bapt. Sept. 21]. 
Mary, dau. of Samuel Flagg. 
Sarah Burr [dau. of Thomas and 

Sarah Burr, b. 1681]. 
Daniel, son of the late Rev. Daniel 

Wadsworth [b. June 21, 1741]. 
Infant dau. of Daniel Wadsworth. 
Anna, wife of Thomas Andross. 
Catherine, dau. of Widow Rachel 

Cadwell. 
Abigail, wife of Capt. Jabez Tal- 

cott (?). 
Widow Hannah Collyer. 
Ruth, dau. of the late Rev. Daniel 

Wadsworth [b. July 1, 1746]. 

Normand, son of Roderick Mor- 
rison. 

Susanna, dau. of Roderick Mor- 
rison. 

Infant dau. of Capt. John Knowles. 

Moses Ensign. 

Elijah Cadwell. 

Nehemiah Cadwell [son of Edward 

and Deborah (Bunes) Cadwell, 

b. April 8, 1711]. 
James, son of Caleb Bull [b. Sept. 

29, 1750]. 
Abigail, wife of Dan'l Wadsworth. 
Hezekiah, son of Capt. Daniel 

Goodwin [bapt. Aug. 20, 1750]. 



CENTER CHURCH BURYING GROUND, HARTFORD. 



81 








3i 


Nov. 


26 


Dec. 


9 


1751 


-52, 


Feb. 


26 



Sept. 2 William, son of Col. Samuel Tal- 
cott [bapt. Dec. 18, 1743]. 

Edward Cadwell [son of Edward 
and Elizabeth Cadwell, b. Sept. 
24, 1681]. 

Mary, dau. of Elijah Cadwell. 

Hannah, wife of Charles Kelsey. 

James, son of Col. Samuel Tal- 
cott [bapt. Sept. 1, 1745]. 
9 Daniel, son of Roderick Morrison. 
Oct. 2 James McLeroy [formerly of North- 
ampton; married Dec. 12, 1736, 
Helena, dau. of Cyprian Nichols] . 

Christian Farnsworth. 

John, son of John McNight. 

Jonathan Taylor. 

Elizabeth, daughter of William 
Skinner. 
29 Christian Mix [dau. of Rev. Ste- 
phen and Mary (Stoddard) Mix 
of Wethersfield] . 

Abigail, dau. of Capt. William 

Nichols [bapt April 7, 1751]. 
James, son of Ezekicl Ashley. 
Infant child of Jonathan Watson, Jr. 
Thomas Ensign. 
Widow Mary Carter. 

RECORD OF BURIALS IN THE OLD YARD FROM 
1752 TO FEB. 24, 1801, COLLATED WITH THE 
RECORD OF THE FIRST CHURCH DOWN TO 1771. 

1752. 

Oct. 22 A child of Mr. Burlison (named 

Charles). 
Nov. 12 Abigail, dau. of Sam'l Farnsworth. 
17 Widow Warren. 
26 John, child of John Knowles. 
28 Husband of Mary Olive. 
Dec. — Child of Daniel Marsh. 

23 Mrs. Mary Shepard, aged 90. 
Mr. Steele. 



1752. 


April 


14 




24 


July 


14 


Aug. 


27 


Sept. 


25 



1753. 

Jan. i 



Feb. 





14 


April 


28 




29 


May 


11 


June 


10 




30 



William Pratt [son of John and 

Hannah (Sanford) Pratt]. 
Child of Thomas Seymour. 
Child of William Nichols (infant). 
Child of John McKnight (Robert). 
Sarah Marshall. 

One of the family of Sarah Marshall. 
Jno. Simons, son to the wife of 

Sam'l Weed. 
A child of the wife of John Weed. 
Child of Caleb Binton. 
The mother of Ozias Pratt [Hannah 

Norton of Farmington, widow of 

John Pratt, Jr.]. 



July 23 
24 



Aug. 6 

14 

25 



Sept. 4 
4 

19 
21 

22 

27 

Oct. 3 

22 

28 

28 

28 



Dec. 1 

13 
14 



1754. 

Jan. 2 



15 

1 7 

Mar. 20 



Ma 



Child of Samuel Drake. 

Mr. Jonathan Olcott [son of Thom- 
as and Hannah (Barnard 1 Olcott; 
bapt. Dec. 29, 1695 j. 

Anna Hosmer [Ann Prentiss, wife 
of Capt. Thomas Hosmer; mar. 
Dec, 24, 1700]. 

Child of John Lawrence | Margaret, 
infant). 

Mary Austin, wife of John Austin, 
aged 76. [ Mary, dau. of Nathan- 
iel Stanley, b. Oct. S, 1077: mar. 
1st, Nathaniel Hoot :. in 

1 71 3, John Austin ). 

Child of Jonathan Seymour. 

Two children of John Condry 
(Charles and George). 

Child of David Bull (Lovina). 

A child of Elisha Pratt < Levi). 

Child of Widow Mary Watrous. 

Child of Jonn Skinner. Jr. (infant). 

Child of Aaron Bull. 

Child of John Watson, Jr. 

Child of Doct Neal McLean (Cath- 
erine). 

Childof Sam'l Wadsworth 

Wife of Joseph Eioltom I Abigail 
Hastings, prob. dau. of Benjamin 
Hastings of Hatfield]. 

Joseph Hartee (Hartoppey), stran- 
ger at house of 1 >av. Bull. 

Child of Elisha Butler (infant). 

The husband of Hannah Kv, 
[Capt. John Knowles. b. in B 
ham, Mass., April, 169a]. 

Mrs. Abigail Woodbridge [A 
Warren, born in Boston, May 10, 
1676, dau. of John Warren]. 

The husband of Amy Gross [Sam- 
uel, son o\ Josiah and Susannah 
(Howard) Gross, born Jan 
[719-20]. 

Child of Roderick Morrison ^Su- 
sannah). 

Rebecca Bigelow [dan. of Jonathan 
and Mabel (Edwards 

bapt. Dec. 5, 1-0-]. aged 44 

Mary, dau o( Lemuel Marsh. :. 

and Bathsheba, his wife. 

Child o( [saac Sheldon. 

Child of John Condrey (Charh - 

Joseph Ashley [so- 
und Sarah (WadswOTth A 
born about 1677]. 

Anna Collier [dau. ^\ Capt : : 

Mrs Seymour [Elisabeth, 
fohu Seymoui 



182 



LIST OF BURIALS, 



Robert Webster, 
1693]. 



m. Dec. 19, July 1 



July S 
30 



Sept. 13 





22 


Dec. 


15 




28 


I75E 




Jan. 


1 




3 




14 




t6 




16 



16 Josiah Bigelow [son of Joseph and 

Mary (Spencer) Bigelow, b. Jan. 

3, 1726]. 
June 14 James Ensign [son of David and 

Mehitabel (Gunn) Ensign, aged 

SS. 
21 Child of Clark Bets Jeriden. 
Wife of John Barnard. 
Sarah Hosmer [dau. Capt. Thomas 

and Ann (Prentiss) Hosmer, b. 

Sept. 7, 1707]. 
Child of Edward Cadwell (Ruth). 
Died Sept. 12, Thomas Andross. 
Susannah Andross, aged 83. 
Benjamin Richards. 
Child Widow Jerusha Brace. 

Child of Joseph Shepard, Jr. (Eliz- 
abeth). 

Nathaniel Skinner. 

Dr. Roderick Morrison [brother of 
Dr. Normand Morrison, married 
Jan. 16, 1744-5, Susannah GrossJ. 

Jonathan Butler, aged 77 [son of 
Samuel and Elizabeth]. 

Isaac Seymour [born Oct. 10, 1723, 
son of John and Lydia (Mason) 
Seymour]. 

Child of Ebenezer Burlison (Char- 
ity, dau.]. 

Child of John Thomas (infant). 

Child of Stephen Turner (John, in- 
fant). 

Son of Capt. Aaron Bull. 

Stephen Brace (the aged) [son of 
Stephen Brace, Sr.]. 

Child of Abijah Clark (Lucy, in- 
fant]. 

Wife of Dr. Neal McLean (Hannah 
Stillman) aged 52, formerly wife 
of the first John Caldwell, mar. 
Dr. McLean, January 5, 1737]. 
May 12 Moses Benton [son of Samuel Ben- 
ton, b. April 26, 1702]. 

1 3 Caleb Bull [son of Joseph and Sa- 

rah (Manning) Bull, b. Feb. 1, 
1679]. 

14 Father of Gideon Merrills [Wilter- 

ton Merrills, b. June 28, 1675, son 
of John and Sarah (Watson) 
Merrills] . 

1 5 Child of Elisha Butler (infant dau.) 
23 Child of Nathaniel Pease- [infant 

dau.). 
— Dill Rament. 



Feb. 


14 




21 




27 


Mar. 


29 


April 


7 




23 



Widow Hannah Olcott, aged 93 
[dau. of Bartholomew Barnard 
and widow of Thomas Olcott, 
mar. Nov. 11, 1695]. 
Aug. 1 Child of Jonathan Seymour, Jr. 

19 Col. Nathaniel Stanley [son of Na- 
thaniel and Sarah (Boosey) Stan- 
ley, b. July 9, 1683; treasurer of 
the Colony of Connecticut, 1749- 
1755; Lieut. -Col. of First Regi- 
ment, 1739, and later; Assistant, 
1725-1749]. 
Sept. 17 Child of Rachel Collyer. 

19 Child of Jonathan Bigelow. 

21 Child of Zachariah Seymour. 

Died Nov. 9 ; Child of Col. Samuel 
Talcott [Elizabeth, bapt. Oct. 5, 
1746]. 
Child of Samuel Farnsworth. 
Mother of Samuel Howard [Susan- 
nah, dau. of Thomas and Susan- 
nah (Bull) Bunce]. 

12 Wife of Joseph Day (Deborah An- 
drus). 

— Father of Caleb Turner. 

14 Jerusha Seymour [dau. of Thomas 
and Mary (Watson) Seymour, 
bapt. 2d ch., Dec. 29, 1723J. 

28 Daughter of the widow of Amy 
Pratt (Esther]. 



Nov. 2 1 
Dec. 2 



1756. 

Jan. 3 



6 

19 

23 

Feb. 15 

17 



21 

29 
April 5 
May n 

14 

21 

July 2 

6 

9 
3i 



Capt. Cyprian Nichols [Aged 84 ; son 
of Cyprian Nichols, who came to 
Hartford in 1664 from Witham, 
Co. Essex, England]. 

Child of Geo. Smith (Martha). 

Hannah Shepard. 

Child of John Sheldon (Samuel). 

Child of James Shepard (infant). 

The widow Mary N,, mother of 
Lieut. James Nichols [Mary, dau. 
of Samuel and Mary (Richards) 
Spencer; mar. May 24, 1705] 
(Cyprian Nichols' wife), 75. 

Child of Hezekiah Wadsworth (Hez- 
ekiah). 

Thomas Warren. 

Two children of John Cole 2d. 

Wife of Ebenezer Balch. 

George Masters. 

Child of Daniel Brace, Jr. (James, 
infant). 

Child of Samuel Weed (Jerusha). 

Child of Aaron Hopkins (infant). 

Child of John Jones (Joseph, in- 
fant). 

Child of Thomas Warren. 

Two children Benjamin Bigelow 



CENTER CHURCH BURYING GROUND, HARTFORD. 183 



16 

Sept. 3 

7 
16 



Oct. 3 



13 



Dec. 26 

29 



1757. 

Jan. 



26 



Feb. 



Mar. 11 
April 6 



May 2 



29 

30 

June 11 

16 



(Jonas, d. July 30; Lovina, d. 
Aug. 3). 

The aged Widow Elizabeth G. 

Remember Grandmother Gilbert 
was buried. 

Wife of John Benton. 

Son of Daniel Brace (Timothy). 

Aaron Hopkins (son of Thomas 
and Mary (Beckley) Hopkins, 
b. July 14, 1729]. 

Child of Capt. John Lawrence (Ma- 
rian). 

Timothy Andrus. 

Child of Jared Bunce (Huldah, in- 
fant). 

Dr. Thomas Hooker [aged 64; son 
of Rev. Samuel and Mary (Wil- 
lett) Hooker of Farmington]. 

Child of John Watson, Jr. (Eliza- 
beth, infant). 

Child of Daniel Hinsdale. 

Phebe Booth, aged 73. 

The husband of Hannah Watson 
(John). 

Child of John Lord (Daniel, infant). 

Child of Ebenezer Burleson (Heze- 
kiah, infant). 

Child of Daniel Bigelow (Rachael). 

Reuben Coe. 

Fuller, who died in prison. "The 
aged." He belonged to Colches- 
ter. 

Old Robin. 

Ebenezer Williamson [b. in Barn- 
stable, Mass., April 4, 1697, son 
of Lieut. Caleb and Mary (Cobb) 
Williamson ) . 

Child of Ozias Goodwin, Jr. (Job, 
infant). 

Samuel Flagg. [He kept Flagg's 
Tavern, where the Universalist 
Church now stands. ] 

Child of Betzy, Indian. 

Wife of John Coleman (Deborah) 
aged 24. [Deborah, dau. of John 
and Deborah (Youngs) Ledyard, 
bapt. July 9, 1732]. 

Child of Samuel Wadsworth (Sam- 
uel, infant). 

Child of John Skinner (infant son 
d. soon after birth). 

Child of Samuel Drake (Martha, 
infant). 

A Drowned Man — grave dug at ex- 
pense of Benjamin Bigelcw. 
[Wm. Harpy of Harvard, Mass., 



June 


[6 




16 




24 


Aug. 


2 




25 


Sept. 


7 



Oct. 20 
Nov. 10 



Dec. 
1758. 



18 

2S 

Feb. 19 



Mar. 



Feb. 



May 


6 




30 


June 


2 




9 




[8 


July 


1 1 



drowned with Dr. Langrell].. 

Jonathan Ensign. 

Dr. Thomas Langrell 2d [b 
0, 1 727-- ; Harvard Coll 
an apothecary in Hartford]. 

A French Woman Interred at the 
expense of the Town of Hartford. 

John Brooker of Saybrook, sudden- 
ly in a fit. 

Black Betsey, Indian woman, bur- 
ied at her own expense. 

Mr. William Smith of Haddam. in- 
terred at expense of Eliza V. 
worth. 

Gideon Merrills [son of Wilterton 
Merrills]. 

Child of Ebenezer Catlin (Ld 

Wife of David Seymour iMaryi. 
[She was the dau. of Peter I 
ris of New London, and mai 
S., Oct. 20, 1757; she d. of small 
pox, which she took at New 
don.] 

Wife of Daniel Bigelow 1 Abigail). 

Child of John Filley 1 Lucretia). 

Child of John Baruot, Jr. 

Joseph Morris of Coventry. In- 
terred at the expense of 
Pierce. 

Child of Daniel Sheldon. 

Grace Whaples. 

Mrs. Phelps (the V. 
Interred at expense or" Timothy 
Phelps, Jr. Aged 96. [ 1 >au. of 
John Pratt, born i -. Tim- 

othy Phelps, Nov. 13, i<*>o.] 

Wife of Nathaniel Seymour | M 
dau. of Capt. Thomas and 
(Norton) Seymour, b. N 
(703]. 

Child of Moses Dickinson (in 

Wife of Joseph Bunce. 

Joseph Wadsworth* Jr. [a 

eph and Joanna (Hovey v > 

worth], bom i"i~ 
The Mother of John Sheldon ^the 

aged willow Elizabeth S 
Child o( Anna Barrel 
Child of Jonathan W 
1 torcas Brownson. 
The wife Of Aaron Bull 
Child oi John Skin:: 

after birth). 

Stephen Skinner 
and Elizabeth 
ner; bapt Mar. u, I7i5]< 



184 



LIST OF BURIALS, 



. 20 

Sept. 19 



Oct. 



6 
9 
9 

11 

11 
17 
24 
24 
25 
3i 



Nov. 4 
6 





18 


Dec. 


20 


1759. 


Jan. 


16 




26 




27 


Feb. 


23 




24 



28 

March 6 

7 



26 



28 



April 


19 




27 


May 


12 




22 


July 


3 



14 

23 

Aug. 2 
10 
14 
24 

27 

29 



Child of Thomas Ensign (Thomas). 30 

A Sister of Benjamin Bigelow (Ly- 

dia Thomas). [Probably sister April 2 

of his wife, Levinah Thomas, 

who was b. in Marlboro, Mass.] 
John Butler, Jr. 
William Day, Jr. , died in the army. 2 

[Son of William and Elizabeth 

(Andrus) Day.] 
Daughter of Joseph Bigelow. 
Child of Jared Bunce (Jared). 
Child of James Mookler (infant, 

still born). 
Child of Zachariah Seymour. 
Child of Uriah Shepard (Nathaniel). 
Child of Elisha Bigelow (Normand). 
Child of Elisha Bigelow (Samuel). 
Child of Richard Goodman (Sarah). 
Child of Joseph Hosmer. 
Child of Alexander, the French- 
man. 
Widow Mary Richards, aged go. 
John Caldwell (Capt.). [Son of 

John Caldwell, who came to 

Hartford about 1725, from Beith, 

in North Britain; bapt. Jan. 30, 

I757-] 
Child of Lieut. Richard Goodman 

(Hezekiah). 
Child of Alexander, the French- 
man. 
Child of Matthew Webster. 

Child of Thomas Noble. 

Child of Samuel Shepard. 

Child of Lieut. Richard Goodman 
(Huldah). [Bapt. July 22, 1753.] 

Child of Samuel Shepard (Hannah). 

Child of Capt. John Lawrence (Ed- 
ward). 

Child of Robert Sanford (infant 
dau. still born). 

vStephen Watson. 

The Wife of Thomas Hopkins 
( Mary, dau. of Nathaniel Beck- 
ley of Wethersfield ; born 1696]. 

The Wife of Robert Sanford (Hul- 
dah). 

Two Children of Caleb Bull in one 
grave. 

Child of Thos. Hopkins (still born). 

Child of Lieut. Hezekiah Marsh 
(infant). 

The Wife of Zachariah Seymour 
I Sarah, dau. of Jonathan and 
Dorothy (Mygatt) Steele]. 

Child of James Shepard (Epaphe- 

as, infant). Feb. 4 



Sept. 


9 




10 




13 




13 




M 




15 




23 




30 


Oct. 


8 




12 


Nov. 


17 




26 


Dec. 


6 




6 




6 


1760. 


Jan. 


8 




19 




24 



The Wife of Thomas Hopkins, Jr v 

(Anne). 

Widow Rachel Cook ("the aged"), 
[mar. Oct. 8, 1705, Joseph Cook, 
dau. of Samuel and Sarah (Rich- 
ards) Spencer, Jr.] 

James Barnot, a son of John Barnot. 

Child of Widow Elizabeth Wads- 
worth (Elizabeth, infant). 

Ziba Warren, son of Thomas War- 
ren. 

Maynard Day [son of John and 
Sarah (Maynard) Day]. 

Gideon Thompson, Esq. 

Child of Col. George Wyllys. 
(George). [Bapt. Dec. 19, 1756.] 

Child of Jonathan Olcott (Anna).. 
[Born 1754.] 

Uriah Shepard. 

Child of Thomas Burr, Jr. (Thomas). 

Child of Richard Seymour. 

Child of Elijah Clapp. 

Child of John Skinner (infant). 

Child ot Charles Kelsey, Jr. (Hul- 
dah). 

Daughter of Daniel Butler (Thank- 
full). 

John, son of Richard Edwards and 
Mary Butler, his wife [b. July 

3i, 1757]- 

Isaac, son of Isaac Bunce [bapt. 
Oct. 1, 1758]. 

Anna, daughter of Daniel Butler. 

Child of Joseph Barrett. 

Child of Moses Taylor. 

Child of Benjamin Watrous. 

Child of John Sheldon (Samuel). 

Child of Edward Dodd (Lydia). 

Child of Edward White (Edward). 

Child of Persis Bunce. 

Son of Richard Seymour. 

Wife of Richard Seymour [Eliza- 
beth, dau. of Joseph and Joanna. 
(Hovey) Wads worth. 

Child of Levi Jones (Mille). 

Child of Eunice Cross. 

John Sperry, belonging to New- 
Haven. 

A Soldier who died at the Widow 
Pratt's. 

Prudence Ayres, a child interred at 
the expense of John; Barnot, Jr. 

Elijah Cadwell. 

Child of Widow'Catherine Brace. 
Child of John Pantry Goodwin 
(Hezekiah). [Bapt. Feb. 13, 1757.] 
Child of Lieut. Richard Goodman 



CENTER CHURCH BURYING GROUND, HARTFORD. ,85 



28 
April 3 

14 



May 21 
3i 

July 4 

7 





13 




28 


Aug. 


10 


Sept. 


8 




8 




4 


Oct. 


7 




25 


Nov. 


10 



Dec. 



17 



19 
22 

27 
1761. 

Jan. [ 4 
4 



(Sarah). [Bapt. Dec. 30, 1759.] 

Child of John Lord (infant). 

Child of John Thomas (Rachael, 
died before baptism). 

Hezekiah Merrills [son of Deacon 
Daniel and Susanna (Pratt) Mer- 
rill]. 

Child of Isaac Bunce (infant son, 
still born). 

Abigail Gilbert. 

Caleb Church [son of John and Ab- 
igail (Cadwell) Church, b. 1703]. 

Child of John Sheldon (still born). 

Widow Olcott (the aged widow Sa- 
rah). [Dau. of Sergt. John and 
Mary (Barnard) Bunce, bapt. Jan. 
1, 1681-2.] 

Mary Burkett (dau. of Uriah). 

The mother of Gideon Bunce 
[Amy, widow of Joseph Bunce]. 

Mary Ann, dau. of Capt. John Law- 
rence. 

John Cole, 

Child of Caleb Bull (Martha). 
[Born Feb. 27. 1760]. 

Abigail , wife of Capt. Timo Phelps. 

Child of James Ensign. 

Abigail Thornton. 

Child of Jacob Seymour (Abigail, 
d. before baptism). 

The Mother of Samuel Bunce 
[Brace ?] (the aged widow Sarah 
Brace). 

Child of Thomas Ensign (Eliza- 
beth). 

Richard Shaw. 

Joseph Buckingham, Esq. [b. Aug. 
7, 1703. son of Rev. Thomas and 
Ann (Foster) Buckingham ; Yale 
College 1723]. 

Lieut. Samuel Catlin (the aged). 
[Son of John and Mary (Marshall) 
Catlin, born Nov. 4, 1672.] 

Thomas Mygatt.. Died with small 
pox. [Son of Zebulon and 1 )oro- 
thy (Waters) Mygatt, born 1730 | 

George Steele. Died with small 
pox. 

William Powell [mar. Elizabeth, 
dau. of Cyprian and Helena (Tal- 
cott) Nichols]. 

Persis Bunce. Died with small pox. 

Child of Joseph Rogers (infant). 

Widow Hannah Butler (the aged.) 

John Nichols ("the aged"). 
Child of Samuel Day (infant). 



Feb. 



27 



March 1 

8 



April 4 



17 

iS 

20 

May 4 

June <) 

1 1 



-/ 

July [6 

10 



Aug. 28 
Sept. 1 



30 
Oct, 1 



A SOD of Dr. Norma:. ". 
died by small pox ( Allan. ). [Bur- 
ied in St. Paul's churchy 
then a part of 1 
homestead ] 

Phineas Poster. Died with small 
pox. 

Mrs Sarah Bunce ("the aged 
o\v"). [Sarah, dau. of Zeehariah 
Sand ford, widow of Jonathan 
Bunce.] 

The Wife of Mr. I >avid Bull . M 

The Widow Sarah I I 
with small pox. 

Johanna Merrill. Died with small 
pox. 

Widow Jerusha Brace. 

Ensign Nathaniel Seymour [born 
Nov. 17. 1704; son of John and 
Elizabeth 1 Webster 1 Seymour]. 

Richard Wallis. 

Dositheus Humphrey. Died with 
small pox. [Son tbetu 

and Anne (Griswold) Hnm] 
born Nov. 27, 

The Wife of Jonathan Burke - 
rah Burket). 

Daughter of Stephen Turner (Su- 
sanna). 

Dr. Norman Morrison ': -mall 
pox). [Buried in Si 
churchyard, near his son Allan.] 

Child of Samuel Farnsworth. 

Child of James She; .. 

Col. Nathan Pa] 

Child of Mary Burke (Thomas 

Child of John Skinner S 
infant). 

Child of Pelatiah P - muel, 

infant). 

Child o( Samuel Tilley 1 V. 

Sister of Daniel Butler (1 I 

Child i^\ Pelatia a, in- 

fant ). 

Son of Stephen TttTB 

Child i^' Jare B 
born 1. 
Samuel Ho 
John Butlei 
limn Hosmer [s 
and A Hosmer]. 

grail w ..• 
Child oi Jonathan 1 in, in- 

fant V 
Chilil of Jos 
Child oi Timol 
ard). 



i86 



LIST OF BURFALS, 



Nov. 2 Child of James Cadwell (Gurdon). 
S Thomas Burr ("The aged Mr.") 
ig Child of Ezra Andross. 
Dec. 14 Two ihfant children of Samuel Ol- 
cott (Samuel, James). 

1762. 

Jan. 1 Child of Capt. John Lawrence 
(Peggy). 

14 Wife of James Shepard (Sarah). 

iS Elisha Johnson of Colchester, died 
in Goal. Burial charged to Jared 
Bunce. 

18 Child of David Shepard (David, 
infant). 

22 Joseph Shepard. 
Feb. 1 Evander Morrison (Revd. died Jan. 
30th. [Brother of Dr. Norman 
Morrison ; for a time minister at 
West Simsbury, now Canton.] 
8 Wife of Joseph Wadsworth (Joan- 
na). [Born about 1684; dau. of 
Lieut. Thomas and Sarah (Cook) 
Hovey of Hadley.] 

12 Wife of Thomas Long (Helena) 
[Dau. of Cyprian and Helena 
(Talcott) Nichols, born 1701.] 

26 Daniel Wadsworth (born 1720). 
[Son of Joseph and Joanna (Ho- 
vey) Wadsworth. 
Mar. 15 Child of David Bull (infant). 
April 13 William Baker, aged 84. [Son of 
John and Lydia (Baysy) Baker.] 

1 7 Jonathan [Qu. John ?] Carter (brother 

of Joshua.) (felo di se.) 
June 3 Child of Joseph Hosmer. 

28 Wife of George Olcott (Dorothy). 
[Dau. of Joseph and Elizabeth 
(Olmsted) Skinner; bapt. March 
30, 1718.] 
July n Widow Brameson. Intered at ex- 
pense of Gideon Bunce. [Abi- 
gail, dau. of Joseph and Amy 
Bunco; bapt. Mar. 28, 1731; mar. 
Patrick Bainingham.] 
31 Child of Thomas Burr (Eunice). 
Aug. 8 Child of Mary Burk. 

<) Child of Daniel ()' Lent ? 
1 1 A brother of Jonathan Butler. 
Sept. 13 Child of Phineas Cole (James). 

I 5 Child of George Lord. 

1 8 Child of Josiah Clark. 
Oct. 2 Child of Samuel Watrous. 

5 Wife of John Walker (Marion). 
[Dau. of Dr. Normand and Ann 
(Smith) Morrison; bapt. Mar. 26, 

I73M- 

I I Wife of Thomas Sanford (Amy). 



2 A Child of Peggy. Interred at ex- 
pence of the Town. Infant child 
of Margaret Kelley. 
13 The Mother of Col. George Wyllys 
(The aged Mrs. Elizabeth.) [Dau. 
of Rev. Jeremiah and Elizabeth 
(Whiting) Hobart of Haddam , Ct. ] 
Nov. 1 Child of John Skinner, Jr. (Charles) 
[Bapt. Oct. 17, 1762.] 
15 Son of James Bunce. 
24 Mrs. Grose Intered at expence of 
Daniel Sheldon. (The widow 
Susanna). [Dau. of Samuel and 
Susanna (Bunce) Howard; mar. 
Jonah Gross, Mar. 13, 1717-18.] 
Dec. 4 Child ofAbijah Clark (Mary, infant). 
31 The following persons belonging to 
' this Society died in the Army in 
the Summer past: 
Ebenezer Burlison 
Ebenezer Holmes 
Edward Cadwell 
Daniel Brace Jr. 

Brace 

Timothy Bigelow [son of Lieut. 
Timothy and Abigail (Olcott) 
Bigelow, born May 22, 1730, died 
at Charlestown, N. H. A private 
record states that he died in the 
army at Fort Stanwix in the sum- 
mer of 1762. — Bigelow Gen., '87]. 
1763. 
Jan. 25 Capt. Nathaniel Hooker [b. Oct. 5, 
1 710; Yale College, 1729; son of 
Nathaniel and Mary (Stanley) 
Hooker]. 
,31 Widow Anna Morrison [Anna All- 
wood, born in England, widow of 
Dr. Norman Morrison, and for- 
merly wife of Capt. John Smith, 
a sea captain who died on the 
voyage to Ireland about 1731J. 
Feb. 14 Mrs. Anna Hyde, widow. [Anne 
Basset, born about 1701; married 
April 24, 1722, Capt. William 
Hyde of Norwich.] 
March 3 Child of Samuel Olcott (still born). 
11 Child of Samuel Marsh (still born). 
15 The Father of William Hooker. 
April 7 Stephen Turner is Chargd the Bur- 
ial expences of Daughter Ra- 
chael's Child (still born). 
May 16 Widow Mary Cole. 

18 The Wife of Jared Bunce (Mary). 

[Dau. of Timothy and Maty (My- 

gatt) Stanley ; bapt. June 2, 1735.] 

23 Dositheus Humphrey [son of Na- 



CENTER CHURCH BURYING GROUND, HARTFORD. 187 



June 14 



23 
26 

27 

Aug. 6 





18 




28 


Sept 


22 




25 


Oct. 


2 




8 




19 




12 




23 



Nov. 





17 




22 


Dec. 


10 




16 




26 


1764. 


Jan. 


10 




29 


Feb. 


10 




18 


March 1 




5 




6 




11 




11 




23 



April 



thaniel and Agnes (Spencer) 

Humphrey, b. Dec. 4, 1709]. 
31 Mary Ellery. [Probably Mary, dau. 

of John and Mary (Austin) Ellery, 

b. April 28, 1742.] 
The Wife of Benjamin Hopkins 

(Rachael). [Bapt. Sept. 4, 1737; 

dau. of Eliphalet and Katherine 

(Marshfield) Steele.] 
Child of George Lord (infant). 
James Curry. 
Child of Thomas Hopkins. Jr. 

(Mary, infant). 
Thomas Colly er [b. in 1730, son of 

Abel and Rachel Collyer]. 
Josiah Shepard. 
Mary Hooker Daught Eunice [dau. 

of Capt. Nathaniel and Eunice 

(Talcott) Hooker]. 
Child of Mehitabel Shepard. 
Child of John Skinner, Jr. (infant). 
Child of James Taylor. 
Child of Ebenezer Barnard (Daniel). 
Child of Moses Kellogg (JerushaA 
Joseph Warrin. 

Child of Charles Kelsey Jr. (Sarah). 
Samuel Burr ("The aged"). [Son 

of Samuel and Mercy Burr ; born 

May 4, 1697.] 
The Mother of Joseph Wheeler. 
Lieut. Richard Goodman [b. Nov. 

4, 1704, son of Richard and Abi- 
gail (Pantry) Goodman]. 
Child of Jonathan Easton (Mary). 
Hezekiah Collyer (Capt.) [Born 
Mar. 22, 1707, son of Joseph and 
Sarah (Forbes) Collier.] 
Hannah Burr ("The aged"). 

The Wife of James Sutor(Mary). 

Child of Moses Shepard (Moses). 

Ebenezer Benton, Jr. 

Child of Silas Andrus (infant). 

Child of Timothy Dodd (Mary, in- 
fant). 

Wife of Timothy Dodd (Abigail). 

Benjamin Hopkins [bapt. May 11. 
1734; son of Thomas and Mary 
(Beckley) Hopkins]. 

Child of John Ellery. 

Wife of John Joy (Sarah). 

Catherine, infant dau. of Benjamin 
Hopkins, died. 
24 Benjamin('s): Child Intered at Ex 
pence of Moses Hopkins. 
8 Child of Joseph Sheldon. 
16 John Ellery [b. April 17, 1738; son 



[8 

23 
May 3 

') 
1 1 

16 



June 


6 




10 




16 




18 


July 


8 




U 


Aug. 


2 




11 



24 

Sept. 17 

28 

Oct. 5 



1765. 

Jan. 14 
21 

Feb. S 



20 



March 6 
April 5 



of John and Mary 1 Austin » Ellery ]. 

Child of Elisha Bigel ird;. 

Child of Mahitabel Shep 

Thomas Hud -on. 

Wife of J; 

Hannah Ensign (Widow; | of Thom- 
as Ensign]. 

Child of John Cook. Jr. (John, in- 
fant). 

Robert Xevins. 

Child of John Walker (infant, un- 
bapt.i. 

Wife of Elisha Audi th). 

Thomas Hopkins [son of Mephen 
and Sarahijuddi I: orn 

1692]. 

Collin Me. 

Wife of John Thomas. 

Child of Thomas Sloan (Susannah). 

Child of Ezra Corning (Mary, in- 
fant). 

Widow Hannah Bigelow [tM.rn May 
19, 1 73^, at Norwich; da- 
William and Anne I 

Wife of Cyprian Powell. 

Child of John Skinner, Jr. (ini 

The Mother of Zebnlon Spencer, Jr. 
(aged widow Sarah 1. 

Mrs. Anna Burnham <>r Bucking- 
ham. [Ann Foster, dau. of Rev. 
Isaac and Mabel (Wyllys 
wife, first of Rev. Thomas Buck- 
ingham, second of iam 
Burnham of Kensington; born in 
[739, dau. of Hon. I >. 
Sarah (Hooker) Edwards.] 
The wife of G( 

Mary Hooker. 

Still born dau. of I 

worth. 
Zebulon Seymour |b. May 14 

son o\ John and Elizabeth 1 v 

steri Se\ •■ 
Mary Burr Intered 
'Town. 

\jQ Ti qzo Gross [soi and 

Susanna (H< 

Dec 1 l, i"- i >] 
Child o\ Lieut. John ( 
Child o\ Kbem 

Child ^( Jonathan Seymour, Jr. 
[Dr.] Jonathan Bull 

Jonathan and Sal -ing) 

Bull. b. July 14. 1696]. 

ro b« eonl n 



ELLINGTON. 



BY ALICE E. PINNEY. 



Ellington was originally a part of the ancient town of Windsor, and the 
little collection of farms around the Great Marsh, or, as the Indians called it, 
Weaxskashuck, was known as Windsor Goshen. In early times an idea was 
prevalent that the land around the Great Marsh in the valley was unhealthy, 
and, in consequence, the first settlers from Windsor passed by it to the hills 
beyond. At that time the marsh consisted of a large sheet of water surround- 
ed by woods and underbrush. It has since been ditched and drained, the 
underbrush cleared away, and the greater part of it improved into good tillable 
land and pastures. . 

There is a belief among geologists that Ellington valley is an ancient lake 
bed, and that the marsh is all that is left of a prehistoric lake. This may 
account for the fertility of the soil, the smooth level sweep of land all over the 
valley, and the absence of rocks and stones. That it was a favorite resort 
of the Indians is proven by finding numberless Indian relics, such as arrow 
and spear heads, pestles, gouges, and other stone implements in the fields 
near by. 

The earliest purchase of land within the limits of Ellington was made in 
1 67 1 by Thomas and Nathaniel Bissell of an Indian named Nearawonuck. 
The first resident was Samuel Pinney (son of Humphrey Pinney, the emi- 
grant), who had for several years been engaged in surveying lands east of the 
Connecticut river. He purchased of the Indians in 171 7 a tract of land one 
and a half miles from east to west by one mile from north to south in the 
southwestern part of the town, including the greater part of what has since 
been known as Pinney street and the village of Windermere. A part of this 
tract is still in the hands of his descendants, including the spot when - 
Pinney built the first log house, and it is the only tract oi land in the town 
which has never been conveyed by deed away from the descendants of the 
original holder. No title can be found but the Indian title to S >muel Pinney. 

In 1768 all the territory lying east of the Connecticut river was ma 
town distinct from Windsor and became known as East Windsor, while in 1 ;- 
Ellington had so increased in population that it was set apart as a by 

itself and was known as Elenton, the name receiving its present spelling at a 
later date. 

Some claim that the name was originally Ellington, since the town v. 
"ell " or addition to the towns of Windsor and East Windsor. I others suppose 
the town to have taken its name from a long, narrow strip of land extending 
to the eastward. This narrow strip of land was formed before filling 
set apart as a town. At the time when the boundary line between th< 
of Connecticut and Massachusetts was fixed, 7,259 acres of land were :. 
from the old town of Monson and given to the towns of Enfield and Sumelc 



190 



ELLINGTON. 



The General Assembly of Connecticut agreed to give to the town of Monson, 
as an equivalent for what had been taken from it, certain lands in the north- 
east corner of East Windsor, and James Wadsworth and John Hall in 1713 
laid out 8,000 acres for this purpose, leaving only the long narrow ell extending 
to the Willimantic river, from which the town doubtless derived its name. 

Governor Wadsworth's descendants afterwards settled in the northeastern 
part of the town. The old Wadsworth homestead, one of the oldest houses in 
Ellington, is still standing and is owned by the descendants of the builder. 
Though it may not be the oldest house in Ellington, it is the only one that can 
prove its age, for it has a white stone tablet set in the front of the old chim- 
ney bearing the date of its erection, 1783, and the Wadsworth initials. The 
attic is rich in relics. Specially worthy of mention are a mirror made in 1749, 
an old musket carried by the present owner's grandfather at the storming of 
Quebec in the French and Indian War, and a bronze powder flask. A beauti- 
ful white stone platter, brought from Germany, was a portion of the wedding 
dowry of a Mrs. Wadsworth of a hundred years ago. 

A stone in the old Ellington cemetery marks the resting place of a certain 

"Dr. Joseph B. Wads- 
worth who departed 
this Life March ye 12. 
A. D. 1784 in ye 37th 
Year of his age." He 
graduated from Yale 
College in 1766, and 
was a surgeon in the 
Revolutionary Army. 
He was a native of 
Hartford, and subse- 
quently settled about 
a mile northeast of 
Ellington Meeting 
House. He was des- 
cribed as the hand- 
somest and most pol- 
ished gentleman of 
that day, a peculiar 
elegance and neat- 
ness of taste and style 
being a marked char- 
acteristic. He wore 
a three-cornered hat> 
scarlet coat, white or 
yellow vest and 
breeches and topped 
boots, a costume pe- 
culiar to those who 
occupied a high rank 
in society. 
Ellington cemetery was set apart early in 1700. The first deaths recorded 




CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. ELLINGTON. 



ELLINGTON. 



iqi 




THE MCKINSTREY CEMETERY 



in Ellington were those of Lieut. John Ellsworth in 1720, who was buried in 
Windsor, and of "Isibel Pinye," believed to have been an infant daughu 
Samuel Pinney, the first settler. 

Ellington cemetery is described as being at that time a forest, and a tree 
was cut down to 
make room for the 
first grave. This 
fixed the place for a 
burying ground. 
Here lie two of El- 
lington's early pas- 
tors, namely, the Rev- 
Seth Norton, who 
died in 1762, and the 
Rev. John Bliss, who 
died in 1790. Elling- 
ton's first pastor, the 
Rev. John McKins- 
trey, who died in 1754 
was buried in a sep- 
arate lot laid out for 
the purpose back of 
the first church. This 

lot, protected by a stout iron fence, has served for a burial place for his 
descendants from that time. 

In the year 1725 the "church at Windsor voted that the people of Ellington 

should be exempt 
from paying a min- 
ister's tax. if they 
would prov 
preaching for them- 
selves. So, in 
the town granted 
thirty acres for a 
minister's home lot 
and forty aero in the 
Divalent " There 
were only a 
ilies in the parish and 
they wee so poor 
thai t\\ three 

yeai 

any one can 
preach for them. In 

1730 there W 
eleven families, but 
B yea: 

hired the Rev John 
In 1733 they H 




THE BROCK WAV HOUSE 



McKinstrey, a graduate of Edinburgh University. 



192 



ELLINGTON. 



for ^40 a year and his fire wood. He was the ancestor of the family in 
Ellington bearing the name. For some reason the people were still taxed by 
the church at Windsor, and in 1734 they petitioned the Assembly for exemp- 
tion from these taxes. 
This was granted, 
and in 1735 Elling- 
ton was set apart as 
a separate parish. It 
was still difficult to 
raise the salary, 
though Mr. McKins- 
trey gave the people 
credit for being more 
benevolent than able. 
In 1736 they voted 
to build a meeting- 
house 45 feet long 
by 35 feet broad, with 
posts 20 feet high. 
The location was at 
the fork of the roads, 
west of the park of 
the present day and 
near the elms. The 
house, which faced 
the east, was not 
plastered, but was 
ceiled up to the raf- 
ters. It was unfin- 
ished overhead and 
had neither bell nor 
stove. A few of the 
wealthiest parishion- 
ers were the happy 
possessors of foot- 
stoves, but the rest of the congregation had to endure the cold as best they 
could. This house stood until the new one was built in 1804. 

The Rev. John McKinstrey resigned some time before his death, in 1754. 
For several years following the Revolutionary War the people were very poor 
and were unable to pay a settled minister. So, for a time they " candidated," 
paying the candidates in produce. In 1791 they again settled a minister, who 
remained eight years, until the coming of Rev. Diodate Brockway, Ellington's 
most celebrated and best beloved pastor. 

The Rev. Diodate Brockway was ordained in 1799, his father preaching 
the ordination sermon; and, as the church was small, the services took place 
on the green before the church, the steps serving as a pulpit. He remained 
an active pastor thirty years, but was connected with the church fifty years, 
during which time it was very prosperous. 

In 1804 a new church was built costing about $7,000, Col. Samuel Belcher, 




JUD(iE SAMUEL FINNEY. 



ELLINGTON. 



193 




THE I'INNEV HOMESTEAD. 



a noted builder of Hartford, being the contractor. It stood on the park, oppo- 
site the church of the present day. During the building of the church 
Brockway, in ascending the cupola, fell a distance of sixty-five feet and was 
quite seriously injured. In consequence he was always lame, and he was 
forced to preach the dedication sermon, in 1806, sitting in a chair. In 1813 he 
felt obliged to resign 
"because his salary 
would not support 
him. As he was 
greatly beloved, his 
salary was raised; but 
when, four years 
later, the hard times 
came, he relinquished 
a part of it. This 
was an example of 
the manner in which 
he and his people 
shared together their 
prosperity and adver- 
sity. He was heard 

to say that his marriage fees were invariably according to the circum- 
stances of the parties. The largest fee he ever received was twenty dol- 
lars, and the smallest an old-time twenty-cent piece, while at times he per- 
formed the cerei: 
for nothing. He died 
in 1849, having had 
charge of the church, 
with the aid 01" 
leagues, until 
years before his 
death. 

The present 
gregational church 
which staiuls oppo- 
site the park vras 
dedicated A 
1 m»s. after which the 
old church of 1^:4 
was taken down 
removed toRockville. 

There it serves 
opera house, the 
lower story being occupied by the Rockville Journal. The first deao 
the Ellington church, Isaac Davis, was chosen before the church was fairly 
organized. 

Although Ellington was not incorporated as a town at the tune of the 
Revolution, yet she did her part nobly in sending men to the war A 
the most noted of these was Lieut. Klea.cr Pinney, son of Capt B 




FRANKLIN HOUSE. 



194 



ELLINGTON. 



Pinney and grandson of Samuel Pinney. He was twenty-three years old at 
the beginning- of the war. In the campaign against Burgoyne he was sergeant 
in a corps of Connecticut militia that distinguished itself. He took part in the 
battles of Stillwater and Saratoga. He was one of the division that stormed 
Burgoyne's camp and he witnessed the surrender. Other soldiers from Elling- 
ton were Lemuel Pinney, Jonathan Buckland, Sr., Jonathan Button, Wareham 
Foster, Daniel Sanger, Paul Hamilton, and Daniel Pierson who not only served 
as a volunteer but also furnished a man for the regular army at his own ex- 
pense. Daniel Pierson and Samuel, his brother, took part in the Battle of 




ELLINGTON S FIRST TAVERN. 



Long Island, and were with Washington in the retreat that followed. Dr. 
Joseph Kingsbury served as surgeon from Ellington, while Ebenezer Nash, 
one of the early settlers, was a member of the Constitutional Convention 
of 1787. 

The first merchant within the limits of what afterwards became the town 
of Ellington is said to have been a Mr. McLean, who kept a store on the old 
road formerly leading to Job's Hill, west of the old Daniel Warner place, in 
the northern part of the town. This appears at that time to have been a cen- 
tral location, for it is also recorded that the first blacksmith shop was located 
about eighty rods northeast of the same house. John Hall, Sr., was probably 
Mr. McLean's successor as merchant, and is reported to have become very 
wealthy. He used to travel to and from Boston on horseback, and much of his. 



ELLINGTON. 



19! 



stock was brought from that city in the ponderous saddle bags which he 
carried. 

He died at the beginning of the present century, and his son, John Hall, 
Jr., the founder of the old High School, inherited much of his wealth. 

The first.tavern in Ellington, built about 1790, is still standing, and is now 
occupied as a farmhouse by Mr. Fenlon Dow, A few years later, a hotel was 
kept at the house long known as the Horace Chapman place on the east street. 
It was in a good location, on the old stage road from Vernon to Somers, at its 
junction with one of the first surveyed roads leading from Ellington to Tol- 
land. The first proprietor of this hotel was Wareham Foster, an old Revolu- 
tionary hero, and his successor was Gordon Smith of Enfield. Gordon Smith 
sold the property to John Chapman, who continued to keep the hotel for some- 
time, but eventually turned it into a farmhouse. 

In 1823 the present hotel was built and was named the Franklin House, its 
first proprietor being William Ransom of Vernon. It is situated in the center 




THE GRE 



JEN, SHOWIM: sill' OF SECOND CHURCH EDIFICE 



of the main street instead of on the stage turnpike, and doubtless 
business to the hotel on the corner. This house is still used as a 'note 
old sign bearing the portrait of Benjamin Franklin still swings from the 
elm before the door. 

About the beginning of the present century the busin< M the tOWO 
changed its location again to a point on the old turnpike a 
present center, near the junction with the road leading to Stafford,wh< 
thriving store was kept in an old red gambrel-rooted hor.se by Dr lames 



i 9 6 TEMPEST. 

Steele of Tolland. Although he bore the professional title of doctor, he is re- 
corded as being a merchant and a farmer. He died in 1819. Lucius Chapman 
is said to have kept the store from 1825 until 1856, when he sold out and went 
West and the place was abandoned for store purposes. 

Early in 1829 the famous Ellington High School was built .by the Hon. 
John Hall. He was not only the founder of the school, but he was also its 
first principal, and he may justly be termed the pioneer educator of Tolland 
County. The school was first started in a small one-story building, which was 
afterward sold and moved to Pinney street at the time of the erection of 
what afterwards became the famous High School. This second building soon 
became famous as a high grade boarding and day school. After the death of 
Dr. Hall it changed hands several times, and finally, after standing vacant for 
several years, was destroyed by fire in 1875. 

Ellington in its primitive days was noted for its extensive rye fields, which 
supplied the neighboring distilleries with grain, a single lot containing some- 
times as much as a hundred acres, and the pastures were covered with flocks of 
sheep and herds of cattle. But times have changed and the former rye fields 
now yield crops of tobacco, corn, potatoes and fruit, until, as a recent historian 
says, " the whole valley is a well cultivated garden." And with the rye fields 
have vanished the distilleries for which they formerly supplied the grain. 



TEMPEST. 



BY DELIA B. WARD. 



They sing, weird voices, of the past, 

Ah, wailing rhapsody, thou hast 

A soft refrain for every woe, 

A sympathetic cadence low: 

While rushing winds, in phantom glee, 

Retune the chords to revelry. 

Oh, mad carousal! Where is he 

Who can create such symphony 

Of clashing sounds, and direful moans, 

And underlying monotones ? 



SKETCH OF AUGUSTUS H. FENN. 



KY JOSEPH H. VAILL 



Augustus Hall Fenn, member of the Supreme Court of Errors, v. 
death occurred in Winsted, September 12, 1897, was born at Plymouth, Conn., 
January 18, 1844. His parents were Augustus L. and Maria Hall Fenn. His 
ancestors settled in New Haven in 1639, and the sterling characteristics he ex- 
hibited indicate inheritance from sturdy ancestry of colonial days. 

The foundation of his education was laid in the common school of his na- 
tive town, upon which he built, later on, at the Waterbury high school. He 
early showed unusual literary talent, and at fifteen published a volume of 
poems, which he studiously hid from the public eye, however, in later ye; 

He began the study of law at the age of eighteen with Hon. Ammi < . - 
dings in his native town, but relinquished it after a few months to enlist in the 
army. He entered the military service as lieutenant in the 19th Conn. Volun- 
teers, in July, 1862. . The following year, when his regiment became the 
Conn. Heavy Artillery, he was advanced to a captaincy. The adjutant and 
historian of his regiment says of 
him: "He proved himself one of the 
best drill masters and disciplinarians 
in the regiment, and one of the most 
competent officers in every position. " 
He served for a time on the staff of 
General Emory Upton, and was five 
times detailed as judge advocate. At 
the battle of Cedar Creek he lost his 
right arm. Hospital surgeons who 
attended him proposed to muster 
him out for disability, but he pro- 
tested, and through the influence of 
Gen. Ranald S. Mackenzie he was re- 
tained. " In less than seven weeks 
from the time his arm was taken off 
at the shoulder he reported for full 
duty," writes his regimental histo- 
rian, and he subsequently partici- 
pated in several engagements. He 
was promoted to major in January, 
1865, and was brevetted lieutenant- 
colonel and colonel for conspicuous 
instances of bravery. 

Colonel Fenn was mustered out 
of the military service with his regiment August 18, 1865, and the 
month resumed the study of law with Gen. S, W. Kellogg in Waterbury He 
was admitted to the bar of Litchfield county. February 15, tfl U ** *ei v 
he pursued a course of study for a year at the Harvard Law School. 




|UD< 



\gS 



AUGUSTUS H. FENN. 




BOYHOOD HOME OF JUDGE FENN, PLYMOUTH, CONN. 



which he received the degree of bachelor of laws. After practicing a year 
in Waterbury, he opened an office in his native town, where he continued in 
the practice of his profession until 1875. He was 3 ud £ e of probate several 
years in Plymouth, holding also several other minor public offices. In 1875 ne 
was Republican nominee for secretary of state, but his party ticket was unsuc- 
cessful in that election. 

In 1876 he removed to Winsted, which since that time has been his home. 
He had become an ardent admirer of Samuel J. Tilden in his fight against the 
" Tammany ring " of New York, his admiration being so strong as to lead him 

to remark that if Til- 
den should be a Pres- 
idential candidate, 
he should support 
him. He was true 
to his word, and thus 
became allied with 
the Democratic par- 
ty. He was judge of 
probate in the dis- 
trict of Winchester 
several terms, and by 
the careful study of 
that branch of his 
profession, became 
known as one of the 
best authorities of the state on probate law. In 1884 he represented 
Winchester in the General Assembly, serving on the judiciary committee and 
as chairman of the committee on forfeited rights. In 1885 he was appointed 
by the Governor member of a committee to revise the statutes, a task of which 
he performed his full share. 

Notwithstanding his changed political affiliations he continued to hold the 
highest esteem of his former political associates, for he was never regarded as 
strenuously partisan. He was nominated judge of the Superior Court in 
1887 by a Republican governor, and as associate justice of the Supreme 
Court of Errors in 1892 by another governor of the same party. His appreci- 
ation of these advancements at the hands of his political opponents was such 
as to lead him to say — when his name was mentioned in various news- 
papers in connection with gubernatorial honors — that he should never allow 
himself to accept nomination for any position which would bring him into com- 
petition with any Republican. He had been advanced in his profession by his 
political opponents and felt that it would indicate lack of appreciation, or in- 
gratitude, were he to take advantage of his promotion to the bench as a step- 
ping-stone to further political preferment. 

It may be well doubted if there can be recalled, within the remembrance 
■of the present generation at least, another equally conspicuous instance show- 
ing firmer or more intimite friendships than existed between Judge Fenn and 
those who differed with him politically. His relations with his townspeople, 
with his professional associates and with his comrades of the war were such as 
to indicate that political differences were not thought of, or if thought of were 



AUGUSTUS H. FENN. 






no bar to the most intimate confidences. His loyalty to his personal fri- 
and neighbors was not unlike that he exhibited to his country— firm and un- 
wavering. In the Presidential campaign of 1896 he affiliated with the Repub- 
lican party. 

As an advocate, Judge Fenn is remembered as possessing gifts which, if 
they did not draw spectators to the court room, at least prolonged their 
His addresses were listened to with an attention rarely warranted by the mer- 
its of the cause at issue. His language was concise, and he had such excellent 
choice of expression as to make his arguments models of diction. It was clear 
to the listener that he had the main points of his argument well arranged in 
his mind. His citations from authorities indicated not only a well read law- 
yer, but the happy faculty of weaving them into the warp and woof of his 
argument with harmonious effect. His success as an attorney was so fullv 
recognized during his period of practice that he was never without a long 
list of clients. 

Judge Fenn first sat on the supreme bench as a regular member at the 
May term in Norwich, in 189 1, although his appointment by the Legislature 
was not completed until the 2d of February, 1893. His last duty was at the 
May term in Norwich, 1897. He was regarded by his associates of that tribu- 
nal as an agreeable companion, cheerful, kindly, sympathetic and generous. 
He had unusual power to acquire knowledge, a singularly clear and retentive 
memory, great industry and wonderful endurance. He had read not only the 
common books of the law but some which are not commonly looked at. He 
had read most of the text of Littleton in the Norman French, Fearne's Con- 
tingent Remainders, and had gone over Coke's second, third and fourth Insti- 
tutes. His mind 
worked rapidly and 
he came to conclu- 
sions quickly. It is 
said of Lord Eldon 
that he was never 
quite ready to de- 
cide a case, because 
he always doubted. 
Judge Fenn, while he 
was always conscious 
that all human judg- 
ments are liable to 
error, gave to every 
case his best judg- 
ment, came to that 
conclusion which he 
deemed to be the 
correct one, and then 
laid it aside. He 
never seemed to be distressed by doubts. He had verv little pride of opin 

ion, and not any pride of position. 

In consultation, Judge Fenn was always considerate and fa 
listened to others with the greatest patience, and was always ready to yield, 




S HOME in ^ INS ill' 



AUGUSTUS H. FENN. 

so far as possible, in order to secure a unanimous judgment. It is difficult to 
recall a dissenting opinion written by him; he has joined another judge some- 
times in a dissent. He was a favorite with lawyers who argued before the 
court, because he was always attentive. His written opinions are regarded as 
a pretty accurate reflex of his mind. He worked rapidly; his opinions indicate 
that quality, and some of them show a want of careful revision. His relations 
with his associates on the bench were always intimate and confidential rather 
than professional, and he appeared to be regarded as a younger brother rather 
than as a rival in the profession or in the struggle for preferment, and his 
death came to them like a personal affliction. 

Judge Fenn was president of the Connecticut Army and Navy Club at 




LIBRARY IN WINSTED RESIDENCE. 



time of his death, a member of the Grand Army of the Republic, and of the 
Loyal Legion. His patriotic impulses found their best medium of expression 
in public addresses on Memorial Day and on similar occasions. He was presi- 
dent of the Winchester Memorial Park Association, trustee of the Gilbert 
School and Home, and identified with various other local organizations. He 
possessed a reverent nature, and, though not a communicant, was a regular 
attendant of the Congregational church. His domestic relations were of an 
agreeable character, and to him there was " No place like home." He was 
twice married — in 1868 to Frances M. Smith of Waterbury, and in 1879 to Mary 
E. Lincoln of Winsted. His widow and four children survive him — Emory, 
Augusta, Lucia and Lincoln — two by each marriage. 



ART EDUCATION IN THE "ROSE OF NEW ENGLAND 



BY ALICK W. COGSWELL 



THROUGH articles which have recently appeared in the pages of this mag. 
azine, as well as in other ways, many readers of the QuaiTterly have been 
made familiar with the interesting landmarks of "ye ancient tow: 
Norwich" and with the quaint or stately figures who have played well their parts 
in its history in days gone by. To many others, doubtless, it is also well known 
as an educational center through its admirably equipped preparatory school, 
the Norwich Free Academy. Perhaps, however, fewer people throughout the 
state have thought of the little city on the Thames as an art center. X 




SLATER MEMORIAL AND NORWICH FREE ICAD1 MY 

theless, it is slowly but surely winning public recognition as such thj 
Art Museum and its Art School, which are both closely allied to I 
Academy. 

Both of these have their home in the Slater Memorial 1 
the institution from a former student of the Academy and a ; 
citizen of the town, "in grateful recognition of the advantages : 
and in memory of his father, for many years a member of the 
tees. The same generous friend also equipped the Museum 



with a co!1e< 



202 



ART EDUCATION IN THE 




ENTRANCE HALL — SLATER MEMORIAL 




MKl'. (VICTORY) OF THE THIRD 

I I KV, B. C. 

Found in the island of Samoth- 
race, 1867. 



of casts, now numbering nearly four hundred, repre- 
senting the best sculpture of the Classic and Renais- 
sance periods, and also a collection of very fine pho- 
tographs of the world's best art in painting and archi- 
tecture. These were very carefully selected under 
the supervision of Mr. Edward Robinson, curator of 
the Boston Art Museum, and are most admirably ar- 
ranged to display them to the best possible advan- 
tage both for the general public and for the stu- 
dent. The Museum was formally dedicated in 1888. 

The donor of this noble gift, as well as the board 
of trustees of the Academy, realized that much yet 
remained to be done to make the Museum fully 
exert its due influence on the community, and to 
meet this recognized want the foundation of the Art 
School followed two years later. 

The aim of the trustees was to offer a thorough 
training in art to those residents of the town and of 
tnis section of the state who desire to develop "the 
power to understand, to enjoy or to create the beau- 
tiful." Five rooms in the Memorial Building were 
set apart for the use of the School. Both day and 
evening classes were established, the day classes in- 
tended for those students who could give much time 
to study, the evening classes mainly — but by no 



[ROSE OF NEW ENGLAND:' 



2V 3 



means solely— for wage earners who were occupied during the day but who de- 
sired a training in art either simply for personal education or as a means to 
increase their ability in their chosen fields of labor. The school pursu- 
work along three main lines— drawing and painting, modelling, and design. 

All new movements in any community at first awaken great popular en- 
thusiasm, and Norwich was no exception to the rule. Art became a fad for a 
time, applications for membership were very numerous the first year— espe- 
cially for the evening classes— and the student with the customary roll of 
charcoal paper was as familiar a figure as the granite soldier on Chelsea Pa- 




PKCK LIP.RARY. 



rade. But alas, many of these would-be artists soon discovered thai M Art is 

long," lost patience and fell by the wayside, finding it a far ci f from drai 

"block " hands and feet to representing the Venus of Milo or the Praxil 

Hermes. Next year the inevitable sifting process followed. This - 

the chaff and left a residue of earnest workers who had counted the cost and 

believed that the pleasure the pursuit of art brings with it is worth tl 

fice and self-denials it demands. Since that time the school has K 

sound working basis. Year by year since its foundation it has ,u - 

in earnestness of purpose, in directness of aim and in esprit di 

small but steady increase in numbers since the second year shows \ but 

healthy growth. 

I wish I might take my readers on a tour oi inspection of the 
well-lighted rooms in the Slater Memorial Building which are del 
the use of the Art School. On the right, after the great cntrar.ee door 



204 



ART EDUCATION IN THE 



swings open and admits us into the lofty entrance hall, we should first 
enter the evening class room, a large apartment divided into alcoves by 
screens hung with casts, and well arranged for artificial light. A stroll 
about would show us that the room, which is deserted by day, must, in the 




PREPARATORY ROOM. 



three evenings of the week when it is occupied, be a hive of industry, for 
many of the unfinished drawings on the boards show how much may be 
accomplished in even a limited amount of time when energy is directed to one 
aim alone. 

Let us ascend one flight of stairs — and we reach the Design Room, where, if 
our visit is made in the morning, we shall find busy students working at large 
tables either drawing in first drafts of problems in charcoal or filling in the 
prepared pencil outlines with water colors. A glance over the shoulders of the 
pupils or at the walls of the room will show us what these " problems " are. 
Persian rugs, tiles, placques, fans, grille work, etc., hanging on the walls are an 
evidence of the kind of work done here. No (so-called ) original work of any 
kind in this department can be done, however, without a firm grasp of the 
principles used in decorative work by the nations which have preceded ours on 
the stage of history. A course covering many months in the History of Orna- 
ment, from the first efforts of savage tribes down to the best achievements 
of the Renaissance, is required of every pupil who enters this department and 
wishes to reach success in it. 

A satisfactory course in Historic Ornament would be impossible were not 
a large and well equipped collection of casts, books, prints and photographs 



"ROSE OF NEW ENGLAND." 



205 



available. Such a collection, however, is always at hand in the Peck Library, 
located in a beautiful room, spacious and well-lighted, on the same floor. This 
library is very rich in literature and photographs relating to art; and large ta- 
bles, with racks for holding the pictures, afford the best opportunities for 
sketching. These collections are always accessible to students of the Art 
School and are in constant use. 

To make the art treasures of the building still more useful to the students 
and to the public, courses of lectures on sculpture, painting, architecture or dec- 
oration are held each winter and are illustrated by the casts and photographs. 

Leaving the library, another flight up brings us to the Preparatory R 
where, if it is the first of the school year, we shall find students at all stages of 
progress, from those who are drawing from casts of block hands and feet to 
those who are working from the most delicately modelled heads. When a 
scholar in the judgment of the teacher has gained proficiency enough in draw- 
ing from the head, he is promoted to the Museum to draw from the full-length 
figure. 

Still one more flight up, and under the roof we find another knot of pupils 
working in oil or charcoal from the living model. 

On Thursday afternoon of each week the sketch class also works for two 
hours from a model in pencil, pen and ink, or water color. This class was 




C] \ss i\ DESIGN. 



started and is maintained by the students themselves, each member in ton 

providing a model for the afternoon. 

No mention of the Art School would be complete without ■ word about 



2o6 



ART EDUCATION IN THE 



the Children's Class which has proved such a success in the School. The idea 
of the possibility of training young children in the elements of art and thus 
fitting them to know and appreciate the beautiful is not a very new one, as it 
is recognized more or less in the public schools of most progressive cities of 
any size throughout the country. But of course any thorough instruction in 
this line cannot be carried on in the common schools, owing to the lack of time 
and the requisite facilities. Several art schools in the country, however, have 
opened classes on Saturday for children between the ages of eight and thir- 
teen years, in order to give them a more comprehensive art education than is 
possible in the public schools. . Such a class was opened here in 1895. Tne 

















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^HZvfl P tS - ' k. We«w 




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B 



ART MUSEUM. 



lessons, which the little pupils enjoy thoroughly, include drawings from ob- 
jects and from casts, composition from subjects given by the teacher, rapid 
sketching, and painting in water color and pastel. In the spring term they 
also model in clay. 

Not the least valuable are the walks in the Museum with the teacher, 
where a cast is pointed out, its story both historical and mythical told, and 
then it is sketched by the young art students. Knowledge gained in that way 
is absorbed without conscious effort and as a pleasure rather than a task. That 
this training of eye and hand is appreciated by the parents is shown by the 
applications for admission which became so numerous this year that a second 
class was formed. 

For six weeks in the Spring a teacher from New York gives instruc- 
tion in modelling, and for that time the preparatory and antique classes devote 
their time to that. 

Each year exhibitions of art work of various kinds are held by the school 



"ROSE OF NEW ENGLAND." 

for the benefit of the students themselves and for the broadening influence 
they may exert on the community. Such exhibitions have included both pic- 
torial and industrial art. Furniture, rugs, porcelains, book bindings, stained 
glass designs, magazine illustrations, pictures, etc., have been some of the 
phases of art work represented. That these displays and the atmosphere of 
the Art School as a whole are slowly but surely exerting an influence upon the 
people of the town is shown by the increased interest in, and the more intelli- 
gent comprehension of the work of the school shown at the annual exhibitions 
each year. 

There is also a very pleasant social side to the life of the School, which is 
not yet so large but that a spirit of camaraderie exists among the 'students 
With the purpose of furnishing a bond of union between those pupils who are 
working in other places and those still in the school or in the town, a flourish- 




LIFE CLASS. 

ing "Art Students' Association" was formed three years ago which holds 
monthly meetings where papers on art topics are read ami discussed. It is 
also pledged to forward in any way possible the interests of the Art School. 

With one exception, this is the only art school in the country in which a 
scholarship given free for one year has been offered by the Art S 
League of New York. This example was followed by a like offer from the 
Boston School of Design. To obtain these scholarships drawings are sal 
ted to the authorities of these schools, the best set, of cours g the 

award. 

The good work done in the Norwich Art School is recogni sed DJ the 
metropolitan schools; and the students who go from it. either to such institu- 
tions or to labor independently, show the effect of the thorough ' 
have received here. 




THE LIGHT OF OTHER DAYS. 



THE BRISTOL HISTORICAL AND SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY. 



BY PIERA ROOT NEWELL. 
Pen and ink sketches bv Antoinette Newel 



The Bristol Historical and Scientific Society had its beginning at the Bris- 
tol Centennial in 1885, anc ^ received its initial impetus from the addresses de- 
livered on that occasion by Prof. Tracy Peck of Yale and by Senator Joseph R. 
Hawley, who suggested that the collection of articles loaned for exhibition at 
that time should be made the basis of a permanent historical museum. 

But while due honor should be given to those who proposed laying the 
foundations of a museum, to three so-called antiquarians of Bristol, Dr. Fred- 



PM 








MR. AND MRS. TllOMA- BARNES, Descendants of Bristol's first settlers. 



BRISTOL HISTORICAL AND SCIENTIFIC SOCIE TV. 

erick H. Williams, William C. Richards and Edward E. Newell, the credit be- 
longs of following these suggestions and forming the Bristol' Historical and 
Scientific Society. 

On June 18, 1890, about one hundred citizens of Bristol met in the Court 
Room of the Town Hail to consider the advisability of organizing such a soci- 
ety and to appoint a committee to draft a 
constitution and by-laws and present them 
for action on the second of July following. 
The adjourned meeting was held and the 
constitution was adopted and a president and 
a board of directors were elected. On Aug- 
ust 28 a meeting of this board was held 
and a committee appointed to hire the upper 





REEL AND SWIF 



FLAX Willi I . 



room in a block which had just been completed and to have charge of all arti- 
cles donated to the Society. 

In 1891 the cause of history and science seemed to languish, for at the an- 
nual meeting there was not a quorum present. 

September 27, 1892, is the date of the last minutes recorded with this dy- 
ing wail, "Annual meeting adjourned for want of quorum." 

In spite Of all obstacles, want of encouragement from the public and Deed 
of money to carry onlthe enterprise, two faithful souls toiled on, collet 
labeling and arranging. Just as they were on the verge of despair, seriously 
contemplating the wisdom of letting the Society die a natural death. 
Randolph DeB. Keim, the organizing regent of the Connecticut Daught* rs 
the American Revolution, visited the rooms. By her appreciation and 
est in the collection she so inspired the Bristol Daughters that they voluni 
assumed the care of the relics of "ye olden time." 

After this preamble, come with me and see how our great-grandmotli 
lived and toiled and moiled, and perhaps we shall come away thankful tot 
mercies that we did not live in those "good old days.*" 

Up one flight of stairs; up two flights of stairs; at the third we 
contemplation and possibly — breath, wondering if these stairs have do! BOOM 
thing to do with the indifference of the public to this Society. 

A glimpse of a scarlet cloak in the room above, a bit of "grandfa 
clock " and a big wheel attract our attention at once, ami we mount the last 



2IO 



BRISTOL HISTORICAL AND SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY. 



flight. A bewildering array of wheels, looms and all kinds of kitchen utensils 
meets our eyes; but we must first visit the portrait gallery, for, "in treasuring 
the memory of the fathers, we best manifest our regard for posterity." Here 
are the pictures of representative men of the town whose labors are ended, 
with some particularly interesting portraits of a few of the early settlers of 
Bristol. 

Passing out of the gallery we notice at the left a rotary stove, which 
was a sort of labor-saving machine, for the pots and kettles were not 
lifted off the stove, but gracefully swung around the circle. Standing near 
are several foot stoves, many of which, no doubt, have often been carried to 





FLAX-BREAK. 



ROTARY STOVE. 



"the meetin' house on the hill," in those days when it was considered a means 
of grace to shiver and shake with cold while receiving spiritual food. 

On the beam at our right hangs a row of lanterns appropriately labeled 
"The Light of Other Days." Some of these are really valuable, even though 
they have a battered and woe-begone appearance and look as if they had been 
out very late o' nights. Here is a flax-break; in the corner stands a carpet- 
loom, one of the many treasures acquired by the unremitting labors of the col- 
lectors for the Society. 

Near the loom stands a target, an Indian in war paint and feathers, used 
by a rifle company, the "Old Bristol Blues." 

This queer-looking barrel was made from the trunk of a pepperidge tree 
and was used for holding salt. A tall old-fashioned clock looms up before us. 
It was made by Gideon Roberts, the founder of the clock industry in Bristol. 
It is said he owned the first chaise in Bristol, and it is pleasant to think of him 
driving over the hills with his bride, Falla Hopkins, from Hartford. We trust 
he was not so much absorbed in thoughts of " those parts of eighty clocks 
which he meant to put together by May ist," and in "collecting timber for one 



BRISTOL HISTORICAL AND SCIENTIFIC S0CIE1 I 



2 I 



thousand more," that he could not notice the lights and shadows on the hills 
as they drove back to their substantial house on Fall Mountain. 

On the table near the north wall can be found kitchen utensils of all 
kinds, farming implements, water bottles, canteens, cow-bells, saddle ' 
churns, mortars and pestles and many articles for domestic use. A 
handled wooden peel brings up visions of the old brick oven; a hanging grid- 
dle, toasters and tin bake-ovens call back the days when our great- grand- 
mothers cooked by an open fire. 

Here are candlesticks galore. It does not take much imagination for us 
to see great-grandfather reading The Hartford Courant by the flickering light 
of a tallow candle. On this table is a carved oak chest which looks 
it might have come over in the Mayflower. At the head of the table is a lap 
organ; the bellows were worked by one arm, and at the same time the player 
was supposed to use both hands in playing! 

It requires little imagination to transfer ourselves to the other side of the 







y^jP 


i 




/* *-« 


■^Jm. 




/ JH 


J4Bl> 




/ *n%Jt 


? tJPi » 




I *JK? 


ffflw ' 


1 







TOW BASKET, STRAW BEE-HIVE AND CHEESE BASKET. 

world as we gaze upon the Austrian piano, with its harp-shaped back, scarlet 
silk, and altogether regal air. Its history is shrouded in mystery and 
romance. 

Here are cases containing china and glass, minerals, shells, bird- eg 
old deeds, paper money, Indian relics from New England, Florida and 
Mexico; Indian and Mexican pottery, and many interesting things from ( 

fornia. 

One case has an unusually fine exhibition of Indian relics. Here can be 
seen a spear-head fourteen inches long, one of the largest known m this coun- 
try, found in Southington; also two pipes from Mt. Lamentation, near Me:-. 
den. One is of the Haidah Indian type, of Victoria. Vancouver. 1 bei 
none like it found in this vicinity, and its presence is a mystery- -unless the 
Haidah Indians came down to spend Thanksgiving with the Tin 
and left this pipe behind them ! The other pipe, which resembU 
exceedingly rare and valuable. At the back of the case ban- i estle 

in the form of an eel so cunningly fashioned that when it was found 
lieved to be a petrified eel. 

In the next case can be found, among many other intc 
white stiffly-starched linen cap with this printed label sewed upon it: J N 



BRISTOL HISTORICAL AND SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY. 



Manross, with a neat white Holland cap upon his head, starched and ironed 
with care and neatness. Oh! how proud was the wife, of her husband's cap !" 
This cap was worn by Elisha Manross, in 1765, in his honored position as dea- 
con of the Bristol Congregational Church. 

Dr. F. H. Williams, one of the originators of this Soci- 
ety, has the finest exhibit in the room. In his ethnological col- 
lection are casts of reindeer bones which were engraved by 
prehistoric men, curios from the Cliff Dwellers in Arizona, 
and a basket containing mummied bones, spindles with yarn 
and other articles from a prehistoric cemetery in Peru. He 
also exhibits grotesque images from Mexico and Egypt, Aztec 
household goods, an ancient lamp from Asia Minor, casts of 
idols, and cowry shells or African money, one hundred of which 
will buy a wife. 




NECK-YOKE. 





PIPE-TONGS. 



On a round three-legged table standing before one of the windows is a 
case of Silurian fossils. On a card with two shells is this label: "These two 
shells were once in the private collection of Washington at William and Mary 
College." 

We must not overlook the old hats and bonnets, the green calash and gum 
shoes, the pointed slippers, shell combs and other frivolities of our fore- 
mothers. 

Here is a chaise and harness once the property of Governor Trumbull, the 
"Brother Jonathan" of the Revolution, and now owned by W T . G. Bunnell of 



BRISTOL HISTORICAL AND SCIENTIFIC SOVIET V. 



2I 3 




Burlington; and here is a dugout canoe, said to be prehistoric. Over the 
spinning-jenny hang two scarlet cloaks, one of which was exhibited at the 
Atlanta Exposition. 

On the south wall is a shelf filled with churns, chairs and clocks, bake- 
ovens, bee-hives and hair trunks. On the wall are maps, charts, mirrors, pho- 
tographs, sconces, candle-holders, bellows, snow-shoes, cheese-baskets, ladders, 
presses, antlers, tusks, horns, and — 
a boot- jack ! This boot-jack does not 
seem to be proud or haughty in any 
respect, although the "immortal 
Washington " used it during the 
Revolution. 

We must not omit mentioning 
the old Bristol 
newspapers, al- 
though they are 
hardly worthy of 
notice, as they are 
mostly of a scur- 
rilous nature, not 
papers "for the 
home and fire- 
side." These were 
only occasionally 
printed and quiet- 
ly scattered in the 

community. Such were The Bristol Times, printed in 1831; 
The Bristol Bull-Let-in, 1844; Monthly Review, \%^\ and lln 

In the case in the middle of the room are some most interesting articles, 
such as one of the first electrical machines, an early form of thu ma- 

chine, colonial lamps and ancient fire-arms. 

Perhaps the most interesting article in this room is a cane once owned by 
Napoleon Bonaparte and used by him on board the Bellerophon while on his 
way to St. Helena. 

Near the wall is a set of surgical instruments once used by Dr, : 

dec, a famous Bris- 
tol physician . 
in the corner - 1 

case full 1 

documents \ 
ble and into 
ing Here can be 

found old bibles, 
almanacs. Q< I 

S 
SCll -UU- 

sic books, the first Connecticut Couran\ printed in 1764; a tac-sinnlc 1 W 
ington's account with the United States from 1775 to 1783; an Enj 



MORTARS AND PESTLES. 



The Bristol Lash; 
Old Guard, 




FOOT STOVES. 



ii 4 



BRISTOL HISTORICAL AND SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY. 



ary, "Being also an Interpreter of Hard Words;" sermons, licenses and sales of 
slaves; the Greek Testament and lexicon owned by the Rev. Samuel Newell, 

Bristol's first minister ; and "Letters to a Young 
Lady on a Variety of Subjects, Calculated to Im- 
prove the Heart, to Form the Manners and Enlighten 
the Understanding," printed in 1792. To these may 
be added "The Experienced Fowler, or the Gentle- 
man's Recreation," containing " The True Art of 
Water and Land Fowl with Divers Kinds of 
printed in 1704; a book of sermons 
"On the Education of Children," 
printed in 181 2, and, it is needless to 
say, the historic " New England 
Primer." 

Among the old papers we find a 
blank warrant for the arrest of 
" Treasonable parties against this 
and the United States," signed by 
Governor Trumbull and dated 1779. 
These warrants were issued by Capt. 
Simeon Newell, who was the only 
person authorized to fill in the 
blanks, and were aimed particularly 
against the Tories. Capt. Newell 
was at this time very energetic in 
the prosecution of the Tories, and on 
this account the blank warrants were 
issued to him, giving him unlimited power to arrest persons suspected of 
treasonable practices. Through the information which he obtained in these 
prosecutions, he learned enough of the intended treachery of Arnold to induce 
"" Our Great Washington " 
— as the record in the 
Wadsworth Athenaeum in 
Hartford says — "to fly as 
with the wings of an eagle 
to West Point." 

The following extract 
from a letter of Prof. Ma- 
son, curator of the Na- 
tional Museum at Wash- 
ington, is a handsome 
tribute to the real excel- 
lence of the collection of 
the Bristol Historical So- 
ciety : " What interested 
me most in your collection 
was the saving of rare 
specimens of old machines 
worked by hand that pre- cradle. 




AUSTRIAN PIANO. 




BRISTOL HISTORICAL AND SCIENTIFIC S0C1E1 V. 






ceded in colonial life the present great factories. I was delightfully surj, 
to see two specimens of a curious kind of belt loom of which at that time I 
only knew of the existence among- the In- 
dians of New Mexico, but stimulated by 
finding your specimens I have corresponded 
on the subject until we have pictures and 




• 



J 



d. 







CHURN. 




BREAD TOASTERS. 





FLAT IRON. CANDLE MOULD. CANDLE SCONCE. 



BKI 1 



specimens from Maine, Con- 
necticut, New York, Pennsyl- 
vania, Northern Germany, Italy 
and Lapland. I shall soon 
publish a paper on the spread 
of this interesting little appa- 
ratus." 




SNOW -SHOl 



BRISTOL HISTORICAL AND SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY. 



One of these looms, together with several other objects from the Bris- 
tol Historical 
Rooms, is now 
on exhibition in 
the National 
Museum at 
Washing-ton. 

But we have 
already lingered 
too long, so we 
can only glance 
at a dingy card 
— an invitation 
to a Columbian 
Ball given in 
Bristol, May 4th 
i8i3at Mr. Abel 
Lewis'ballroom 
at 10 'clock p.m. 





DEACON S CAP. 



BOOTJACK, 
Used by Washington. 




PITCH-PIPE. 







>^eSKSMUM^y\\v|. 










OLD MUSIC BOOK. 



BRISTOL HISTORICAL AND SCIENTIFIC SOCIhl V. 



217 





WATER BOTTLES. ', h 1 . 

We must leave the beaus and belles dancing in the old tavern, and 
although the half has not been told, register our names in the visitors' book, 
which is ever guarded by the sad-faced idol from Panama. 

Note. — Since the foregoing article was written the society has removed the collection 
from the room in the business block mentioned, to the Bristol High School building. 




GOVERNOR JONATHAN 1 KIM lUI.l/s CHAISE. 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT. 



Querists should write all names of persons and places in such a way that 
they cannot be misunderstood. Always enclose with queries a self-addressed 
stamped envelope and at least ten cents for each query. Querists should write 
only on one side of the paper. Subscribers sending in queries should state 
that they are subscribers, and preference in insertion will always be given them. 
Queries are inserted in the order in which they are received. On account of 
our limited space, it is impossible that all queries be inserted as soon as 
querists desire Always give full name and post-office address. Queries and 
notes must be sent to Wm. A. Eardeley-Thomas, 50th street and Woodland 
avenue Philadelphia, Penn. The editor earnestly requests our readers to as- 
sist him in answering queries. His duties are onerous enough in other direc- 
tions so that only a limited amount of time can be devoted to query researches. 



Notes. 

41. CONNECTICUT FOUNTAIN FAMILY. 
(Continued from page 480, Vol. III.) 
Compiled by Wm. A. Eardeley-Thomas. 

7 -. Moses"- Fountain (Aaron 1 ) m. Aug. 
13, 1 7 19, in Norwalk, Ct. (Hall's His- 
tory) the widow Elizabeth Gregory. 
Rev. Chas. M. Selleck of Norwalk, 
Ct., says she was dau. of Joseph 
Ketchum. Who was wife of Joseph 
Ketchum ? What was the first name 
of Mr. Gregory? Jan. 1732-3, Moses 
Fountain sold to Abraham Smith of 
Norwalk for £9 all claims to the 
meadow called "Gregory's Boggs," 
about two acres (Norwalk Land 
Records). March 14, 1738-9, Moses 
Fountain and Elizabeth, his wife, 
sold land for ^647 to William John- 
son (N. L. Rec). Sept. 21, 1741, 
Moses Fountain was a freeholder in 
Bedford, N. Y. (p. 37, Vol. I, Bol- 
ton's Westchester Co. History, 1881). 
July 1, 1 741, John Copp of Norwalk 
for ,£650 New England money sold 
land in Bedford to Moses Fountain, 
wit. Zebadiah Mills and John Sher- 
wood (p. 61, Vol. Ill, Bedford, N.Y., 
Town Records). 

"To all people to whom these 
presents shall come, etc.": "....Moses 
Fountain, Sr., of the town of Bed- 
ford" to Matthew Fountain a certain 
tract of land in the New "purchase," 



1756, Dec. 28, wit. Nathaniel Knap 
and Lewis McDonald (p. 55, Bed. T. 
Rec, Vol. III). I think the above 
deeds prove conclusively that the 
Westchester Co. Fountains came 
from Conn., and the early genera- 
tions as Bolton has them are entirely 
wrong. James H. Fountain, Esq., 
of Riverside, Cal., says that Moses 
mar. a Miss Whelpley, but I can 
find no authority for such a state- 
ment. March 1 770-1, " Moses Foun- 
tain, a Baptist, who lately came to 
this place" (p. 324 Stamford History, 
Rev. E. B. Huntington); Dec. 27, 
1 7 73) by a vote of the Cong'l Society, 
it abates the society rates for the 
year 1 77 1 for Moses Fountain, a Bap- 
tist (p. 325, Huntington). Sept. 16, 
1777, he took the oath of fidelity to 
the State of Connecticut in Stam- 
ford. He was . a ty thing man in 
Stamford, Dec. 13, 1779. Oct. 22, 
1 788, Moses Fountain received about 
half an acre of land from Joshua 
June (p. 54, vol. M. Stam. Land 
Rec). March 2, 1792, Moses Foun- 
tain of Smith's Clove, N.Y., for 
^£20 sold land in Stamford to Dan- 
iel Nichols, Jr. (p. 626, Vol. L, 
Stamford Land Records). Ch. Nor- 
walk, Ct. Records, (Hall's History.) 
18 — i. Moses, 3 b. Sept. 7, 1720; mar. 
, __ Mary, dau. of James 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT. 



219 



and Ruth (. 



) June. James 

was prob. son of Peter June, and (if 
so) born June 29, 1687, in Stamford. 
Page 52, Vol. Ill, Stamford Probate 
Records, contains the distribution of 
the estate of James June on Jan. 26, 
1762: he left, 1. James. 2. Joshua. 
3. Thomas (prob. father of Nathan- 
iel and Sarah, grandchildren). 4. 
Ruth, wife of Stephen Clason. 5. 
Deborah, wife of Samuel Banks. 6. 
Mary, wife of Moses Fountain. 7.. 
Hannah, wife of John Palmer. , 

Bedford Town Records, p. 29, V01 
III, the ear-mark of Moses Fountain 
Jr., is entered Jan. 24, 1748-9, Reu- 
ben Holmes, clerk. Oct. 31, 1767, 
Moses Fountain and Mercy, his wife, 
of New River, Onslow Co., North 
Carolina, for £28 sold land in Stam- 
ford to Joshua June (p. 202, Vol. H, 
Stamford Land Records). I have 
not yet been able to learn anything 
from North Carolina. This family 
has undoubtedly got mixed up with 
the Va. family in which the name 
Moses was quite common. 

19 — ii. Joseph, 3 b. Dec. 4, 1723. Noth- 
ing further is known of him. 

20 — iii. Samuel, 3 b. Mar. 7, 1725-6; m 
Jan. 20, 1746-7, in Wilton Cong'l 
Ch., Abigail, dau. of John Stuart 
(vide Norwalk, Ct., Land Records, 
Dec, 1748). He is mentioned in 1756 
in Wilton store accounts — William 
Sterling was the storekeeper. Sept. 
16, 1777, he took the oath of fidelity 
to the State of Connecticut in Stam- 
ford. He was surveyor of highways 
Dec, 1777, in Stamford; and again 
Dec 13, 1779. Feb. 21, 1784, Martha 
and Samuel Fountain for ^54 sold 
land to Jonas Scofield (p. 538, Vol. K, 
Stamford Land Records). I have 
not been able to learn anything fur- 
ther about him. 



21 — iv. Matthew, 3 b. Mar. 
m. Elizabeth Hoyt. 

[To be continued.] 



4, I73°- 



42. Descendants of Ezra 1 Perry, com- 
piled by Wm. A. Eardeley-Thomas 
(continued from page 480). The 
editor thinks it best here to publish 
such Perry items as he has not been 
able to place. Some one may be 
able to place these items. 



MARRIAGES IN SANDWICH, Ma 
(PEK TOWN RECOl 

Perry, Ann to William Raymond, Mar. 
2, 1765-6. 

Anna to Ebenezer Raymond, Mar. 
2, 1766. 

Celia to Samuel Blackwell, Jr., Feb. 
l 9> *797- 

Charles to Mary Nye, Sept. 27, 1823. 

Deborah to Hicks Jenney of Dart- 
mouth, Nov. 5, 1767. 

Deliverance to John Bourne, Nov. 
26, 1801. 

Elizabeth to Peleg Barlow, July 25, 

1717. 
Elizabeth to Job Foster, Oct 27, 

J753- 
Elizabeth to Joseph Foster, Nov, 15, 

I 753- 

Eleazer to Elizabeth Freeman, Feb. 

12, 1754. 
Eliphal to Stephen Harper, Nov. 5, 

1728 (Fr. Rec). 
Hannah to Samuel Gibbs, Jr., Sept. 

10, 1744. 
Hannah to Samuel Gibbs, Mar. 

20, 1746. 
Hannah to Jabez Swift of Falmouth, 

Jan. 30, 1755-6. Published May 

25, 1754, in Falmouth. 
Hannah to Samuel Money, Janu 

1805. 
Joanna to Joseph Bennett of Mid- 

dleboro, Dec. 18, 1S07. 
John to Hannah Sanders of Dart- 
mouth, Oct. 19, 1 
John, Jr. to Abigail Tupper, Oct 26. 

1769. 
John to Mary Swift of Falmouth, 

Jan. 20, 1793. 
Lvdia to Ellis Tobey, Jan. n, ■ 
Meribah to John B 

1 731. 
Martha to William Bourne, Jul] 

1793. 
Patience to Capt Moses W.r.ch of 

Falmouth, Mar. 1 1, 1 739 40. 

lished fan, 19, 1 739 40, ■• Falmouth. 
Rebeccato Jonathan Fuller oi F. 

stable. Mar. t, 1718 
Rebecca to Gideon Ellis, Jr., 

I74S 9, 
Rebecca to Philip Ellis, Nov ao, 

1 7 7 1 . 
Reuben to Eli febetfl * of 

Barnstable. Mai 

Ruth to fesse G 



220 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT. 



Sarah to Seth Sturtevant of Ware- 
ham, Feb. 25, 1802. 
Seth to Mercy Freeman, May 3, 

1757- 

[To be continued.] 

43- New Fairfield Families — III. 

pearce (concluded). 

Contributed by Edward H. Pearce of 
New Fairfield. 

David? Pearce, b. 1739, d. 1801; m. 
Phebe, b. 1743, d. 1819, dau. of Na- 
than and Elizabeth Stevens, and 
had: Nathaniel Stevens 2 Pearce, b. 
Feb. 23, 1 781, d. May 13, 1822; mar. 
Rebecca, b. Sept. 10, 1782, d. Feb. 22, 
1825, in N. F., dau. of Abel and 
Keziah (Hodge) Sherwood. Nath- 
aniel S. 2 and Rebecca (Sherwood) 
Pearce had: 

i. Alvah Sherwood, 3 May 9, 1803, d. 
May 6, 1875; m - Amy, b. 1801, d. 
1838, dau. of Ebenezer (David) and 
Betsey (Nash) Barnum, and had 
Amzi H.,4 b. 1829; m. F. Jane, dau. 
of Ira (Thaddeus, David) and Bet- 
sey (Bradley) Barnum. . 

ii. Ambrose Bryant, 3 Oct. 20, 1805, d. 
June 22, 1879; m - Evaline, dau. of 
Thaddeus and Abigail (Stevens) 
Barnum. 

iii. Harrison, 3 Feb. 23, 1813, d. Sept 
16, 1816. 

iv. Mary, 3 Dec. 1, 1820, d. Aug. 12, 
1821. 

Ambrose B. 3 and Evaline (Barnum) 
Pearce had: 

i. Ira Barnum, 4 Jan. 24, 1827, d. Nov. 
13, 1827. 

ii. Harriet Ann, 4 April 26, 1828; mar. 
May 9, 1853, Eli, son of Lyman and 
Sally Betsey (Elwell) Jennings. No 
issue. 

iii. Mary Jane, 4 Mar. 18, 1830, d. April 
10, 1833. 

iv. David Barnum, 4 May 21, 1832, d. 
Oct. 8, 1867; m. Oct. 13, 1853, Han- 
nah, dau. of John and Clara Elwell. 

1. Alphonso 5 went to Minn, and 
mar., but left no issue surviving. 

2. Theodore 5 died young. 

v. Ira B., 4 Dec. 13, 1835; ™ , 1st, Dec. 
1, 1858, Orpha, dau. of Lyman and 
and Sally B. Jennings, and had : 
1. Harriet Ann, 5 Sept. 22, 1863, m. 
Asa Briggs, and d. Mar. 25, 1885, 
without heirs. 2. Evaline, 5 June 29, 
1872; m. Charles Woodin, who died 
July 8, 1893, and had Harriet, 6 April 



16, 1893. Ira B. 5 m., 2d, March 21, 
1894, Cornelia Benham, wid. of Oli- 
ver Barnum. 

vi. George Nathaniel, 4 Dec. 17, 1838; 
m. Dec. 21, 1859, Lydia Ann, dau. of 
Dimon and Jane (Hoag) Disbrow 
and d. Mar. 7, 1893, s. p. 

vii. Philo Stevens, 4 Oct. 12, 1843; m < 
Oct. 27, 1869, Orva Lavenda, dau. of 
John (b. 1 821) and Jane (Ramsdell) 
Barnum, and have : 1. Thaddeus 
Bernard, 5 Sept. 6, 1870; m. Jan. 1, 
1894, Louis Hortense Newton, and 
have Ethel Margerite, 6 Mar. 8, 1895. 
2. David Arthur, 5 Oct. 2, 1873. 3. 
Lena Jane, 5 Dec. 3, 1882. 4. Am- 
brose, 5 Jan. 19, 1886. 

44. Fountain Family of St a ten Island, 

By William A. Eardeley-Thomas. 

[Continued from page 482.] 

25. Anthony 4 Fountain (Vincent, 3 Vin- 
cent, 2 Antone 1 ) d. about 181 3, aged 
90; m., 2d, between 1752 and 1756 
by Rev. Charlton Chorch of Rich- 
mond, S. I., to Hannah (Anaatje) 
Garrison, or Gerretson (p. 95, 1894 
N. Y. Gen. Biog. Rec. I have not 
not been able to learn who were the 
antecedents of Hannah Gerretson, 
It would seem that Anthony must 
have had a wife before Hannah, as 
a Vincent F. born 1748 was son of 
Anthony, and this is the only place 

• where he will fit. Anthony m., 3d, 

in old age Elizabeth 

who was much younger than him- 
self. She died Nov. 15, 1821. He 
was known as a man of very large 
stature, probably 6 ft. 6 in. and huge 
in proportion. He is probably the 
man of this name who was super- 
visor of Southfield, Richmond Co., 
N. Y., in 1767, 1769 and 1784; a 
member (p. 169, Clute's Annals says 
associate judge) of the first court 
held after the Revolution, in Sept., 
1794 (p. 148, Clute). Anthony, Sr., 
bapt. August 27, 1785, in Baptist 
Church on Staten Island; also Beli- 
chy and Hannah (p. 282, Clute). 
These three were incorporators on 
Dec. 3, 1785, of the old Baptist 
church, " Old Clove Church " (page 
405, Baylie's Hist. Richmond Co.), 
His will Feb. 7, 1813, Liber A, p. 457, 
Richmond Prob. Rec, names wife 
Elizabeth and daus. Ann Magee 
Fountain and Phebe Baldwin Foun-. 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT. 



221 



tain; makes a bequest unto John, 
son of Jacob Fountain; executors, 
•John Garretson and Christopher 
Parkinson; witnesses. Joseph Per- 
ine, James Fountain, M. D., and 
Charety Baker. 
By i st wife: 
40— i. Vincent, 5 b. 1748; m., 1st, Amy 
Fettie; m., 2d, Alice Jennings. Who 
were their parents ? 
By 2d wife, bap. Dutch Ref. Church: 
41: — ii. Antone, 5 bapt. Nov. 3, 1754; 
m. 1st, Catherine Journeay; m., 2d, 
Clara . Who were their pa- 
rents ? 

iii. Maragrietye, 5 bap. Mar., 1756; 

m. Cornelius Kruzer (so writes Mr. 

Wm. A. Harding of Brooklyn, N.Y.) 

42 — iv. John, 5 bapt. Nov. 20, 1757. 

What became of him ? 
43 — v. Charles, 5 born Sept. 25, 1756, 
son of Anthony^ and Susannah (St. 
Andrew's Prot. Epis. Ch. Records). 
What became of him ? 
44 — vi. Cornelius, 5 bapt. Dec. 23, 1759; 

m. Elizabeth Vandeventer. 
45 — vii. Garrett, 5 born Dec. 5, 1765 
(date from tombstone); m. Anne 
Betts of Ridgefield, Ct. Who were 
her parents ? 

viii. Gideon. 5 Left home and 
never heard from. 
46 — ix, Jacob, 5 born March 13, 1772. 
Whom did he marry ? I place him 
here because he is named in will of 
Anthony, whom I think was his 
father. 

x. Margaret, 5 b. 

m., 1 st, (Joseph ?) Perine, and had : 
1. Margaret Ann. What became of 
her? 2. Joseph. What became of 
him? 

By 3d wife: 

xi. Ann Magee, 6 b. about 1801, d. 
unm. before July 10, 1832 (account 
book of Isaac Nichols). 

xii. Phebe Baldwin, 6 b. March 3, 
1804, d. May 3, 1857, set. 53 yrs. 
2 mos., and is buried in Mt. Pleasant 
Cemetery, Newark, N. J.; mar. 

. , Aaron J (b. 

, 1803; d. Feb. 4, 1861, aet. 58), 

son of Isaac Nichols, and had: 1. 

Dr. Isaac A , 6 b. 1827, d 

Nov. 26, 1880, set. 53. Did he have 
any issue ? 

[To be continued.] 



Queries. 

124. Griswold, Elias of Wethersfield, 
Ct., b. Oct. 6, 1750, m De 
Rhoda, dau. of Joseph Flowers, and 
had Elias b. June 14, 1775, m. h:s 
cousin Wealthy Flowers, b. A: 
1775, at Ashfield, Mass. The given 
names of her father and mother are 
desired. Also her mother's maiden 
name. A. E. V. 

125. Hilliard, Joseph, b. Jan. 15, 
1738, Norwich, Conn., m. about 1756 
Sarah It is sup- 
posed they were married in Tolland, 
Ct., and it has always been thought 
she was Sarah Burr. Proof is de- 
sired. S. H. H. 

126. (a) Babbitt, Zephaniah. mar. Abi- 
gail Hamlin. Who were the pa- 
rents of Zephaniah and Abigail? 

(b) Olmstead, Sarah M., b. 1794. in 
Sharon, Ct., dau. of Hezekiah. Who 
were his parents ? C. ( I 

127. Perry, John, and Elizabeth his 
wife (nee Corbin) of Ridgefield, for 
^11 bought land May 9, 1794, tor 
Nathan Whitney. Who were their 
parents? What children did thev 
have? \Y. A. E. T. ' 

128. Smielau, John had a son Henry 
John Smielau mar. Mary Me] 
they had a son, Franklin Smielau, 
b. Aug. 27, 1876, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Whom did John marry and 
were his parents ? S. F. 

129 (a) Burton, Dr. Patrick, b. Lynch- 
burg, Va.; mar. as 1st wi: 
Scott of Va. Who were parents 
Dr. Patrick and Emily? It ifl said 
that the mother of Or. Burton be- 
longed to a Conn. Mercer family. Dr. 
Patrick and Emily had. 1 1>: S 
den Mercer Burton, b. i8si ^out 

1854; m. about 1850 Phebe Stille, b. 
i8ao,dan. of John Still? 2 

Mary Scott * Burton, m A 
Weaver, j, Emily Burton, 
rick had two or three w 
(d) St///:-, fohn, b, Phila., m. Maria, 
dau. o( Tobias W | had 

Phebe Stille, b. Phila; m Dr. Seidell 
M. Burton and had. Maria, *:^ 1 
m. 1S75 Prof. William V 

ton. who were pa 

Stille and Tobias W.. Are 



222 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT. 



these Burtons, Scotts, Stilles or 
Wagners eligible to the Revolution- 
ary societies ? M. B. E. 

130. Way, William of Conn., m. Sarah 
Cole of Conn.; moved to Madison 
Co., N. Y., and had William b. there 
1816. Who were the ancestors of 
this Cole and Way family ? 

W. F. L. 

131. Hills, Amos, b. abt. 1744,. m. Ra- 
chel Lewis of Middletown, 1773. 
Who were his ancestors ? Where 
was he born and where did he die ? 
Family records say of East Hartford 
or Farmington. J. L. C. 

132. Hoskins, Samuel, m. Mary Blake, 
and had Ebenezer, b. 1752, moved 
about 1790 to N. Y. State. Ebenezer 
and Samuel both lived in Groton, 
Conn. Who were parents of Samu- 
el ? C. L. H. 

133 (a) Scofield, Elnathan, about 1800, 
went to Ohio; he was b. about 1775, 
and went to Ohio from Litchfield 
Co., Conn. I wish to learn from 
what town he went ? He was possi- 
bly son of Elnathan Scofield, b. 1746 
in Stamford, Conn. 

(b) Hopkins, Elizabeth, b. about 1600 
in Eng.; m. there Jan., 1629, John 
Wakeman, and came to New Haven 
Colony 1640-41, buying the place of 
wid. Baldwin, who moved to Mil- 
.ford. Who were the parents of 

Elizabeth ? When and where did 
she die ? 

(c) Wakeman, Sarah, b. 1593 (sister 
of John); m. 1621, Richard Hubbell, 
and had a son Richard, Jr., b. 1623. 
Is he not the one who is called the 
emigrant of Fairfield, Ct. ? 

(d) Williams, Thomas, left Plym- 
outh, Mass., in 1638; m. Elizabeth 
Tart (or Tait) of Scituate, and set- 
tled in Eastham, Mass. Was he the 
son of Thomas Williams, signer of 
the Mayflower Compact or even the 
signer himself? Is there positive 
proof that Thomas, "the signer," 
died the first winter and left no 
children ? If so, then who was this 
Thomas who left Plymouth 17 years 
after the Pilgrims landed? 

(e) Briggs, Capt. Daniel of Stam- 
ford, Conn., who was there in 1711- 
12 From whence did he come and 



who were his parents ? He m. 1704, 
at Rye, N. Y„ Elizabeth Newman. 
Is he descended from the Briggs 
family who descended from Francis 
Cooke ? 

(f) Jennings, John, was in Hartford, 
Conn., as early as 1640, and is said 
to have died there in 1641. Where 
did he come from and when did he 
die ? Was he father of Joshua Jen- 
nings who in 1656 settled at Fair- 
field, Conn, and who went there 
from Hartford? Joshua m, 1647, 
Mary Williams of Hartford. Who 
were her parents ? When and where 
was she born ? When was Joshua 
and Matthew Jennings born ? Which 
of Matthew's two wives was the 
mother of Jeremiah, b. 1703 ? When 
did Jeremiah die ? 

(g) Hyde, Humphrey, m. Ann . 

Who were parents of each ? 

(k) Meigs, John of Guilford, m. 1632, 
in Weymouth, Eng., Tamasin Fry ; 
their dau. Mary b. at Weymouth, 
1633, and their son John in America 
in 1640. They had besides 3 daus. 
Elizabeth, Concurrence and Tryal, 
who were probably born in America 
between 1640 and 1650. The family 
came to America in 1639, but where 
they first settled is not known; it 
was probably in Mass. John came 
to Hartford, and from there to New 
Haven 1645 or 6, where he bought a 
lot on corner of Church and Chapel 
Sts. of Wm. Jeans, 1648. Were not 
the 3 daus. born in New Haven ? 
The birth of Elizabeth and the date 
of her marriage to Richard Hubbell 
of Fairfield, Conn., particularly de- 
sired. C. L. S. 

134. Anderson, George of Willington, 
Conn., m." March 23, 1749, Abigail, 
dau. of Capt. Stephen and Abigail 
(Rugg) Brown and g-g dau. of Capt. 
John Mason of Pequot fame. He is 
supposed to be connected with the 
Scotch who settled for a time in 
Londonderry, Ireland, and then 
came in 1725 to America and settled 
in Worcester, Pelham and Palmer, 
Mass. He with his two sons, Ste- 
phen and Thomas, were in the com- 
pany of Capt. Thomas Knowlton, 
from Ashford, at the battle of Bun- 
ker Hill. He died in 1816 at Wil- 
lington. His sons, Lemuel and Wil- 



/ 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT. 



22 3 



liam joined the Revolutionary army 
later. It is a family tradition that 
he had a brother Adnah in Nova 
Scotia. Wanted: any definite clews 
to his ancestry, place or date of 
birth. F. W. A. 

135. (a) Adams, Richard, m. 



and had Richard, b. April 26, 1763, 
in Pomfret, Conn. Who was his 
mother ? 

(b) Warner, William, died Feb. 28, 
1 714, in Wethersfield, Conn., and 
left two sons, 1. William, b. Jan. 25, 
1672, and 2. Daniel, b. Jan. 1, 1680. 
William Jr. had a son William b. 
Dec. 4, 1 71 7. Daniel had a son Wil- 
liam b. Oct. 1, 1 715. About 1739 
William Warner m. Rebecca Lup- 
ton. About the same time William 
Warner m. a wife — name not 
known to me — and for his 2d wife, 
Mar. 25, 1752, Prudence May. Who 
was father of the William who mar. 
Prudence May ? A. L. F. 

136. Moss, John of East Haven, Conn., 
one of the original founders of the 
New Haven Colony. From whence 
and when did he emigrate ? And 
any other facts of his ancestry 1 

C. C. W. 

137. (a) Bigelow, Patience, mar. 1734 
Lieut. Samuel Lawrence. What 
was her paternal ancestry ? What 
was her maternal ancestry ? 

(b Lawrence, Zeruah, b. May 20, 
1754, d. Feb. 24, 1832, dau. of Lieut. 
Samuel and Patience (Bigelow) 
Lawrence. Wish the paternal and 
maternal lines of this Samuel Law- 
rence. 

\c) Hathaway. Capt. Clothier, mar. 
Mary Borden and had Sarah, b. Sept. 
12, 1790; d. June 22, 1859; m - Capt. 
Holder Chace. Would like ances- 
try of Capt. Clothier. 
(d) Smith, Jeremiah, b. 1 704, d. Sept. 
20, 1793; m. Martha Williams and had 
Jonathan, b. Jan. 24, 1746; of Pres- 
ton, Conn. Would like ancestors of 
Jeremiah. His father might have 
been Asa. 

(/) Williams, Martha, b. 1711, d. 
Feb. 9, 1786, m. Jeremiah Smith. 
Would like names and dates of her 
ancestors. 
(/) Witter, William, m. ■ and 



had Hannah, b. May— , 175c, d ' 
29, 1823, m. Nov. 23, 1769, Jonathan 
Smith. I have a book printed in 
1618 which belonged in 1735 to Wm. 
Witter. Wish dates of his birth, 
marriage, death and ancestors back. 
Also same of his wife. C. V. I 

138. Hubbard, Thomas, mar. Phebe 
Oakley of Westchester Co, N. V., 
whither he had removed. He is said 
to have been a Conn, man and in the 
battle of White Plains. Wanted, 
his parentage. Who was the Thom- 
as Hubbard in White Plain b 

this one ? Anna Hubbard m. about 
the time of the Revolution, Hozea 
Hamilton, and moved from Conn, to 
N. Y. Who was she' K P. 

139. (a) Badger, Enoch 4 (Natha- 
John, 2 Giles 1 ) b. 17 14, settled in Co- 
ventry, Conn. Family m.. 

lived in Windham and Norwich pre- 
vious to 1748; mar. Mary . 

Who were her parents ? Enoch 4 d. 
1793. His son Enoch, b. 1750, mar. 
Feb. 11,1773, Mary Lamphc 
were her parents and grandpare: 

(b) Warrincr, Abner M< 5 
liam, :i James,' William , b. I »e 
1752, m. 1778 Elizabeth Wright 

Knapp. They resided in \\'-.r:»ra- 
ham, Mass., but she d. at i 
Conn., aged 93 Who were her par- 
ents and grandparents : 

F. H. II 

140. G or ham, Jabez, 4 sod of John 

Desire ^Howland Gorham, 

3, 1656; m. Hannah , and he 

d. May 18, 1725. J 

nan ( 1 Gorham had [s 

Feb. i, 1689, who m. ist, Mary 
and she died Sept. I, 1716; n 
Hannah Miles, May 13, 1 ; 1 ". 
d. before 1750 Can anyone B 
names o\ the parents 
who mar. Jabez G< rhanV ' • tnc 
names of the parents of Ml 
first Wife o\ Isaac I 

the said Hannah, or M 
descendant of Elder Willian 

Ster? Would like : ': 

said Hannah and Mar] J 

141. Durkte, I.v 

5, [820, in I ml.: ma 
Conn.. May i, 1785, Willian 
b. [une »o, 1 763, at N - •■ 



224 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT. 



3, 1820, in Ind. Wanted, Lydia Dur- 
kee's birth and parents. E. J. E. 

142. Chase, Constant, my grandfather, 
joined the privateer brig Argus in 
Savannah, Ga., as Prize Master. She 
was a Lettre de Marque. John 
Howe (or George) was commander, 
James Fairfield of Salem, Mass., was 
1st officer. The brig was taken 
shortly after she sailed from Savan- 
nah by a British 74 — "St. Domingo." 
The ship's company was taken to 
Plymouth, England, thence marched 
to Dartmoor Prison. Chase was in 
Prison No. 5; was among those fired 
upon by order of Capt. Shortland 
and was sent home in a cartel and 
landed in N. Y. 1815, after the peace. 
Can anyone cite me to any docu- 
ment which will legally prove the 
above statement ? C. C. 

143 (a) Abernathy, Elizabeth, b. June 
24, 1777, d- July 23, 1828; m. Nov. 10, 
1 793, Amos, son of Elisha Tuller, of 
Simsbury, Conn. Desire her ances- 
try. Was this Elisha in the Revo- 
lution ? 

(b) Bunce, Martha, m. Joseph Tul- 
ler of Simsbury, Conn. Was she the 
Martha Bunce who with twin Mary 
was bapt. 1720 and daus. of Joseph 
and Amy ( ) Bunce ? 

(c) Tuller, John of Simsbury, m. 1684 
Elizabeth, wid. of Joseph Lewis and 
dau. of John Case of Simsbury. 
Wanted, ancestry of John Tuller 
with dates. M. C. T. 

144. (a) Bullard, Abigail, m. abt. 1723, 
Ephraim Spalding, both of Plain- 
field, Conn. Who were her parents ? 

(b) Thompson, Eunice, m. June 19, 
1739, Ebenezer Carpenter, both of 
Coventry, Conn. Who was her 
father ? 

(c) Madison, Mary, said to be a cou- 
sin of President Madison, m. Mar. 6, 
1766, Foster Whitford of West 
Greenwich, R. I. Does any one 
know of her and her family ? Tra- 
dition says they were of Conn. 
Whitford and wife moved to Sarato- 
ga Co., N. Y., before the Revolu- 
tionary War. G. B. S. 

145. ( a) Bishop, Rebecca, dau. of Lt. 
Gov. James Bishop, m. Nov. 14, 1695, 
Samuel Thompson (gr. son of An- 



thony, the emigrant to New Haven, 
1638) and lived in Westville, Conn. 
What is date of her birth and death ? 
(b) Wilmot, Hannah, mar. May 30, 
1723, James Thompson, b. June 15, 
1 699 (son of above Samuel ) and lived 
in Westville, Conn. Who were her 
parents ? 

\c) Booth, Elisha, b. prob. about 1700, 
in Southampton, L. I.; m. Hannah, 
dau. of Alexander Wilmot of South- 
ampton, L. I., and formerly of New 
Haven, Conn. These two Hannah 
Wilmots may have been cous- 
ins. This Elisha Booth was prob- 
ably a grandson of John Booth who 
came from Eng. to Southold, L. I., 
1 65 1. If so, which of John Booth's 
four sons, Thomas, John, Charles 
and William, was his father? Or 
whose son was he ? 

(d) Sackett, Jonathan, mar. Ruth 
Hotchkiss and had Sarah, b. Aug. 9, 
1 721, in New Haven, who m. Elisha 
Booth (son of above Elisha) and had 
1. Jonathan, and 2. Hannah. They 
lived in the vicinity of Westville, 
Conn., or in Hamden, Conn. Who 
were parents of this Jonathan Sack- 
ett ? Who were parents of Ruth 
Hotchkiss ? Who were gr. parents 
of Jonathan Sackett ? In Vol. 9, p. 
10, N. Y. Genealogical and Bio- 
graphical Record, it says : " John 
Booth, before coming to Southold in 
165 1, was at Barbadoes. Heleft Eng- 
land with merchandise which was 
wrecked in the Swallow; probably 
the vessel commanded by Capt. Jer- 
emy Horton." Where is the author- 
ity for this statement found by Mr. 
Moore ? 

(e) Cooper, i. Triphena, d. Apr. 10, 
1818, set. 81, unmarried, ii. Sarah, 
m. James Gilbert, iii. Rebecca, b. 
1744; m. Jonathan Booth, b. 1747, 
son of Elisha, Jr. iv. Samuel, m. 
Rachel Ford. These 3 sisters and 
brother lived in S. W. part of Ham- 
den Conn., or in that vicinity. Who 
were their parents ? 

(f) Booth, Sir Henry of Harlaston, 
Derbyshire, Eng., d. 1424, hadadau. 
Alice who mar. Sir Nicholas Fitz- 
hubert of Norbury, Derbyshire, 
knight of the shire of Derby, 1434, 
1446 and 1452, and sheriff of the 
county in 1448 and 1466. Who were 
parents of Sir Henry ? On the spin- 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT. 



die side I trace my ancestry to this 
Alice and Sir Nicholas, and hence my 
interest in Sir Henry. Sir Thomas 
Booth of Barton (in Lancashire ?) 
Knight, was living in the time of 
Edward III. He gave to his second 
son Henry all his lands in Jowell. 
Whether this second son Henry and 
Sir Henry of Harlaston are one per- 
son, I cannot determine, though they 
may be, as Sir Henry of Harlaston 
has about the same coat-of-arms as 
Sir Thomas? W. S. B. 

146. (a) Briggs, William of Boston and 
Lyme, Conn. His early family his- 
tory desired. His wife's full name. 
Did he render any colonial services, 
civil or military ? His dau. Hannah 
m. Wolston Brockway. She d. Feb. 
6, 1687. When was she born? 

•(b) Birchard, Thomas. Early fam- 
ily history; wife's full name; dates 
of their b.,m. and d.; his dau. Han- 
nah, m. Apr. 12,165 3, at Guilford, Ct., 
John Baldwin and moved to Nor- 
wich, Ct., in 1660. When and where 
was Hannah born ? Did Thomas 
render any colonial services, civil 
and military ? 

(c) Hawkins, Claraina, m. Feb. 26, 
1776, Benjamin Twichell (of Oxford, 
Conn., it is thought). Desired, her 
early family history, dates of birth 
and death, and where each oc- 
curred. Also names of her father 
and mother with dates of their b. , 
m. and d. A. I. H. 

147. Kilburn, Samuel, b. Feb 21, 1783, 
Sterling, Mass.; m. Mary Beaman 
and had: i. Mary. ii. Uri. iii. El- 
mira. iv. Manda. v. Fernanda, vi. 
Dexter, vii. Susan, viii. Emily, ix. 
Anda (my father), and x. George. 
This record is given in Kilburn 
Gen., 1856, by Durrie & Peck. Who 
was father of Samuel ? Was Mary 
Beaman a descendant of Gamaliel 
Beaman who settled Lancaster (now 
Sterling) as early as 1659, and d. in 
1707. A. K. K. 

148. (a) Johnson, Sylvester, b. 1728; 

m. Mary ; Lisbon, Ct. Who 

was his wife and what was his an- 
cestry ? He had: i. Stephen, b. 1757, 
m. Experience Wheeler; ii. Nathan. 
Stephen and Experience had Syl- 



vester b. 1800, Ephraim, Marv, Ben- 
jamin and Eliza. 

Kb) Wood, Joseph, m. Elinor Tusten; 
lived at Goshen, X. V., and had Ju- 
lia x 775> John 1778, James 1779 ™- 
Charlotte, dau. of Ebenezer and 
Martha f Davis j Duning orDum 
Was Joseph descended from the 
Long Island Woods- I- ". B. K. 

149. Blague, Henry appeared in 
ton as early as 1642 and d. in 1 
was buried in Old South Church. 

His wife was Elizabeth . He 

had sons Henry, Philip, Xathaniel 
and Joseph; daus. Elizabeth, Rebec- 
ca and Martha. My known ances- 
tor, Joseph Blague, was in Saybl 
Ct., as early as 1680. Was he a son 
of Henry of Boston ? Did any of 
Henry's sons settle in Brain: 
Mass. ? From whence did Henry 
come ? We have always supposed 
he was from England, as we have 
found the name in English hist 
only, time of Henry VIII. 

C. C- B 

150. Woodruff, Matthew Sr. of Farm- 
ington, Conn., 1640. What relation 
was he to Benjamin Woodruff of 
Essex and Old Norfolk counties, 
Mass.? In the old cemetery at Farm- 
ington, Conn., are tombstones: "Mr. 
Joseph Woodruff d. Oct. 7. A. D. 1799. 
in the 84th year of his age." Also "In 
Memory of Mrs. Hannah Woodruff, 
consort of Mr. Joseph Woodruff, 
who died Oct. n, 1799. m ** le ~7 tn 
year of her age." S says she 
was "Hannah, dau. of John Clai 
but beyond that he was int.) 
Who were parents oi this Jcx 

what was his relation to Benjamin 
or Matthew, Sr.? E B S 

151. White. Can anyone give inf 
ation concerning the White fai 

of Lebanon (Crank), Conn., or tell 
where such information can be 
found? Especially as to the na 
of the pioneer. Nathaniel 
to be a favorite name. E L H. 

152. Brewster^ Anne. 

in Duxburv, dau of Nathan Bl 

ster, b. Dec. ti, 17*4, in Dnxbury, 

and Hannah Partridge W: 

Anne Brewster mar. Solomon 

of Lebanon. Ct Can 

the lineage oi 

ster? « 



HISTORICAL NOTES. 



The following extract bearing upon 
negro slavery in Connecticut was copied 
from some old papers found in a desk pur- 
chased in Middletown, Conn., by James 
F. Savage of Lowell, Mass., and is con- 
tributed to this department by him : 

BILL OF SAIL FOR ROSE THE NEGRO GIARL 

Sept gih I747 . 

Know all Men That I James Ward Junr 
of Middletown in the County of Hartford, 
for the Confideration of the Sum of One 
Hundred pounds old tenor bills to me 
well & truly paid by John Eafton of 
Middletown aforefaid Do by thefe pref- 
ents fully freely and abfolutely, Give, 
Grant, Bargain, Sell and Deliver unto the 
said John Eafton his Heirs and Assigns, 
One Certain Negro Girl named Rofe, 
aged five years Last January. To Have 
and To Hold the said Negro Girl for and 
Dureing the term of her Natural Life unto 
him the f d John Eafton his Heirs and As- 
signs, to be to his & their only ufe benefit 
& behoof; And I the S d . James Ward for 
myfelf and my heirs, Do hereby Covenant, 
Declare and warrant that the S d Rose is in 
health & well and that fhe hath the free 
ufe of her Limbs and fenses, and that I 
and my heirs will and fhall Warrant the 
title of the faid Negro Girl unto the faid 
Eafton and to his heirs & Affigns. In 
witness whereof I have hereunto fet my 
hand & Seal this eighth Day of Septem r 
A D, 1747- James Ward. 

Signed, Sealed & Del^ 
In prefence of 
Thomas Emmes. 
W.m. Rockwell. 



spare time in preserving this rich mine of 
historical information. 



Mr. Conant and Mr. Fenn, the clerk 
and asssistant clerk of the Superior Court 
of Hartford County, have discovered, 
packed away in old trunks in the attic of 
the county building, the ancient law rec- 
ords of the county dating back to 1718. 
Among them are the records of the judg- 
ments given from 1774 to 1798, generally 
believed to have been lost and so reported 
to the Legislature in 1889. These papers 
are now being sorted and carefully stored 
in the vaults, safe from danger of fire and 
from further ravages of mice and vermin. 
It is a strange thing that these valuable 
records should have been forgotten after 
their removal from the old State House, 
and much credit is due to Mr. Conant 
and Mr. Fenn, who are spending their 



EXPEDITION TO CUBA. 
What tht Campaign of 1762 Cost in Lives. 

" E. C. C," arguing for peace, writes 
to the Hartford Courant as follows: 

In an address, delivered before the 
Tolland County Historical -society at Tol- 
land, August 27, 1861, the Hon. Loren 
P. Waldo, president of the society, said : 

In the year 1762, the King of England 
(George 111) made a requisition upon the 
colony fur troops to join the expedition 
against the island of Cuba, and a company 
was raised in the eastern part of the state, 
of which Colonel Israel Putman was, by 
one of formalities of the service, nominally 
captain, but really under the command of 
Solomon Wells of Tolland. This com- 
pany went to the island of Cuba, and was 
present at the seige and capture of Havana, 
but was not in any serious engagement. 
When I was a boy, I was informed, by a 
man whose name was on the roll that, 
after the principal fort had been under- 
mined and blown up, so that a column of 
British regulars carried it by assault, this 
company had the sad duty to perform of 
clearing the fort, and burying the dead. 
The destruction of life was very great ; 
the dead were represented as lying in 
windrows. Although the company was 
not under fire during the whole of this 
campaign, the mortality of its members 
was unprecedented. Of ninety-eight per- 
sons of which the company was composed, 
and who actually reached the island, only 
twenty-two returned to their native land. 
Among the list of dead we read such 
familiar names as Daniel Brown, William 
Case and John Curtis." 

The same story comes from the town of 
New Hartford, Ct. :— 

" A detachment of sixteen young men, 
from New Hartford, went on an expedi- 
tion against Havana, under General Ly- 
man, in 1762, only one of whom, Benja- 
min Merrill, lived to return. This expe- 
dition, which reached Havana in the 
month of August, was fatal to more than 
two thirds of the men who composed it, 
chiefly by reason of sickness incident to 
the climate of that season. Of a regiment 
numbering, August 10, 802 men, but 30 
were reported fit for duty October 2, and 
part of those who lived to embark for 
home died on the voyage, or suffered 
shipwreck." 



DESCENDANTS OF WILLIAM CHASE OF YARMOUTH 



[Continued from last number.] 

36. William* Chase (John, 3 William*, William 1 ) d. , i 77 , , B 

or 99; m., 1st, Sept. 20, 1715, in Y., Dorcas Baker;* m., 2d, Oct. 15, 1747, in 
Harwich, Patience, * dau, of Jabez 3 (William' 2 ) and Sarah (Snow; Walker; p 
Vol. 47, New Eng. Gen. Reg. has Elizabeth Snow as wife of Jabez Walker. 
William 4 Chase lived in Harwick and was a Friend in 1743. A William Chase in 
1712 received 7^ shares of common lands (pp. 129 and 13c, Y. T. R. . 
owned land in Yarmouth Jan. 21, 1739 (p. 142, Y. T. R ). His will dated Sept. 
17, 1771, at Harwich, names wife Patience; 8 daus. and 4 sons. 
First 3 children on p. 77, book 3, Y. T. R. 

214— i. "Lydiah," 5 March 27, 1716; m. , Philip Leonard. Did he have 

children ? Who were his parents ? 
215— ii. Elizabeth, 5 Oct. 6, 1718; m. pub. Dec. 4, 1731, in Y., Joshua- Wixin. Did he have 

children? Mt. "Rt." 1 Wixin had Barnabas,'^ m. Sarah and 

had Joshua, 3 b. March 14, 1695. 
216 — Hi. Thankful, 5 March 6, 1720-21; m. March 25, 1743, Stephen 4 O'Kelley (Joseph/' Jere- 
miah, 2 David 1 ). 
217 — iv. Deborah, 5 ; m. May 2, 1751, in Harwich, Henry Hewet of 

Taunton. Did he have children ? Who were his parents ? 
218 — V. Dorcas, 5 .; m. pub. Sept. 14, 1744-5, in Y., but m. Jan. 17 

in H., Reuben Wixon. Did he have children ? Who were his parents ? 
219— vi. Mary, 5 ; m. , Chace. 

Did he have any children ! Who were his parents ? 
220— vii. William, 5 Oct. 16, 1732; m. Feb. 19, 1757, Mercy Chase. Who were her parents:- 

221— viii. Sylvanus, 5 ; m. 1757, Charity 5 Chase 242. 

222— ix. Job, 3 . , 1736 (d. 1833, set. 97); m., ijt, 1760, Edith K. 

(who were her parents ?) ; m. 2d, 1774, Mrs. Hope (Sears) Howes ; m. 3d, 

Hannah Dimmick. Who were her parents ? What children had this Job ? 

223— x. Edmond, 5 ; mar., 1762, Abigail Karris. Who were her 

parents ? 

224— xi. Patience, 5 '- She was under iS in 1771. What became of 

225— xii. Meribah, 5 She was under 18 in 1771, a Meribah m. ] 

1 781, in H., James Ellis. Who were his parents ? Did he have children ? 

37. Jeremiah* Chase (John, 3 William, 2 William*) m. Sept. 11. 1719, in Y., Hannah* 
b. Jan. 11, 1699, in Y.), dau. of John 3 (John- 1 , Francis 1 ) and Hannah J< DCS 1 



*William2 Baker (Francis,i vide p. 8) d — . »7«7i Y.: '«■ 

Mercy ; shed. Nov. 26, 1753. Y- Who were her 

Children born in Y. : 
i. Mercy,* Jan. 3, 1692; m. Feb. 17, 17x3, Samuel Smith. Did he have children \ 
ii. William, 3 Jan. 8, 1694. What became of him ? 
iii. Dorcas,3 Nov. 15, 1696; m. William4 Chase, 
iv. Experience^ Jan. 8, 1698. 

v. Judah,3 March 23, 1700-1; m. • l ;uu> 

vi. Elizabeth,3Feb. n, 1702-3; m. Feb. 5, 1718-191 Robeit Wixon. 
vii. Josiah,3 Dec. 14, 1704; m, Sept. 25, 1729, Chai ity Eddy. 
viii. Joanna,3Feb: 18, 1706-?; m. Aug. 25, 1726, Michael Phillips. 
ix. Patience, 3 Feb. 1708-9; m. June 29, 1726, Benjamin Smalley. 

x. Elisha,3 Dec. n, 1712; m. _, >734-S, Merey Cahoon. 

xi. James,3 May 20, 1715; na. _ • '737< Ke«ah Eldri< 

xii. Thankful, 3 Dec 6, 1719; m. March 8, 1743-4, Daniel Baker. 

119) 



228 DESCENDANTS OF WILLIAM CHASE OF YARMOUTH. % 

Jeremiah received, in 17 12, 7^ shares in common lands (pp. 129 and 130 Y. T. R.) 
Capt. "Shuball baxter," James Lewes, Ebenezer ''berry" and Jeremiah "Chaice" 
jury of trials at next inferior court at " barnstable " — Y. T. R. He was a Quaker 
at Harwich, 1743- 

Children's births, book 3, p. 103, Y. T. R. ("Chaise"): 

226 i. Jeremiah 5 Aug. 28, 1720; m. Jan, 28, 1741-2, Lydia Paul. Who were her parents? 

227 — ii. Ebenezer, 5 Sept. 25, 1722; m. , 1744, Susanna Berry. Who were her parents ? 
228— hi. Jabez, 5 March 15, 1726-7. What became of him ? ■■ 

229— iv. David, 5 March 15, 1728-9, m. pub. Sept. 5, Y,, and Sept, 15, H., 1752, Susanna 4 (b. 
June 4, 1734, in Y.), dau. of Silas 3 (Nathaniel, 2 Francis 1 ) and Deliverance (O'Kel- 
ley) Baker of Harwich. What became of this David ? 
230— v. Elizabeth, 5 July 1, 1731 ; m., 1750, Joseph O'Kelley, Jr. 

-38. Isaac 4 Chase (John, 3 William, 2 William 1 ) d. May 22, 1759, in Y.; m., 1st, May 23, 
1706, in Y., Mary* Baker; she died April 5, 1727; m., 2d, Aug. 3, 1727, in Y., 
Mrs. Charity, wid. of Jeremiah O'Kelley and dau. of Matthew and Hannah (Mar- 
chant) Pease, and she was born Dec. 9, 1696, in Y. An Isaac Chase received i8}4 
shares in common lands, and "Ye tenement for Isaac Chase to his father, 9 shares" 
(pp. 129 and 130, Y. T. R.) Inventory of his estate, ^39.11, was presented by 
Barnabas Chase, June 21, 1759 (Vol. IX, p. 425, Barnstable P. R.) Joseph "howes" 
jun., Isaac "Chaife" and Nathan Taylor — jury men for "April" Court at Barnsta- 
ble "april" 1720; William "hedge," Silas Sears, Isaac "Chaife" and Isaac "chap- 
man" — jury men for July "court" next at Barnstable, May 24, 1724; Isaac 
"Chaife" and Thomas Crowell jun. "hogReefes," Mar. 23, 1724-5 ; Isaac "Chaise" 
and Jacob "parker," grand jury men, Mar. 11, 1727-8; Isaac Chafe and John 
"matthews" — Hog "reefer" Mar. 6, 1737; Isaac Chase and Matthias Gorham — 
"Hog Rever" Mar. 13, 1740-41. 

Children's births, book 3, p. 68, Y. T. R. : 

231— i. "Hesaciah," 5 Dec. 9, 1706; probably lived in Chatham, Cape Cod. Did he have 

children ? 
232— ii. "Obediah," 5 Sept. 16, 1708; m. 1732, Mary Smith of Chatham. Who wers her 

parents ? 
233 — iii. Thankful, 5 Feb. 14, 1711-12; m. Oct. 19, 1732, Jacob Baker. 
234— iv. Isaac, 5 Mar. 28, 17 14; m. Nov. 17, 1737, Thankful Maker. 



* Richard' Berry, buried Sept. 10, 1676 (Y. R.), m. , Alice 

Richard and Alice ( — ) had children born : 

— , Mar. 29, 1652 (John d. 1745, set. 93). 
. July ,1, 1654. 

, Mar. 5, 1656. 

, April 11, 1657 (perhaps Eliza). 

, May 12, 1659. 

, Aug. 23, 1661. 

, Oct. 16, 1663. 



, Oct. 5, 1668 (father called Sr. in Court Records March, I668-9). 
-, June 1, 1670. 
-, Oct. 31, , 1673. 
-, Dec. 12, 1677. 



The record is so defaced that the names can't be made out. Among these children were : Nathaniel (d. 
Feb. 7, 1693.4), Richard Jr., Samuel, Joseph, John, and Eliza who m. Nov. 28, 1677, Josiah Jones. 
John* Berry (Richard') d. — — , i 745 , aet. 93. John had: 

i- Judah.'i b abont 1676; moved to Haiwi h. Did he have children ? 
ii. Hbene/.er,:; b. about 1678; m., 1st, Rebecca- — ; m., 2d. Joanna Phillips; m., 3d, 

Hannah Lovel. 
iii. Klizabeth,"< b. about 1680; m. July 30, 1702, Samuel3 Baker (Nathaniel^ Francis'). 

iv. Experience,* b. about 1682 ; m. — , Jonathan Bangs. 

v. Mary,-"* b. about 1684 ; m.. May 23, 1706, Isaac* Chase 38. 

(20) 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 



" The first meeting of the Audubon 
Society of the State of Connecticut, 
the pioneer organization of the state, 
was held on Friday afternoon, Janu- 
ary 28, at the house of Mrs. William B. 
Glover, in Fairfield. 

"The motive of the society is the 
protection of wild birds, discouraging 
the use for millinery purposes of all 
bird feathers other than ostrich plumes 
and the feathers of domestic fowls and 
game birds used for food, already pro- 
tected by law. 

" The society expects to have public 
talks upon birds during the coming 
season, to distribute leaflets and to fur- 
nish lists of books to others desiring 
to study native birds, animals or 
plants, as but little is at present un- 
derstood about the value of birds in 
their relation to agriculture." 

It would seem as if this society, if it 
will avoid too radical steps, might do a 
very great deal of good in the state. 
Any movement for the protection of 
the birds and for promulgating in- 
formation concerning their value to 
the agriculturist should be most heart- 
ily encouraged. It would seem as if 
the legislators of the state, also, were 
waking up to this fact, for the revised 
statutes for the year 1897 show a dis- 
tinct advance, with perhaps one excep- 
tion, in the matter of the bird and 
game laws. The law, as it exists now, 
is much more strict than formerly, 
and distinctly prohibits the destruction 
of a large number of varieties of birds 
for any purpose whatsoever. It also 
protects the nests and eggs as well as 
the birds themselves. It might be said, 
however, that the law-abiding gunner 
will have to carry an ornithology in 
one pocket and a copy of the Statutes 
of Connecticut in the other, to be able 
to decide what he may and what he 
may not shoot. The cautious hunter 
will confine himself to English spar- 
rows. It seems as if it would be well 
if the law could embrace in its protec- 
tion many other groups of birds popu- 
larly supposed to be injurious to agri- 
culture, but really advantageous, if we 
may trust the word of those who have 



made a study of the subject. Among 
this number come the hawks and 
who more than pay for the occasional 
theft of a chicken by their unremitting 
warfare on crop-devouring vermin. 
This addition would also simplify the 
wording of the statute. But while 
the law is to be praised, it is a pity 
that there is not some exception made 
for the killing of birds for scientific 
purposes. A system of limited per- 
mits granted to persons properly 
accredited would fill this need fully. 

It is perhaps an interesting question 
why killing birds for their feathers 
should be regarded as a worse offence 
than killing birds for so-called sport. 
No one is dependent upon partridge, 
quail, or reed birds for sustenance. 
Why should it be regarded as worse to 
take one life to obtain an ornament 
which will last a whole season than to 
take several lives to obtain a luxury 
for one meal ? If one is anxious to 
become a good shot, he will find that a 
" blue rock target " in a high wind will 
give him all the practice he wants. 
And there is this additional advantage, 
that his reputation for veracity will 
be in much better condition after a 
day at "the traps " than after a 
in the field. 

May the Audubon Society prosper. 
and may it be instrumental in obtain- 
ing wise, firm, and well informed leg- 
islation in behalf of the birds. 



Those who are fond of arguing the 
"Good Roads Movement" pro and 
con. will find new material for dis 
sion in the report of the Highway 
Commissioners for 1898. The report 
is an interesting resumt of the work 
done by the Commission during the 
previous six months and ot" the various 
methods of road construction 
ployed in the different parts of the 
state. The commissioners a em to 
have used wonderfully goodjudgn 
in the matter oi adapting the met 
of construction to the facilities fur- 
nished by the given Locality. While 
they recommend a Telford or |fa 
am' road, with trap as road metal. 



23° 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 



they allow, as far as possible, the use 
of other stone in localities far removed 
from the trap area; and, in regions 
where stone cannot be readily ob- 
tained, they encourage the building of 
excellent gravel roads. The system 
of allowing the towns to bid for the 
contracts within their limits has 
aroused local interest in the work and 
has served to reduce costs consid- 
erably. 

That good roads are a great advan- 
tage where there is much teaming to 
be done no one can deny who has 
watched the great stream of market 
wagons that moves towards New York 
every day over the great Jericho Turn- 
pike of Long Island. But the question 
arises, how much teaming is done over 
the ordinary Connecticut road ? In- 
vestigation will probably show that, 
while there is a great deal of traffic in 
the vicinity of the cities, on the roads 
of the outlying districts there is com- 
paratively little activity even at the 
time of year when they are in good 
order. When the highway is so little 
used, does the advantage of the Ma- 
cadam road equal the expense of its 
construction ? Will not a good gravel 
road answer all the needs of the com- 
munity, especially if every teamster 
complies with the " wide tire " law ? 
There are unquestionably places in all 
highways which are bad at any time 
of year. These places would seem to 
demand a Macadam bed of the best 
type, but such stretches of road are 
usually very limited. With the ex- 
ception of these limited localities, will 
not the excellent gravel roads, such 
as the Commission is constructing in 
many places, serve all needs as well 
as the expensive stone roads? 

It may, perhaps, be fairly asked, if 
the government is willing to expend 
so much for water-way travelers in 
the improvements of rivers and har- 
bors, why should it not spend as freely 
for highway travelers in the improve- 
ment of the roads ? In answer it may, 
however, be suggested that many 
waterways are as little worth expensive 
improvement as are some of our high- 
ways. 

Perhaps the simplest solution of the 
problem is to be fonnd in Mr. Mac- 
Donald's suggestion to build two trunk 
lines across the state, one from north 



to south and the other from east to 
west, following the lines of present 
important turnpikes. The traveler 
will then make his was as speedily as 
possible by roads more or less improv- 
ed, as the case may be, to these great 
thoroughfares' where he can journey 
as far as he desires on the best Macad- 
am road that can be built. 



The preparations, which the Gov- 
ernment is making along the coast to 
meet the present crisis, bring us seri- 
ously to the consideration of the ques- 
tion, what does war mean for Connec 
ticut ? 

That the Government is making 
every effort to protect the entrance of 
the Sound, there is no doubt; but the 
history of our late war leaves in our 
minds serious doubts of the ability of 
forts and mines to stop a fleet or of a 
blockade to intercept all privateers. 
The thought that ships of the Spanish 
navy, as well as privately equipped 
vessels, may devote themselves to the 
work of harrassing the coast adds 
gravity to the situation. The ord- 
nance and cartridge works at Bridge- 
port and the arms factories at New 
Haven and Hartford are prizes well 
worth effort and danger, and the large 
supplies of coal stored along the water 
front of these cities may prove a prize 
almost equally valuable. The Rod- 
man guns, which are to guard harbor 
entrances, are justly valued by the old 
gunners who know their good points 
well, but these guns are few in num- 
ber, slow of action and of compara- 
tively short range. 

In view of these facts it is possible, 
though by no means probable, that 
hostile forces might attempt opera- 
tions by land as well as by sea. Such 
a movement the state troops will be 
prepared to meet. Yet, in a long and 
irregular coast like ours, it sometimes 
happens that an attack masterfully led 
may prove a most disastrous surprise. 
Under these conditions it is an inter- 
esting question what part the ordinary 
citizen is to play; and the mind in- 
stinctively goes back to the way in 
which the farmers met the British 
regulars in the early days of the Rev- 
olution. It is to be remembered that 
while warships have put on armor, 
troops have not, and that at short 



FROM THE SOCIETIES. 



2 3' 



range a Springfield musket is as effect- 
ive as the latest Winchester. While we 
anticipate no trouble of the kind, when 
one considers the steep hills and nar- 
row defiles and the wooded and tortu- 
ous roads of Connecticut, is not the 
story of the Retreat from Concord full 
of suggestion ? Cannot the single citi- 
zens of to-day, with hearts full of 
patriotism, render as effective service 
in emergency as did their forefathers 
a hundred and twenty-three years ago ? 



The dedication of the Hunt Memo- 
rial on Prospect street, Hartford, 
which took place on the evening of 
February i, commemorated in a most 
fitting manner the completion of the 
Hartford Medical Society's first balf- 
century of usefulness. Through the 
generosity of the late Mrs. Mary C. 
Hunt, widow of the late Dr. Ebenezer 
Hunt — in memory of whom the gift is 
made — the Society has now a building 
fitted in the best way to be its labora- 
tory, its library, and its home. 

At the opening exercies, after the 
prayer of dedicaton by the Rev. Dr. 
Samuel Hart of Trinity College, Dr. 
Melancthon Storrs delivered an histo- 
rical address and formally presented 
the Hunt Memorial to the board of 
trustees, Dr. Gurdon W. Russell ac- 
cepting it in behalf of that body. This 
was followed by an original poem by 
Dr. Nathan Mayer. After the poem 
the oration of the evening was deliv- 
ered by President Daniel C. Gilman 



of Johns Hopkins University. Presi- 
dent Hartranft of the Hartford 1 I 
logical Seminary closed the e 
with the benediction. 

After the exercises the many visit- 
ors enjoyed themselves in examining 
the building and the portraits which 
decorate its walls, especially the 
by Mr. Charles Noel Flag. 
Hunt and of Dr. Horace Wells, the 
discoverer of Anaesthesia. 

The importance which the opening of 
the Hunt Memorial has in the medical 
history, not only of Hartford but a. 
the State, may perhaps be best under- 
stood from the following words of I 
ident Gilman : "Asa center of life and 
light it will be an example to uther 
parts of the State, and even at a dis- 
tance. Dublin, Edinburgh and Lon- 
don have their halls of medicine where 
portraits, statues and other memorials 
of illustrious physicians and surgeons 
are the ornaments of libraries, muse- 
umsand laboratories The beginnings 
of like institutions may be found in 
Boston, New York, Philadelphia and 
Baltimore, but Hartford (so far 
know) is the first to establish at a 
tance from a school of medicine a 
place of assembly for the members of 
the profession, where they can know 
and advise with one another, gather 
up the experiences of the past, become 
acquainted with current journals and 
memoirs, and make such accurate sci- 
entific observations as in these day! 
are essential to those who practice the 
healine arts." 



PUBLISHER'S NOTES. 



On page 180, in the introduction, we 
speak of the "Sexton's List " as being 
copied by Dr. Hoadly. It seems that 
we were in error and the statement 
should read, from a list "owned by Dr. 
Hoadly." 



In our last issue, mention was made 
in our Book Notes, Of II: 
Montville and price quoted as |i oo a 
copy. This should have been v . 
copy. 



FROM THE SOCIETIES. 



SONS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 



At a meeting of the National Socie- 
ty of the Sons of the American Revo- 
lution held at Cincinnati in October, 



iSo;, it was voted that str S 

to form a union between this - 

and the Sons o\ the Revolution 



2 3 2 



FROM THE SOCIETIES. 



necessitates some changes in the con- 
stitutions of the two bodies, and, while 
the plan has been generally approved 
by the members of the S. A. R., it has 
not found so great favor with the 
other order. At a meeting of the 
board of managers of the Connecticut 
Society, S. A. R., held at the Colonial 
Club, Hartford, recently, it was unan- 
imously voted that the question be re- 



ferred to the annual meeting to be 
held on May 10, with the recommend- 
ation that the plan as formulated at 
Cincinnati be not adopted. President 
Jonathan Trumbull of Norwich pre- 
sided over the meeting of the board, 
and in the absence of Col. Louis R. 
Cheney, secretary, Mr. Frank B. Gay 
was chosen to fill his place. 



DAUGHTERS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION. 



The thirtieth general meeting of the 
Ruth Wyllys Chapter, D. A. R., was 
held on February 12 in the rooms of 
the Historical Society at Hartford. 
An important feature of the meeting 
was the presentation of a paper by the 
Hon. Henry C. Robinson on "Jonathan 
Trumbull." Another notable incident 
of the meeting was the admission to 
membership of a real daughter of the 
Revolution, Mrs. Statira Beardsley. 
Her father, Philo Hodge, a native of 
Roxbury, Conn., enlisted in 1776 and 
served in several of the Connecticut 
regiments. 

The delegates chosen to attend the 
National Convention of Daughters of 
the American Revolution at Wash- 
ington were the regent, Mrs. John 
M. Holcombe, Mrs. William H. Palmer, 
Mrs. Francis Goodwin, Mrs. William 
C. Skinner, and Mrs. Charles E. Gross. 



this end communication has been 
opened with Mr. Macmonnies and Mr. 
St. Gaudens. 



At a recent meeting of the Kather- 
ine Gaylord Chapter, at Bristol, the 
regent, Mrs. John M. Holcombe, made 
a report in behalf of the committee 
appointed to consider the advisability 
of erecting a memorial to the Connec- 
ticut women of the Revolution. 

Mrs. Holcombe reported that the 
committee have been in some doubt 
as to the nature of the memorial to be 
erected, whether it should be a statue 
of some special heroine from the his- 
tory of the vState, or whether it should 
be an ideal figure of the woman of '76. 
The latter plan has found the most 
favor, and a site has been suggested 
just north of the State Capitol in 
Hartford. The statue is to cost not 
less than #10,000 and is to be executed 
in the very best manner possible. To 



The Seventh Continental Congress, 
of the Daughters of the American 
Revolution was held at Washington 
and extended from Monday, February 
21^ to Saturday, February 26. Over 
seven hundred regents and delegates 
were present. 

The president-general, Mrs. Steven- 
son, reported an increase in member- 
ship for the past year of 5,059 and a 
total membership of 23,292. The reg- 
istrar-general reported that during 
the last year sixty-nine patriots' 
daughters had been added to the 
order, making a total of two hundred 
and sixty- eight. A financial report 
showed the assets of the order to be 
^38,090.44, an increase of $12,634.33 for 
the year. A report was made by the 
committee appointed for the erection 
of Continental Hall — the proposed 
memorial to the victims of the prison 
ships. Nearly the whole sum needed 
for its construction has been raised 
and Congress has promised a site for 
the building. 

On Thursday, February 24, Mrs. 
Daniel Manning, former regent of the 
chapter at Albany and a vice-presi- 
dent of the National Board, was elect- 
ed president-general. Mrs. Steven- 
son, who retires from that office, was 
elected honorary president-general. 

One of the pleasantest incidents of 
the meeting occurred at the reception 
on Thursday evening, when the gold 
medals voted by the congress of 1896 
were conferred upon the four origina- 
tors of the order, Mrs. Walworth, Miss 



BOOK NOTICES AND REVIEWS 



2 33 



Desha, Miss Washington and Mrs. 
Lockwood. Another pleasing incident 
of the session was the presentation of 
a loving cup to Mrs. Stevenson, the 
retiring president-general. 



The meetings of the congri 

place in the Grand Opera House, and 
the building was filled to overflow 
with interested spectators. 



BOOK NOTICES AND REVIEWS 



I. NOTICES. 



Books in preparation or in press. Those interested are invited to communicate with the 
authors. 



Aldrich Genealogy. M. M. Aldrich, 
Mendon, Mass. 

Miss Emma C. Jones, of Walnut Hills, 
Cincinnati, Ohio, is compiling a genealo- 
gy of the descendants of Elder Brewster. 
Upon application she will furnish circu- 
lars to those who are interested. 

William Carpenter of Providence, R. I., 
and His Descendants, from 1637 to pres- 
ent time; 550 pp.; $7.50 per vol. Mr. 
Daniel H. Carpenter, Maplewood, N. J. 

Curtiss Families of New England. Mr. 
F. H. Curtiss, BVay National Bank, Bos- 
ton, Mass. 

Thomas Fairchild, Stratford, Conn., 
1639, and His Descendants — 200 to 250 
pp.; #3.00 per copy. Mrs. Annie Fair- 
child Plant, Milton, Vermont. 

Genealogy and Biography of the Hunt- 
tings of Dutchess County, N. Y., by Isaac 
Huntting, Pine Plains, N. Y* 

Lewisiana or the Lewis Letter, a month- 
ly inter-family paper; 10 cents per copy, 
$1.00 per year. Carll A. Lewis, Box 24, 
Elliott, Conn. 

Mason Genealogy. Alverdo H. Mason, 
East Braintree, Mass. 

South Britain (Conn.) History, contain- 
ing genealogies of Guthrie, Piatt, Van 
Hahm and Wagner families; probably 
others, but not intended to touch families 
treated in Cothren's Woodbury. William 
C. Sharpe, Seymour, Conn. 



Trowbridge Genealogy; revised, en- 
larged and up to date, by Mr. Fran< is Ba- 
con Trowbridge, New Haven. C 

Perry Family History. H. Pearl Per- 
ry, Westfield, Mass.; also Hext M. Perry, 

Greenville, South Carolina. 

Sherwood Genealogy. Win. L. Sher- 
wood, 295 Ferry St., Newark, N.J. 

Wiggin Genealogy. Levi Jewell W g 
gin, 96 Salem St., Maiden, Mass. 

Probate Records of Essex Co.. .Y 
monthly parts of 32 pp., 10 or 12 part> to 
a volume, at $5.00 per volume. Eben 
Putnam, Salem, Mass. 

Harvey and Nesbit Families. Oscar I. 
Harvey, 47 Union Street, Wilkesbarre, 

Pa. 

History of Family of Mathias St. John 
(Sension, Sention, Sinjen o( Norwalk, 

Conn., whose children were born I 
1659. It is desired to publish the 
during the year 1898. Rev, Hoi 1 
win Hay den, Wilkesbarre, Pa., 

Lawrence D. Alexander. Nen Cl 

M.i- . 
M D . \ 



History of Martha's 
by Charles Edw. Banks 
Haven, Mass. 

Genealogies of the Families in D 
County, N. Y„ before 1800, inch 
what is now in Putnam Conn 
tributions desired. Wm \ 
Thomas, 5000 Woodland \ve.. 
phia, Pa. 



234 



BOOK NOTICES AND REVIEWS. 

II. REVIEWS. 



History and Genealogy of the Knowl- 
tons of England and America. By 
Rev. C. H. W. Stocking of Freehold, 
N. J. New York, 1897. A royal 
octavo volume of six hundred printed 
pages and many full-page illustrations. 
Price, $10.00. 
The volume is a collection of about 
7500 Knowlton names and several thou- 
sand names other than Knowltons, with 
whom the latter intermarried, showing the 
descent of the persons named and in most 
cases the dates of their births. Some in- 
teresting notes relating to the family in 
England are given ; also one of the more or 
less mythical lines of descent from the god 
Odin ; also (which is not noted in the 
table of contents) "a partial list of the 
Knowltons who performed military ser- 
vices for their country;" also a section 
devoted to the "Royal Descents." Al- 
though there is no index, the author ex- 
plains in an announcement that this will 
be prepared at an early date, as the " large 
size of the present history made it impos- 
sible to carry, in cloth binding, the addi- 
tional matter of an index of many thou- 
sand names." 

Coe-Ward Memorial and Immigrant 
Ancestors. This volume, of which 
only 150 copies are published, is the 
work of the Hon. Levi E. Coe of 
Meriden. 
The work, as must be the case with any 
similar work which traces back all the an- 
cestral line of a certain family, is pub- 
lished primarily for the gratification of the 
worthy pride which the compiler feels in 
the ancestors of himself and wife. The 
book, however, has a wide historical and 
genealogical value, and will be of interest 
to many. The sketches are carefully writ- 
ten and bear evidence of much research. 
The lines run back to such well-known 
Connecticut families as Cornwall and Peck 
of Hartford, Coe of Wethersfield, Eggle- 
ston of Windsor, Camp of Milford, Rob- 
inson of Guilford, Atwater of New Haven, 
and Barns, Kirby, Miller and Ward of 
Middletown. The appendix contains con- 
siderable Coe and Miller genealogy, and 
the whole 130 pages is well indexed. 



and many full-page illustrations. 
Price, $3.25 by mail, net. 

In this volume, a history of one of the 
hill towns of Litchfield county, Conn., 
there is much that is important and inter- 
esting in the field of history — a field made 
prolific by the palmy days of those towns 
before the population had flocked to the 
cities and the railroads had revolutionized 
the manner of living. 

The book is enlivened by numerous 
anecdotes and biographical sketches be- 
side the historical narrative. There are 
also two hundred pages devoted to gene- 
alogies of the early Goshen families. Al- 
together, Mr. Hibbard has made an inter- 
esting and readable as well as a valuable 
book. 



The Chords of Life — A book of 
poems by Charles H. Crandall, Spring- 
dale, Conn., show a true poet and lover 
of nature. They are much above the 
average usually found in such books, will 
take rank with the best and are entertain- 
ing reading, while the expression, thoughts 
and versification are up to an ideal stand- 
ard. The book contains over 150 pages, 
and has several neat half-tone illustrations. 
This first edition is limited to 500 copies, 
and may be had of the author, Charles H. 
Crandall, Springdale, Conn. 



History ok Goshen, Conn., by Rev. A. 
G. Hibbard, Woodstock, Conn. A 
medium octavo volume of 600 pages 



"Summer Homes Among the Moun- 
tains " is the title under which the annu- 
al guide book of the Philadelphia, Read- 
ing & New England Railroad comes to 
us. It is as valuable as ever to the person 
who has a vacation to plan for, and those 
who have souls which appreciate the art- 
istic will find it twice as handsome as any 
of its predecessors. This beautiful book 
of nearly two hundred pages bears the 
creditable stamp of the Plimpton Manu- 
facturing Company, and its typographical 
and press work is of the highest quality. 
It bears an embossed cover, the figure of 
which we judge to be Diana. The illus- 
trations are typical of the unexcelled 
scenery to be found along the line of this 
road. The vacation problem becomes an 
analyzed fact, and all the troublesome 
features as to proper accommodations are 
done away with. Superintendent Mar- 
tin's progressive ideas and management 
show in the improvements he is making 
each year, and are to be commended. 



HAlISSSSSf IUIR REN EWER 




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Long, Luxuriant, silken, soft, is 
the result of the use 
Vegetable Sicilian Haib Rk- 

newer. This preparati. 
news the hair by renewing the 
conditions under which p 
alone is possible. 

Hall's Hair Rknfwer feeds 
the hair, enriches the soil of the 
scalp, and so restores the color 
to gray and faded hair, 
hair from falling, remove- dan- 
druff, and promotes a healthy 
growth. 

♦♦♦♦ 
From the Highest 
Medical Authority 
in Sweden. 

I have had occasion to 
several persons who, for some 
time, have used Hall's 
tarle Sicilian Hair R. EN EWE I 
and know that it has rest 
the original color to the hair, as 
well as being efficient in remov- 
ing the itching and dandruff 
that accompanies the falling of 
the hair. I consider it nr. 
to acknowledge the same.' 

Vincent Lundbi eg, 
Physician in Chief 

King of Sweden. 



R.P HALL 

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PROPRIETORS 

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Family Crests, Coats of Arms 
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<$> <^» <^» ^> ^p <$p 

Room 32, Trust Co. Building, HARTFORD, CONN. 

Maps and Street Guides of the 

City of HARTFORD. 

FOR SALE BY 

SMITH & McDONOUGH, 301 Main Street. 

L. A. CHAPIN, 347 Main Street. 

E. M. SILL, 89 Trumbull Street. 

N. Y. & N. E. NEWS CO., R. R. Station. 

I 

ELtlHU GEEK'S SOflS, 
Printers and Publishers, 

16 STATE ST., HARTFORD, CONN. 




*MAN(/FACTl/f}ERS ^ 

PRINTING PLATES 1 

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....and Rev England R,. R. 

^Summer Rome Book for \$n 

IS NOW READY FOR DISTRIBUTION. 



It contains over one hundred attractive half-tone illustrations and is 
without doubt the handsomest book of the kind ever issued by any rail- 
road. It contains an increased list of Hotels and Boarding Houses, gives 
rates for board and all information sought after by those intending to 
summer in the country. Don't neglect getting a copy — sent free for 
postage, 6c, to 



W. J. MARTIN, Hartford, Conn. 



^A, «. A j%. J%. -.A. A, ^%, X X X, X X X, ' 



%, m 



I 7)*e Connecticut Quarterly " 

An Illustrated Magazine 



♦ 

♦ 

|^ 

|| 

^#" 

x 

|| 
1/ 



Devoted to the Literature, History, and Picturesque Feat 
of Connecticut 



ures 



PUBLISHED QUARTERLY 

By THE CONNECTICUT QUARTERLY COMPANY 

66 State Street, Courant Building. 

George C. Atwell, Editor. HARTFORD. CONN. 



• 



CONTENTS. 



Vol. IV 



July, Aug., Sept., 1898. 



No. 3 



Washington Green. ... Fr 

"Washington. Illustrated. . .. . Dwight C. Kilbom 

The Tories of Connecticut. fames Shepkard. 

When Youth is Done. Poem . . . Elizabeth A Id en Curti 

List of Burials, Center Church Burying Ground, Hartford. 

Copied and annotated by Mary A". Talcott. 
New Haven Defenses in the War of the Revolution and 

in the War of J8J2. Illustrated. . M. Louii 

Blind-Fold. Poem . . Anna J. Gt 

Succory. Poem. Illustrated . Louise P. Merritt 

A Pastoral. Poem. Illustrated . Herbert Ran. 

Some Common Evidences of Glacial Action in Con- 






Illu> 



//'. //. C . 
Sally Porter I 
Emily Gooa 
Anna M. 

fain- Martin. 
X. //. Allen. 



necticut. Illustrated. 
Twilight. Poem. Illustrated. 
Peter Parley— As Known to His Daughter. 
An Old Daguerreotype. Poem. 
A Social Struggler. Story. 
Old Time Music and Musicians. Illustrated 
Departments. — Genealogical Department. 

Descendants of William Chase of Yarmouth 

Publisher's Notes. 

Historical Notes. 

From the Societies. 

Connecticut Forestry Association. 

> * * * •: - a4s .-,. ^fc* £ . ^ • by , G EO C A T w K i i , 

Entered at the Post Office at Hartford, Conn., as mail matter o: the second elm 



m i 

838 

337 






BOOK NOTICES. 



Memorial of the De Forsyths de 
Fronsac, by Frederick Gregory For- 
syth, Viscount de Fronsac. To be 
obtained of James Bennett Forsyth, 
256 Devonshire street, Boston, Mass., 
price $5.00 ; p.p. 40 8vo. The Forsyth 
family in France, Scotland, Ireland, 
and America is here traced. Several 
fine engravings enhance the value of 
work. Views in De Frousac's Do- 
main in Acadia are also added. 



Ye Catalog of Epitaphs from Ye 
Old Burying Ground on Meeting 
House Hill in Methnen, Mass ; pub- 
lished by the Methnen Historical 
Society. 12 mo. p.p. 116, price $100 
small edition. The work is arranged 
in alphabetical order. The old bury- 
ing ground was laid out in '1878, and 
for nearly 50 years was the only one 
in the town. 



Descendants of Constant South- 
worth (second edition), by George C. 
S. Southworth, 156 Lincoln Avenue, 
Salem, Col. Co. Ohio, p.p. 31. South- 
worths are earnestly requested to 
communicate further information re- 
specting Edward of London and Ley- 
den, and particularly their own family 
records to the author. 



Sir George Yeardley or Yardly, 
Governor and Captain-General of 
Virginia, and Temperance (West), 
Lady Yeardly, and some of their de- 
scendants, by Thomas Teackle Up- 
shur, Nassawaddox, Northampton, 
Co., Va., reprinted from American 
Historical Magazine, Nashville, 
Tenn , Oct. 1896, 4 to p.p. $6. Well 
compiled and shows extensive re- 
search. 



Notes upon the Ancestry of John 
Piatt, b. 1749, Burlington Co., N. J., 
and also a list of his descendants p.p. 
3 1 - 



Notes upon the ancestry of Eben- 
ezer Greenough, b. 1783, Haverhill, 
Mass., and his wife Abigail Israel, b. 
i79i,Cristine, Del , p.p. 38. These two 
uniform works are by Mr. Franklin 
Piatt, 1 61 7 Chestnut street, Philadel- 
phia. Penn. They exhibit the results 
of careful compilation. 



The Roger Williams Calendar by 
John Osborne Austin, Box 81, Prov.,, 
R. I. These extracts are published 
in order to enlarge the field of ac- 
quaintance with the works of Roger 
Williams. He was one of the grand- 
est figures in the history of the race. 
The author is to be thanked for this 
noble attempt. There are 370 p.p. 
+ vi. Each page is devoted to a day 
throughout the year, and extracts are- 
taken arbitrarily from the works of 
Mr. Williams, and assigned to differ- 
ent days through one year. Price 



The Bockee Family (Boucquet) 
1641-1897, by Martha Bockee Flint. 3 
Barclay street, Pouzhkeepsie, N. Y.,. 
price $5.00, 8vo. p.p. 158 + ix. Miss 
Flint here gives another fine geneal- 
ogy to the American public. The 
work has good index and is clear in 
style. A Peters Lineage and Early 
Long Island are two works which 
Miss Flint has edited. Jerome Boc- 
quet was in New Amsterdam as early 
as 1647, having come from Middel- 
burg, Holland. 

Ancestry of John Davis, governor 
and United States Senator, and Eliza 
Bancroft his wife, both of Worcester 
Mass. Compiled by Horace Davis,, 
San Francisco, Cal., 8vo. p.p. 94. 
This illustrated volume makes quite 
an addition to American genealogy. 
Two charts are given at the begin- 
ning. The records are given in full 
and concisely. 



Eldredge Genealogy. A record of 
some of the descendants of William 
Eldredge, of Yarmouth, Mass., by 
Zoeth vS. Eldredge, Bohemian Club,. 
San Francisco, Cal. 8 vo. p.p. 35. 
Printed for private circulation. An. 
excellent compiliation.. 



"Jim and His Old Cornet," is the 
title under which a little book of 
poems by Louis E. Thayer of Collins- 
ville, Conn. It is in his usual felicitous 
style, and contains several poems de- 
voted to nature subjects. Price $1. 00, 
for sale by Belknap and Warfield, 
Hartford. 



The Connecticut Quarterly 

"Leave not your native land behind. "—Thoreau. 



Vol. IV. 



THIRD QUARTER. 

July, Aug., Sept., 1898. 



No. y 



^' i; ^-«sr 





BY DWIGHT C. KIl.BOl RN. 



The town of Washington, Conn., was organized in 1770. and is claimed to 
he the first town in the colonies named after the Father of his Country 
a hilly and rugged tract of land at nearly the southern end of the Green Moun- 
tain Range, with "Mount Tom" for its northern outpost and the beautiful 
Pomperaug Valley spread at the foot of its southern hills. These hills are 
seldom ledgy, and are crowned with well cultivated farms and substantial 
farm houses, homes of thrifty farmers, who live lives oi intellig 
and support good churches and schools ami whose familit in the D 

cultivated and refined society. Few localities can province as many well-read 
and educated, moral, christian men and women as J mica St and talk with 
that farmer driving his cows home from pasture and he will convei 
intelligently on art, history, philosophy, science of government, or a' 
kindred subject, showing that he is a thinker as well as a worker The B 



23S 



WASHINGTON. 



is told by a gentleman who once drove over these hills that he came across two 
farmers, bare-footed and bare-headed, whose teams were standing at some dis- 
tance on either side of the fence on which they were seated. They were talk- 
ing with great vehemence and using considerable gesticulation. Supposing 




DAVIES HOLLOW. 

that there was some trouble between these neighbors, he approached them as 
a peacemaker. To his surprise they were simply having a discussion over the 
rank which Emerson should hold as a poet and philosopher. 

The art of abandoned farms has not yet reached these rural hills. The 
boys go out into the world and run its commerce, its laws, its trade and its in- 
dustries but they cling to 
the old farm, keep the 
buildings in repair, the 
fences trimmed up and 
return ever and anon to 
rest their tired brains amid 
these grand views and 
quiet scenes ; and so it has 
come to pass that we have 
a township of city people 
mingling familiarly with 
the farmers. 

Washington is com- 
posed of two divisions, the 
western, or north - west- 
\ country stork. e m, called New Preston, 

and the eastern called Judea. The former has attained a wide reputation 




WASHINGTON. 



- 



I 



from its beautiful lake Waramaug, of which we gave some sketches in this 
magazine last year. It is of Judea we desire now to speak. 

Originally Judea was a part of Woodbury, being the west part of the 
North purchase, and the first settler was 
Joseph Hurlbut from Waterbury, who 
built his log cabin in the southern part of 
the society about 1734. In a short time 
Increase Moseley, from Stratford, Nath- 
aniel Durkee, Friend Weeks and Samuel 
Pitcher, all from Norwich, joined the set- 
tlement and became neighbors at a 
distance of from one to five miles apart, 
and in 1736 the community was so pros- 
perous that a frame house was erected. 
They did not, while fighting bears and 
killing deer or scouting for the Indians, 
forget their religious duties, for Isaac 
Baldwin came down from Litchfield and 
preached to them in a bedroom of Joseph 
Hurlbut's house, which accommodated 
the people, " Tho' none staid at home in 
those times who were able to attend," 
expresses it. 

From the first settlement until the Act of Incorporation in 1 779, the settlers 
were continually asking the General Assembly for some privilege and \- 
ing ''Ancient Woodbury " all the while by these applications. In 




as Rev 



ERAS! 1 - Hi R] 

Dr. Porter in his r. 




RESIDENCE or I . K 



cause they were fully eight miles from any meeting-house ami the 
children had to tarry at home from the worship of God it half of 



240 



WASHINGTON. 



year, they were allowed to get their own preaching for six months in the win- 
ter and not required to pay taxes~to build a school house in Woodbury Center. 
In 1 741 a committee was appointed who fixed certain bounds and the General 
Assembly incorporated this people as the Judean Society. This was upon the 
petition of twenty-six settlers who the next year appeared and represented 
that they had " Unamymously and Lovingly Agreed upon A Place for to Set a 
Meeting House," and were granted a right to build a meeting house which 
eight of the proprietors proceeded to do|that year. 

The location thus harmoniously fixed upon was substantially that now oc- 
cupied by the present, 
meeting-house and 
is known far and wide 
as "The Green." Why it 
was so called is unknown, 
as it was a mass of ledges 
which even now, after a 
century or more of years 
of efforts to hide, crop 




RESIDENCE OF E. H. VAN INGEN. 

out. Upon one of them 
was placed a little plain 
building called the 





RESIDENCE OF R. S. BARNES. 

academy, and another spot 
was leveled big enough 
to set the meeting-house, 
and then the boys smooth- 
ed up a spot big enough 
to pitch quoits on. This 
grew to a cricket ground, 
then to one for base ball, 
Green " shows the conquering power of man and art over 
the " Green " roads radiate through the ledges to various 
sections of the town. 

The church edifice itself, is the third one erected here, and is the result of 
evolution. The first one built, in 1742, was a small affair, somewhat larger 
than Joseph Hurlbut's bed-room, and it lasted till 1751, when a more commodi- 
ous one was erected for Parson Brinsmade to preach in. But that had no 



VACATION HOUSE. 



and now the 
nature. From 



WASHINGTON. 



241 



steeple, so in 1786, when Rev. Noah Merwin, who had to leave TorringtOl 
cause they were too poor to support him, came to assist Mr. Brinsmade, they 
celebrated the event by putting on a steeple and buying a bell. Then a crazy 
man took hold of the matter and to celebrate Independence Day at the begin- 
ning of the century, he set the building on fire, — but the fire works did not 
develop well and were put out. In April, 1 801, he tried it again with better 
success, and the Rev. Ebenezer Porter, who, after the death of Rev. I 
Merwin, was ordained over this people, had the pleasure of preaching the next 
Thanksgiving in the present edifice, which was not, however, entirely finished 
then. This building had originally a regular standard Presbyterian spire, but 
as the strong doctrine 
in later years wavered, 
so this tall spire weak- 
ened, and sound tim- 
bers decayed and finally 
it fell over, and the 
present beautiful Wash- 
ingtonian design re- 
placed it. Then. an or- 




g an r < 

d in 

the rear. 
porch in 
front, 1 
this uni 

is th< 

ml g 

all t 

about. 

Fortunate as Judea has been with its churches, it has I 
its ministers, yet it is difficult to tell whether the super 
the effect of associating with such a people. One of the 
Dr. Ebenezer Porter, was ordained over this people in 
years, ministered unto them, when he was called to the the, 
at Andover, where his labors achieved the highest place in th< 
and he was president of that institution several ye. 
Mason was the pastor for ten years. Then in 18.3 the Kev Gordon \ 



INTERIOR IN THE GIBSON HOUSE 



242 



WASHINGTON. 



was installed and remained with the church nearly a quarter of a century. 
During his labors the great excitement of anti-Masonry and Abolitionism de- 





THE GUNNERY. 



stroyed the usefulness of church work. It can hardly be conceived by us now, 
the terrible storms of passion that raged and the bitter life-long enmities that 
resulted. The Masonic Society went down and Masons were a proscribed class 

— " Sons of Belial," — but the Abolitionists 
conquered. The history of the anti- 
slavery quarrel reads to-day like the 
feuds of wild clans of old. About 1837 
John Gunn (eldest brother of Frederick 
W.), Daniel G. Piatt, father of Hon. O. 
H. Piatt, and Lewis Canfield, with their 




FREDERICK W. GUNN. 

wives, went to Hartford to an anti- 
slavery meeting, and during their 
three days' stay, became thoroughly 
converted. After coming home, they 
started the anti-slavery movement. Par- 
son Hayes fought them from the pul- 
pit, preaching that the bible sanctioned 




EI'HRAIM KIRBY 



WASHINGTON. 



2 43 






human slavery. The excitement became intense— and the pro-slaver* Calvin- 
ists would not speak to the abolitionist infidel. In 1839 Miss Abbie Kell. 











JUDGE DANIEL N. BRINSMADE. 



GEN DANIKL 11. BRIS 






prominent abolitionist lecturer, was introduced into Judea, and the follov. 

vote upon the church records is given: 

August 8, 1 9 ;9. 
11 At a meeting- of the Church convened in consequence of a notice of a 

meeting of the Anti-Slavery Society, at which it was said a female would 

lecture 

Resolved, That we are opposed to the introduction of female public l< 

ers into this S by 

members of this Church, 
and to females giving such 
lectures in it." 
And Mr 11. 
ed a personal sermon fl 
Rev. ii. so 22. The 
quence was that ir. 
members withdrew 
the church and 9 
them ne\ the 

building again, alt", 
within less than I I 

five years Line 

clamation 

w as :>■>:: 

G A Eiickoj 

on ••Olden rimes in Jw 




THE STONE SCHOOL HOUSE. 



•tinguished son of Washington, in an article 



WASHINGTON. 



2 



says : "For eighty years the Congregational church, its pastors and its lead 
ing men, had governed the Judean Society. For forty years they had 

erned the town of Washingl 
Judge Brinsmade having exercised, 
through most of that time, a 
of patriarchial control in secular 
matters, while the pastors and 
deacons dominated the religious and 
educational interests of the com- 
munity. The first break in this 
formation of church and state was 
indirectly occasioned by the French 
Revolution. The Puritan ministry 
hated French democracy just 
cerely as they hated French Infi- 
delity. Thomas Jefferson was a 
believer in the Revolution of 
He was attacked from nearly every 
Congregational pulpit in the > - 
as an enemy of religion and of social 
order. The result in Washington, 
as elsewhere, was a religious schism. 
Earnest democrats began to look 
about them for some church where 
they could worship God 
having their political principles 
denounced as infamous, their political leaders as infidels. So bitter was the 




H. HOLLISTER. 




246 



WASHINGTON. 



feeling that, in two recorded cases in the town of Washington, democrats were 

fined for interrupting preach- 
ers of the gospel of Federal- 
ism. One of them had risen 
in meeting and shaken his 
fist in the minister's face, 
and the other had brandished 
a formidable looking jack- 
knife at the pastor." 

DAVIES' HOLLOW. 

" I am entirely alone, hav- 
ing no society, and nothing 
to associate with but Presby- 
terians and wolves ; " wrote 
the distinguished Mary Pow- 
ell, wife of John Davies, Jr., 
to her friends in England, 
from her lonely cabin in 
Davies' Hollow, where her 
husband and his father lo- 
cated their homes more than 
a century and a half ago. 
Hills on either side, crowned 
to their smmmits with mas- 
sive oak and chestnut trees, 
a little clearing on the plain, 
where, amid the stumps, 




HON. ORVILLE H. PLATT. 



straggling hills of maize and potatoes 
grew like forlorn hopes. In the never 
ending woods the squirrels chatted mock- 
ingly at her, the deer roamed fearlessly 
and often the stealthy Indian lurked, ready 
to seize any one of the little children that 
strayed from the settler's cabin. The 
murmuring of the brook over the stones, 
and the sighing of the winds through 
the pines of the valley, were in harmony 
with her feelings, and no wonder she 
longed for the green fields of Hertford- 
shire, and the comforts of that beautiful 
home she had left,— but the pioneer's wife 
was brave and lived to see these hills 
cultivated and the cheerless wilderness 
blossom like a rose. Now the hillsides 
are green with grass and John Davies 
with all the familysleep in the little ceme- 
tery, while many illustrious descendants 
are scattered over this broad land, — one 




CHARLES H. NETTLETON. 



WASHINGTON. 






especially, Charles Davies, 
LL. D., long a professor at 
West Point, and author of 
the valuable series of mathe- 
matical works, has been es- 
pecially prominent in the 
thoughts of every student 
tangled in the jungles of plus 
and minus. 

John Davies, the first, 
was a pioneer Episcopalian, 
and used to attend the meet- 
ings of his then unpopular 
sect at Litchfield, ten miles 
or more distant, and gave a 
deed of some now valuable 
land to that society in the 
form of a lease, for nine 
hundred and ninety-nine 
years, for "one pepper corn, 
to be paid annually if law- 
fully demanded, at or upon 
the feast of St. Michael the 
Archangel." I believe the 
pepper corns are kept in 
readiness for delivery when 
called for. As he became 





THE SHADED ROADWAY 



WILLIAM HAMILTON RIBS 

older, he tired of going so tar to church, 
and built one near the little cemetery 
in the Hollow. This by migtf 
now stands on the north-west con 
the green in Judea. 

Upon the* completion of the She- 
paug railroad in 1872, the station 10 
Davies' Hollow was called " Romi 
in honor of Romulous Ford, wh 
then owner of the Hollow, and I 
donations of land to the ■ 

More than titty years ag the 
farmers here marketed their products 
by means of middle-men who carried 
them to neighboring citi 
to New Haven, where thl - 
and returned proceeds to sir 
two cents a pound. It 
business for the transporters 
swift and sure market for tk 
and for manv years the 
county produce brought an 



J2 48 



WASHINGTON. 



-price in the retail markets. Only one of these dealers, so far as the 
writer knows, has remained in this field of trade, and in our view of 
"Farmer's Hall," this veteran, Erastus Hurlbut, is seated in the porch of, 
his large general country store, adjoining immense store houses which were 
formerly necessary in the prosecution of his business. This transporting was 
done by horses and heavy wagons, starting at all hours of day and night for 
the long drive of twenty-five miles to New Haven. Mr. Hurlbut says he car- 
ried in one week eighty-five heavy hogs, or about twenty-five thousand pounds 
of pork to market. The business is now insignificant as the farmers are gen- 
erally engaged in producing milk for the New York market — and the railroad 
has taken the freighting business from the teams. There can be no dispute 
however, but that the material prosperity of Washington farmers was largely 
a result of these commission men. 




THE MITCHELL PLACE. 



Within the past thirty years a new era has dawned upon these hills. The 
building of the Shepaug railroad from Hawleyville to Litchfield has rendered 
them accessible, and city people have availed themselves of this chance to 
locate for their summer vacation upon these ridges and knolls, their charming 
cottages, many of them elegant mansions, while some have come back to their 
ancestral homes, and enjoy the big chimneys and oaken beams that our forefa- 
thers thought necessary to stand the brunt of winter's storms and winds. 

About these villas, landscape gardening has done its best work, and every 
cliff and boulder is used to aid the gardener in his effects. 

The residence of E. K. Rossiter of New York, is one of the finest of its 
-class. From its broad verandah you can see the rippling Shepaug winding 
like a silver thread around the base of Steep Rock whose cragged cliffs rise 



WASHINGTON. 







2 vj 

five hundred feet above it, and the smoky train creeps out of the tunnel a 

the river, and a hundred other varying scenes shift as the eye turns upon them. 

The Van Ingen — >w 

mansion, the / ^^ 

Brownie Cot- m 

tage and Mrs. 

Gibson's are 

all of them 

fine, with ele- 
gant, well-kept 

grounds, and 

there are many 

othe r s lik e 

them. The sum- 
mer home for 

poor shop-girls 

of the city is 

another institu- 
tion, built and 

maintained by 

Mrs. Van Ingen; 

it is seen as one 

comes on the 

train, way up on 

the brow of one 

of the hills, and 

is occupied in 

the summer by 

overworked and tired girl-clerks of the stores of New York. They 

here for a short vacation, at a nominal 
charge for board, and can have a restful t • 

Another Van Ingen institution is the 
quaint stone school-house we show. This 
was built to take the children t"r 
Green, and is an odd specimen of the "bul- 
warks of the Nation," in a little lot 
own, down by the babbling brook. The 
building removed from the ledge 
Green, became the studio of M 
"The Sumacs." 

Probably the most important institu- 
tion of the present day in Wish:;., 
that celebrated school. "The Gunner] 
founder, Frederick W. ('.unn. hafl 
gathered to his fathers, and sleeps in the 
cemetery behind the church A 
asked Mr. Gunn what he « 
with all those boys '■ the 

earl. Buckingham. grounds. « Make men of them.- he replied : 



ELISHA MITCHELL. 




25° 



WASHINGTON. 



that was his single thought and aim, and is now the purpose of the present 
teachers. Dr. Holland, who for many years made Judea his summer home, in 
his story of "Arthur Bonnicastle," graphically depicts the Gunnery under the 
title of the "Bird's Nest." "On the whole, ' The Bird's Nest' would have 
been a good name for it if a man by another name had presided over it. It. 
had its individual and characteristic beauty, because it had been shaped to a 

special purpose ; but it 
seemed to have been 
brought together, at differ- 
ent times, and from wide 
distances. There was a 
central old house, and a 
hexagonal addition, and a 
tower, and a long piazza 
that tied everything to- 
gether. It certainly looked 
grand, among the humbler 




THE GUY FORD HOUSE 




THE JUDGE BRINSMADE HOUSE. 

houses of the village, 
though I presume a pro- 
fessional architect would 
not have taken the highest 
pleasure in it. Mr. Bird 
was a tall, handsome, 
strongly-built man, a little 
past middle-life, with a 
certain fulness of habit 
that comes of a good health and a happy temperament. His eye was 
blue, his forehead high, and his whole face bright and beaming with good 
nature. His companion was a woman above the medium size, with eyes the 
same color as his own, into whose plainly parted hair the frost had crept, and 
upon whose honest face and goodly figure hung that ineffable grace which 
we call ■ motherly.' 

" Self-direction and self-government, these were the most important of all 



E Sl.Tir S. LOGAN PLACE. 



WASHINGTON. 

the lessons learned in the Bird's Nest. Our school was a little community 
brought together for common objects— the pursuit of useful learning, the 
acquisition of courteous manners, and the practice of those duties which relate 
to good citizenship. The only laws of the school were those which were 
planted in the conscience, reason and sense of propriety of the pupils. The 
boys were made to feel that the school was their own, and that they were re- 
sponsible for its good order. Mr. Bird was only the biggest and . and 
the accepted president of the establishment." 

The school is now conducted by John C. Brinsmade, A. M.. who is as 
by an able corps of instructors. Mr. Brinsmade married the only daughter of 
Mr. and Mrs. Gunn, and has been connected with the school nearly thirty ' 
There is in attendance about sixty boarding scholars. 

Another school, for young men preparing for college, is under the direction 
of Wm. G. Brinsmade, A. M., a brother of the present master of the Gunnery. 
and occupies a large and elegant mansion on the " Ridge," a knob of land half 
a mile distant from the Green. The two schools although entirely independ- 
ent of each other, have between them fine athletic and ball grounds, with ten- 
nis court and a series of golf links. 

The examinations given are held by a Harvard professor and admit to 
that university — of which the two Brinsmade brothers are graduates. 

There are no manufactories in the town at the present time, and its splen- 
did water-powers are neglected beyond a grist-mill and saw-mill or two. Yet, 
in former days, many shops and factories existed, and gave promise of great 
futures. At Woodville, fifty years ago, Chittenden's Iron Works employed an 
hundred men or more. Down on "Christain Street" lime burning and brick 
making were carried on. At the falls at New Preston, and all along the 
Aspetuck, stone saw-mills produced the slabs for monuments, and the marble- 
quarries at Marbledale, were busy and profitable. At Baldwin's, just north of 
Goose Hill, a foundry and machine shop turned out large quantities of g 
mostly for farmers' purposes. Captain Center, in the hollow west of the 
"Green," built and operated a large cotton mill, employing many opera: 
Here lived, in his boyhood, Alexander J. Center, the chief engineer of the 
Panama railroad, which was built largely by his promoting. No* th< SC have 
disappeared, and many of the dams are gone, while the lone fisherman inveigles 
the trout amid the ruins. 

The modern industries are entirely changed. In the little village at the 
Depot, two or three small shops are running ; a wagon-shop and a gristmill. 
The Echo Farm Company of Litchfield, some years ago, engllged in bt 
milk here and bottling it, for the New York market. It erected Hid- 

ing opposite the Depot for this business, which was entirely I 
a year ago, and has not been rebuilt, but the business is contu ther 

buildings. 

The late Chief Justice Church, in his Centennial 
Litchfield in 1851, on the occasion of the celebration of the one fa 
anniversary of the organization of Litchfield County, dismisses w 
follows : " Washington has been a nursery oi eminent men of whom 
now speak without violating my purpose ot speaking of th< 
the living." 

Nearly a half century has passed since then and were the shed 



252 WASHINGTON . 

judge to again address the people his lips would not be sealed, and a host o 
men would be honored by his eulogy. It is now our glad right to bring forth 
the virtues and deeds of a few of the many eminent men reared in these 
borders — while there will be many others equally worthy, whom we cannot 
have space to mention. 

The Brinsmade family has had from the early settlement a positive influ- 
ence in the building of this society. Daniel Brinsmade, a young parson, just 
graduated from Yale college, became the spiritual leader of this flock in 1748. 
He was thirty years old, thoroughly Puritanical and with decided opinions, and 
for nearly fifty years ministered unto them, in season and out of season. Two 
causes disturbed his peaceful reign ; one the Revolutionary War with its at- 
tendant Patriot and Tory convictions and animosities, and the other the 
Episcopalian heresy way up in Davies' Hollow. This latter was, however, 
then in the town of Litchfield. The half-way covenant doctrine also made a 
ripple of trouble over the calm surface of his religious work. By his marriage 
with Rhoda Sherman of New Haven, he had two sons, Daniel Nathaniel and 
Daniel Sherman. He lived on the brow of the hill east of the Green, in a 
house now torn down, just north of the late residence of Lewis Canfield. He 
died in 1793. 

Hon. Daniel N. Brinsmade, his oldest son, graduated at Yale in 1772 
read law with Samuel Canfield, Esq., of Sharon, and pursued his profession in 
his native town until his death in 1826. He was a Justice of the Quorum, and 
Assistant Judge of the County Court for sixteen years. He represented his 
town in the General Assembly at both its May and October sessions for twenty- 
one years, and was a member of the Convention that adopted the Federal Con- 
stitution. He almost believed he held public office by prescription. After the 
adoption of the new State Constitution of Connecticut in 1818, he was drop- 
ped, but the next year he went to Hartford to see what the new order of peo- 
ple could do without him. Taking a spectator's seat in the rear of the hall, he 
soon became absorbed in the proceedings — and his old experiences revived. 
Soon a member rose and made a motion. The Judge had been so long accus- 
tomed to seconding every motion, whether he favored it or not, just for the 
sake of having it properly presented for deliberation, that forgetting himself, 
he immediately exclaimed, "I second the motion." The members turned 
around astonished to hear it coming from the spectators — when recognizing 
the form of the veteran legislator of forty-three sessions, they remembered 
his old habit, and burst into a loud laughter. The old Federalist became now 
thoroughly disgusted with such " Toleration " legislative proceedings. 

He was an active and influential member of the Masonic orders in their 
different names, representing his home lodge, the Rising Sun, for many years 
in the Grand Lodge, and held several of the chairs and stations in that body. 
Gen. Daniel B. Brinsmade was the only son of Daniel N. and Abigail 
Farrand Brinsmade, and born in 1782, he lived his life of eighty years in 
Judea, where his father lived before him. He was one of the leading spirits of 
his day ; holding the office of town clerk for over forty years, and representing 
his town, in the General Assembly, several times. He took great interest in 
military affairs, and was colonel of the Fifth Regiment of Connecticut Cavalry 
in 181 7, and was subsequently made general of the State Cavalry. In 185 1 he 
was honored as the president of the Litchfield County centennial celebration, 



WASHINGTON. 

and exhibited on that occasion the epaulets and scarf worn by General La 
Fayette during the War of the Revolution, which are heir-looms in the Brins- 
made family. He was prominent in Masonic affairs and was Grand Master of 
the State in 1827 and 1828. One of his four children, Abigail Irene married 
Frederick W. Gunn, the distinguished teacher, whose only daughter, with her 
husband, John C. Brinsmade, a grandson of General Brinsmade, now continues 
the school— thus making a Brinsmade dynasty of a complete one hundred and 
fifty years. 

Near the road from Smoke Hollow to Davies' Hollow, is the depre 
that marks the home in which Ephraim Kirby was born in 1757. The old 
farm is now mostly a forest. The Ford family lived a little nearer Mount Tom, 
in the old house now nearly in ruins, and Davies' Family a half-mik 
the valley. The news that made Putnam leave his plow reached the ears of 
this boy and he hastened with his flint-lock and powder-horn to Bunker Hill, 
and for eight years he struggled in Freedom's cause. He was in nineteen bat- 
tles and skirmishes, and received thirteen wounds, seven of which were sabre 
cuts at Germantown, where he was left for dead. 

At the close of the war he studied law with Reynold Marvin of Litchfield, 
and also received the degree of M. A. from Yale college. In 1789 he published 
a volume of reports of the decisions of the courts of his state, being the first 
volume of reports ever published in this country, and is still a standard au- 
thority. He was a member of the Society of Cincinnati, a Free and Accepted 
Mason, and held many of the official positions of that order, being the 
General Grand High Priest of the General Grand Chapter. 

He was honored by his resident town of Litchfield with thirteen semi- 
annual elections to the General Assembly of Connecticut. 

He married Ruth Marvin and had several children, and some of his pos- 
terity have been very prominent military men. General Kirby Smith, com- 
manding the last Confederate army that surrendered, was his grandson. 

He was appointed by President Jefferson a Judge of the newly orga: 
territory of Orleans, and died while proceeding there to assume the off- 
Fort Stoddard, on October 2, 1804, aged forty-six years. 

One of the most distinguished sons of Judea was the late Gideon H 
lister, known so well as the historian of Connecticut. He was born in the 
southeastern corner of the town in the deep valley of the West Sprain Brook, 
in an old farm-house which was built more than a century and a quarter 
by one of his ancestors, who was an officer in the French and Indian • 
This house has been kept in repair by the Hollister family, who sr. 
it and till the ancestral side-hills. 

He graduated at Yale in 1840, evincing high scholarship and great 1:: 
and forensic talent. Under Judge Seymour's careful training he 
to the Litchfield bar in 1842, and soon became and alw ays held the D of a 

leading attorney in the state until his decease at Litchfield in 

While not holding many high official positions, he had a 
fluence. He was sent in 1868 as Minister to Hayti where he ra 
years. His obituary in the Connecticut Law Reports, volume 
tribute of his legal ability. As a Lawyer his strength lav in the I mat- 

ters of fact to the jury with which he had few equals. In a is 
he was wonderfully adroit. The stumbling-block of natural anta^omsm he 



254 WASHINGTON. 

avoided with great skill. He often led the witness the way he wished by 
seeming to desire him to take the opposite direction. When severe, he was 
terribly severe. His delivery was slow, his manner impressive, his action dig- 
nified and effective ; at times he was magnificent, though like all born orators, 
often disappointing. 

He however enjoyed most of all, literary work, and his fame will live long 
in the published results of his study. The " History of Connecticut " is a rare 
specimen of good language in historical work. Besides this, he published 
several works of historical fiction, and was a constant contributor of poetry 
generally pertaining to historical subjects, to various newspapers and periodi- 
cals. 

Few men were in such constant demand as he for addresses and orations to 
be delivered on public celebrations of a memorial or dedicatory nature. 

We cannot close this tribute to a warm personal and professional friend with- 
out adding extracts from a letter of sympathy received by Mrs. Hollister shortly 
after his decease. " It was a sudden blow to me as I had not heard of his ill- 
ness. I cherished for your husband a true friendship, and now only regret 
that I did not see more of him in these later years. But I looked forward to a 
closer intimacy as we grew older and had less of life's work and care on our 
hands. I knew he was always the same friendly and noble man, capable of 
friendship with whose mind and heart I could ever find a quick sympathy even 
if I did not see him frequently. 

"The long drive we took together last summer when we stopped and 
dined with Prof. Beers at the lake, will ever be a golden day in my memory. 

" We discoursed English literature and the poets. He was in best spirits 
and I never saw him more full of genial wit, bright criticisms and shrewd ob- 
servations. His conversation fairly irradiated our circle. 

" As we drove all the sunny morning over the hills, he pointed out his 
favorite views and talked of trees, poetry, men, life and even deeper things 
still. 

" He was peculiar and independent in his tastes. He despised the merely 
sensational, he had a pure taste. He looked for nature and great and true 
thoughts expressed with moderative and dramatic force, 

' ' ' The gift which speaks, 

The deepest things most simply.' 

" Something, I feel, has gone out of my own life ; and as we grow older 
our old and heart friends grow fewer. 

" Your husband loved Litchfield and every rod of Connecticut soil, he 
loved his country's great men, but he loved more than all the great souls — 
the poets that have spoken through all time to all hearts and helped them to 
think and hope and suffer. * * * Sincerely yours, 

J. M. Hoppin." 

One of the farmer boys of Judea now highly honored is Orville H. Piatt, 
who for nearly twenty years has held the office of United States Senator from 
Connecticut, and for several years has been one of the most influential mem- 
bers of the national council. While one of the busiest men in Washington, 
he is always ready to greet his Connecticut friends, and never neglects the 
correspondence of his constituents. He will be seventy -one years old in July, 



WASHINGTON. a55 

but is strong and vigorous as a young man. Educated in the common schools 
of his town, he studied law at Litchfield with his townsman G. H. | 
and for thirty years was a leading attorney of the state, residing at M-riden! 
He had a way of stating his views without oratory, so that he was pretty apt 
to win his cases, and this habit still prevails in his congressional deba- 
private life has been such that his opinions were always respected by his 
fiercest opponents, and his honesty of purpose and integrity of character are, 
perhaps, the great elements of his success. 

Adjoining the Hollister farm on the north was the birth-place of another 
lawyer, who though not so widely known as Mr. Hollister or Senator Piatt, is 
yet entitled to a niche in the list of Washington's sons. Charles Nettle*. 
farmer boy, learned in the wisdom of the old red school-house, studied law 
with Truman Smith, and enjoyed his starvation period at Naugatuck, when 
Charles Goodyear was making his interesting and disheartening experiments 
in hardening caoutchouc — and then removed to New York City, where his 
business turned into that of conveyancing, which by reason of his careful at- 
tention and thorough knowledge of all the necessary details developed into a 
large practice, employing several clerks. He was a Commissioner < 
for every state and territory in the United States. He made a specialty of col- 
lecting the statutes and session laws of every state, and of many foreign na- 
tions, and had the most complete collection in the country of this particular 
branch of law. At the time of the Hayes and Tilden election, his whole library 
was removed to Washington, D. C, for the purposes of reference by the Electoral 
Commission. He became largely interested in the manufacture and distribu- 
tion of gas for lighting, and was for some years President of the United 
Association of the United States. He died in New York city at the age of 
seventy-two years, on May 5, 1892, and was buried in the cemet-. 
ington, by the side of his wife, who preceded him there only six weeks II is 
only living son, Charles H. Nettleton, is a well-known business man 1 
Conn., where he holds the management of the gas and electric light inch. 

Another whose "Pastoral Days" in summer time were spent amid the 
"Sumacs" of these rocky spurs was William Hamilton Gibson, tl 
author. He was only in the full prime of manhood when his work ei 
he was laid at rest in the cemetery on the hill-side. So much of US 
seemed to be in store for him that we can but wonder at the edict that 
moned him to the last "Home-town." We remember those cha 
ures of the birds, the bugs and the beetles, and the "Mysteri 
ers," from his deft hand, when this interpreter of nature's ex 
o'er the "Highways and Byways," or saw from his cottage door the sun di 
ing the morning dew from the shining petals, or lingering over the 
hills, as if loath to leave these verdant lawns to the shadows of tl 
This " Master of the Pen and Pencil " sleeps near his friend and U 
Master of the Gunnery," in that repose that awaits the call that all 
them to a land fairer than day. 

A student of nature's every phase, with a wonderful po* 1 
and philosophical instincts, his writings had a tascin.it \\\. 
sketches were reproductions of his ideas and his lectures wei 
structive — and it was not all the result of natural ability, but 
training and untiring industry. He was never idle, his vacati 



25 6 WASHINGTON. 

change of location, and meant, he said once, an increase of labor instead of a 
respite, and it is doubtless true that his death was the result of overwork. 
He was born in 1850 in Sandy Hook, a part of the town of Newtown — where 
his mother's people resided, his father being a Boston man with a distinguished 
ancestry. He learned to love Judea while a student of " The Gunnery," and 
after establishing his city studio in Brooklyn, he came back each year, and was 
as fond of her babbling brooks as if to the manor born. 

About a mile from " The Green," the shaded roadway between the ledges 
on the Litchfield road suddenly opens upon a grand panorama of green fields, 
and miles and miles of peaks beyond, and here stands perched upon a rocky 
knoll the Mitchell homestead. Near here Elnathan Mitchell built his log 
house, about 1750. He was a great land holder, and had vast possessions in 
all the towns round about. For one of his boys, Abner, he built this house in 
1792. Abner married Phebe Elliott, and had sons Elisha, Elnathan and 
Matthew. Elnathan kept this old home, and his grandson Elnathan now oc- 
cupies it. Here Elisha Mitchell was born in 1793. He loved his books rather 
than the fields, and became an LL. D., and was a professor of physics in the 
University of North Carolina. He explored the highest peak of the Blue Ridge, 
and lost his life in so doing, shortly before the beginning of the Rebellion. 
The mountain was named Mt. Mitchell in memory of him. 

Into this house Earle Buckingham moved with his wife, Helen Mitchell, 
and here he died. He was a noted school teacher and one of the " old-fashioned 
singing teachers, who went about the churches in cold winter nights doing good 
in the scale and clef manceuvering." He was once a member of the state senate. 

A mile north of the Mitchell house is an old-fashioned farm-house, where 
Mrs. Abigail Ford died, three or four years since, at over one hundred years of 
age. She was born a Logan, and her people lived a mile farther to the north- 
east, where Matthew Logan took up his share of land more than a century and 
a half ago. He had a large family of children who have all disappeared from 
the vicinity, save one family. The old log house in which Seth S. Logan once 
lived, was built for one of Matthew's sons. Seth Logan was a well-known man, 
one of the good, big-hearted farmers who had a smile and a cheerful word for 
everyone and whose hospitality was unbounded. One of the local leaders of 
his political party, he had high aspirations, and was rewarded by being elected 
comptroller of his state. At the end of his term of office his health failed and 
he died soon after, universally lamented. None of his children till the old 
farm, but his son, Walter S. Logan, a prominent lawyer of New York City, 
makes this his summer residence. 

Such, in brief, is the history of a community that has few parallels among 
the Puritan towns of our state, and whose light, set under the bushel of relig- 
ious conservatism, has shown with resplendent lustre all over our broad land, 
and of whose future under the new conditions of liberal thought and the 
genesis of modern civilization and development no one can prophesy. It is an 
interesting problem of modern life, whether the influx of city style, manners 
and mode of living will destroy the individuality of such rural towns, or 
whether these influences will themselves be modified, and purified by the pure 
lives and strong common sense of the country people and thus tend to arrest 
the strained tension of city hurry and worry, and mould a better sentiment, a 
truer, higher sense of duty and living, into the realms of commerce and mer- 
cantile life. This old society of Judea presents to the student, fond of such 
matters, a rare field for his investigations, and a summer study in these lofty 
hills and in this charming society would be a never-to-be-forgotten oasis in 
life's cares and work. 



THE TORIES OF CONNECTICUT. 



BY JAMES SHEI'ARU. 



[Concluded from last number] 

The bitter feeling against the Tories was more intense during the 
early stages of the war than at any other time. Those who did the least 
thing supposed to be favorable to the side of England were stigmatized as 
public enemies. On the first page of the Connecticut Courant was a 1 
"Persons held up to Public view as Enemies to the Country." It included 
names from other states as well as our own. Stephen Sears of Sharon and 
Lieut. Ebenezer Orvis of Farmington were so published. Sears made a con- 
fession before the committee of inspection which was accepted. In March, 
the Committee of Farmington voted, that Lieut. Ebenezer Orvis, Mrs. Lydia 
Orvis and Hannah Andruss be " advertised in ye Public Gazette as Enemies to 
their Country." They had persisted in using the prohibited and detested tea. 
Later Mr. Orvis made a confession which was voted satisfactory. 

At a meeting held in Farmington on December 12, 1774, the town voted 
to approve the doings of the Continental Congress with only two riis>enting 
voices, those of Nehemiah Royce and Matthias Learning. They were imme- 
diately voted to be open enemies, and all intercourse with them was ordered to 
be withdrawn until they retracted. It was even attempted to prevent K 
from sending his children to school; but this was voted down. In March. 
the committee voted " That Matthias Learning be advertised in the Public 
Gazette for a contumacious violation of ye whole Association of ye Continental 
Congress," and that the evidence against Royce 
was not sufficient to justify such publication- 
In May, 1777, however, we find Mr. Royce in 
the Hartford jail as an inimical person. 

Mr. Julius Gay's paper on " Farmington in 
the Revolution " gives us the story of this 
Matthias Learning. He inadvertently con- 
veyed his real estate to his brother, who ab- 
sconded and the property was confiscated. 
This brother, Jeremiah Learning, D. D., was 
the Episcopal minister who went off with the 
British at the burning of Norwalk, and is the 
man before referred to who left the negro 
Pomp. At one time a mob took his picture, 
defaced it, and nailed it to a sign post head 
downwards. He was put in prison and there 
contracted a hip disease that made him a 
cripple for life. Matthias petitioned the Gen- 
eral Assembly in 1783 for relief, which was 
denied. He finally had ^80 voted him. pay- 
able in 1787, but before it became due the 




In Memory of 

M'MathiasU \ v - 

W 7:o bars *• r 

t of nion is I 



i*r. 



rOMBSTON 




25 8 THE TORIES OF CONNECTICUT. 

treasury was bankrupt. In 1788 the prominent men of Farming-ton petitioned 
the General Assembly to assist him in his old age and distress, but no action 
was taken on said petition, and now, in the old cemetery at Farmington we 
find a tombstone on which is inscribed, " In memory of Mr. Matthias Learning 
Whohars got Beyond the reach of parcecushion, The life of man is vanity." 

Judah and David Learning of Farmington, in their petition for release 
from jail, said that they were provoked to imprudent utterings by injurious 
treatment involving " losses of clothing and wages," and the committee who 
examined them said that their statement was true. 

The Rev. John Smalley, of New Britian, was called a Tory because he advis- 
ed his hearers that they were not bound to keep the Continental Fast. He also 
spoke reprovingly of fighting against the king, but afterwards he became a firm 
adherent to the American cause. 

An extract from a letter in the Conrant shows the feeling against the 
Tories in May, 1776. " By these miscreants the British prisoners are assisted 
to escape. If these infernal enemies are suffered to proceed in their hellish 
schemes our ruin is certain, but if they are destroyed the power of Hell and 
Britain will never prevail against us." 

Col. Joseph Barnum, whose son was captured by the British at Fort Wash- 
ington and literally starved to death, was so exasperated that he took his gun 
and went in pursuit of Tories to revenge on them the death of his son. He 
soon saw an innocent Tory at work on his own land, took deliberate aim and 
shot him, wounding him severely but not fatally. 

In July, 1775, a brig: owned by Josiah Winslow a well known royalist of 
Boston, with some 19,000 gallons of molasses on board was forced by a storm 
into Stonington harbor. The people of Norwich captured it as a prize for the 
use of the state. It proved a great comfort and luxury to the Continental 
soldiers and was referred to as " tory .molasses." 

The Riflemen of New Milford compelled a Tory to walk before them to 
Litchfield and carry one of his own geese all the way in his hand. At Litch- 
field they tarred him, made him pluck his goose for his own coat of feathers, 
and then made him kneel down and thank them for their lenity. 

The members of the Church of England had their full share of trouble. 
The most rabid of the Whigs believed that every Episcopalian was either an 
open or secret Tory. In 1775, Waterbury voted to have two separate schools, 
one for Presbyterians and one for the Church of England. In Watertown the 
windows of the Episcopal church were demolished and the principal members 
of that church were confined on their farms. In Cheshire they were prevented 
from building a church. In Woodbury an Episcopal clergyman was fired at 
from ambush. Later he went to Canada. 

Rev. Samuel Seabury, a native of Connecticut and the first Episcopal 
Bishop in the United States, was taken by about forty armed men at his grammar 
school at West Chester, New York, and brought to New Haven in November 
1775. He was carried in triumph about the city, escorted by a large number of 
armed men who arranged themselves in front of the house of Capt. Sears and 
there fired two cannon and made other noisy demonstrations, after which he 
was placed in confinement. In his petition for release he states that on the 
day of his arrest some forty armed men went to his house, ordered his wife to 
open his desk, took his papers and all his money save one English shilling and 



THE TORIES OF CONNECTICCT. 



■ 



a few coppers. They insulted one of his daughters by running a bayonet 
through her cap while on her head and twice through the handkerchief on her 
neck. They also destroyed a quilt around which his family wa 
cutting it in pieces with their bayonets. He was ordered to be removed by the 
New York Committee of Safety. 

At one period a gloom settled over the prospects of the colonists and the 
Church party felt almost sure of a speedy triumph, some of the most enthu- 
siastic met together at Waterbury, says Dr. Bronson, and determined in what 
manner the farms of their opponents should be divided among themsc- 
after the subjugation of the country. 

In July, 1776, the Episcopal clergy, whose duty it was to pray for the king 
and for victory over all his enemies, met in convention and resolved that such 
prayers " would draw upon themselves inevitable destruction." For a time all 
public service was suspended and all of their churches closed save those at N 
town and Redding, which were presided over by Rev. John Beach. Mr. Beach 
declared that "he would pray for the king till the rebels cut out his tongue"' 
Rev. X. A. Welton says of Beach, in the history of Redding, that " a sqna 
soldiers marched into his church in Newtown and threatened to shoot him if he 
prayed for the king, but when, regardless of their threats, he went on without 
so much as a tremor in his voice, to offer the forbidden supplication, they were 
•so struck with admiration for his courage that they stacked arms and remained 
to listen to the sermon." 

A band of soldiers once took him to where an axe and block were prepared 
for killing him, and one of them said, "Now you old sinner say you- 
prayer." He knelt down and prayed, "God bless King George, and forj 
his enemies and mine for Christ's sake." They let him go. 

He was once shot at when in the pulpit at Redding, and the bullet lodged 
in the sounding-board about a foot above his head. The congregatioi 
to their feet to rush from the church, but he soon quieted them and proceeded 
with his discourse as if nothing had happened. 

The Episcopal churches were not only closed by this order I min- 

isters after a time were mostly banished and the great majority of th< 
had removed from the state. When they again began to hold public 
they generally omitted the prayer for the king or else omitted th< 
•entirely. The Rev. Matthew Graves, of New London, refused to omit : 
for the king and as a consequence he was driven from his chnrcta 1 
before he had time to divest himself of his suplice. 

The Rev. Abraham Jarvis, of Middletown, who presided over the 1 
Convention of 1776, opened his church on Sundays, but an attendant 
he " only read some chapters in the Bible and preached a sermon ii 
clothes, not daring to read the church service." 

The northwest portion of Bristol and the adjoining portions 
Burlington, Harwinton and Plymouth was a stronghold of I ffyism, 
ings were held there of Tories from all parts of the -state 

The Rev. James Nichols began his services in Bristol in 17;;,. He • 
last Episcopal minister that went to England for ordination He 
"designing church clergyman" before referred to in conni 
prisoners from Farmington, most if not all oi whom were of 
It is said that he was shot at several times, also that he « 



2 6o THE TORIES OF CONNECTICUT 

at East Plymouth, tarred and feathered and then dragged in a brook. By 
these and other acts he was banished to Litchfield. His records show that be- 
tween the latter part of 1776 and 1781 he administered baptism in his cure on 
five different occasions. In 1782 we find him again in charge of the church at 
Bristol. 

In the Burlington ledges, at the southwest part of the town, is a cave 
known as the Tory den. Stephen Graves and his bride of about nineteen lived 
in a log cabin in the southeast part of Hawinton, within a mile of this cave. 
He was drafted, hired a substitute, and while his substitute was still in the 
service at Grave's expense, he was again drafted. This he considered unjust 
and freely expressed his opinion, thereby incurring the enmity of Capt. Wilson 
and his company of Sons of Liberty. Soon after this he went to visit his 
mother at Savbrook. He was pursued and arrested as a deserter, his captors 
feasting at the taverns, making him pay all the bills. He came so peacefully 
that they relaxed their vigilance somewhat and he made his escape. On reach- 
ing home he hid himself without making his presence known until after his 
pursuers had been there and his good wife had assured them that Mr. Graves 
was in Saybrook on a visit. At one time Graves was tied to a tree and severe- 
ly whipped. At another time it is said that he was hung to a chestnut tree 
near his house but let down again before he was severely injured. Many of 
his neighbors were Tories. For sometime he and several companions were 
compelled to live at the Tory den, and each night the young Mrs. Graves went 
through the dark and pathless woods, over rocky ledges, to carry them food. 
The den was often resorted to for shorter periods of refuge. When at work on 
their farms a band of Tories worked first one farm and then another, so that 
they might protect themselves. If working alone, or when an overpower, 
ing party of Sons of Liberty approached them, they would flee to the Tory 
den. Their faithful wives were always on the watch, and would blow a horn 
or a conch shell as a warning at the sight of any of Capt. Wilsons's men, or 
other Tory hunters. These horns were a source of great annoyance to Capt. 
Wilson, and he once presented his pistol to the head of a young girl that lived 
with Mrs. Graves and threatened to shoot her if she did not tell him where 
the noisy conch shell was concealed. 

A Bristol Tory, by the name of Potter, was hung until nearly dead, and 
one, Joel Tuttle, was hung to an oak tree on Federal Hill in Bristol, and left 
alone to die. A Whig by the name of Hungerford cut him down, but the kind- 
hearted Hungerford dared not render other assistance and left the Tory lying 
insensible on the ground. During the night he so far recovered as to be able 
to make his way to the Tory den. Many efforts were made to find this hiding 
place, but its location was never known to any but the Tories until after the 
close of the war. 

Chauncey Jerome of Bristol, a very energetic and powerful man, was taken 
by a crowd, his shirt pulled up over his head and then his uplifted shirt and 
arms, with cords around his wrists, were tied to a limb of a tree, preparatory to 
whipping his bare back. The rod was raised for the first stroke when by a 
desperate effort the victim escaped and the blow fell upon the body of the 
tree. With the shirt still hanging on the tree, the bare-back man was soon in 
the house of his brother-in-law, Jonathan Pond, who stood at the door with gun 
in hand forbidding any to enter. Mr. Jerome married the widow of his brother- 



THE TORIES OF CONNECTICUT. ,61 

in-law, Moses Dunbar, (Dunbar's first wife was Jerome's sister), and while 
driving to Hartford one day they stopped for lunch by the roadside before en- 
tering the city. Pointing to the place of execution, Mrs. Jerome remarked , "my 
former husband lies buried under that tree." They removed to I 
until after the war. 

There seems no room for doubt that one of the greatest obstacles the 
Patriots of the Revolution had to contend with was the Tory. In ne; • 
every battle we find in addition to the British regulars in uniform, one or more 
companies of Tories in ordinary dress. The Tory, Col. John Butler, of Ti 
New York, was in command of the four hundred Tories and Indians at the 
horrible massacre of Wyoming, which was then a part of Connecticut. 

Tory guides led the British Gen. Tryon at the burning of Danbury. He 
made his headquarters of the house of the Tory, Joseph Dibble. This Dibble 
was once taken out of his bed at night, by men in disguise, and ducked until he 
expected to perish. Large stores of provisions were in the Episcopal church 
at Danbury, and in Dibble's barn. These goods were taken into the street and 
burnt so as to spare said buildings. A white cross was marked on the 1 
buildings to signify " that the destroying angel would pass them unharmed." 
The Congregational church and every house save those that had the m 
sign upon them were destroyed. " The women and children fled from the jeers 
of their comfortable Tory neighbors into lonely lanes, damp pastures and 
leafless woods." A man by the name of Jarvis was one of these Tory guides. 
He went to Nova Scotia for a time and returned to Danbury to live, but a 
crowd soon surrounded his father's house, prepared to tar and feather him. 
His sister concealed him in an ash oven until he could make his escape, 1. 
to again set foot in his native place. Another of the Tory guides 
Benedict of Danbury. He attempted to reside there again but was threatened 
with a ride on a wooden horse and fled. Another of the Danbury guides was 
Isaac W. Shelton. He joined the British on Long Island, and was a; one time 
confined in Hartford jail. After the war he lived in Bristol and acquired a 
valuable property. 

The Tories continually carried on an illicited trade between Conne 
and Long Island. They carried off Tory recruits for the British, and 
families with large quantities of provisions that were sadly needed 
much of this work was done under a British flag of truce. 

Rev. Dr. Mather and his four sons, of Stamford, were taken from th< 
sonage at night by eight Tories and carried to New York. 0n« Sunday 
of British troops, mostly Tories, took 48 prisoners, including Dr. Mati 
the church at Darien, while they were singing the first hymn. The 
horses belonging to the church-goers, and robbed both nn 
their valuables. 

Lieut. Barber, of Croton, while taking a walk was shot through the 
by concealed Tories, and died immediately. As to Benedict Arnold, I need 
only mention his name. 

The British and Tories, under Gen Tryon, burned N 
in 1779, and the Episcopal clergyman of Norwalk and many Tories we 

with them. 

New Haven was plundered under the guidance oi William ( tan 
captain of a Tory command, assisted by his brother Thomas & sid< I 1 1 



262 



THE TORIES OF CONNECTICUT. 



and wanton destruction of property, aged citizens, women and children were 
shamefully abused. The Rev. Dr. Daggett, president of Yale college, would 
have been murdered had it not been for the interference of the Tory guide 
Chandler, who was formerly one of Dr. Daggett's pupils. William and Thomas 
Chandler were the sons of Joshua Chandler whose property in New Haven, 
valued at ,£30,000, was confiscated. In March, 1787, they attempted to cross 
the Bay of Fundy to meet the Commissioners on Loyalists' Claims at St. Johns, 
in hopes to obtain compensation for the confiscated property. They were 
shipwrecked on the way, and William, the guide, was crushed to death between 
the vessel and the rocks. The father landed but soon perished by a fall from 
a precipice and others of the party perished from exposure. 

The British agents long endeavored to make the United States, rather 
than Great Britain, indemnify the Tories, but Dr. Franklin intimated that an 
equivalent would be the British indemnification for ravages by their troops, 
so the matter was dropped. 

The many personal abuses and atrocious acts committed during the war only 
show what a desperate struggle our people passed through. Families were 
divided. Joseph Ferris of Stamford, a captain in the British army, was taken 
prisoner by his brother-in-law. Zerubbabel Jerome of Bristol, and his sons 
Robert, Thomas and Asahel, all four served in the Continental army, the latter 
dying in the service. His sons Chauncey and Zerubbabel, Jr., were in the 
Hartford jail together as Tories in 1777. His son-in-law, Moses Dunbar, was 
executed for high treason. Stephen Graves, the Tory, was another son-in-law, 
as was also Jonathan Pond, who defended Chauncey Jerome. His fourth son- 
in-law, Joseph Spencer, cannot 
be definitely placed on either 
side. 

The father of Moses Dun- 
bar was a firm Patriot and they 
were bitterly opposed to each 
other, both in politics and re- 
ligion. By such divisions many 
descendants from Tory families 
are eligible to the Sons of the 
Revolution. 

After the war most of the 
absconding Tories returned and 
and mingled with the people as 
before. An exception to this is 
found in a son of the Rev. James 
Scovil of Waterbury. After 
about sixty years residence in 
New Brunswick, the grievances 
of this son were as fresh and 
sensitive as when first inflicted, 
and he said that "no tempta- 
tion that earth could present 
would ever induce him to set 
foot on soil where he had received such unprovoked and cruel wrongs." 





^ ! 



THE TORY DKN. 



WHEN YOUTH IS DONE. 

As a rule however Tories were not so sensitive; they entered into the 
management of public affairs by voting and holding office, after such : 
leges had been reluctantly given them. In 1783 the town of New H 
voted to instruct their representatives " to use their influence with the next 
General Assembly in an especial manner, to prevent the return - mis- 

creants who have deserted their country's cause and joined the enemies of this 
and the United States of America during the late contest." But one pear after 
this, Dr. Stiles wrote in his diary, " This day, town meeting voted to re. 
the Tories." When the city of New Haven was organized in 1784 there 
eight Tories in the common council and about one-third of all the voters in 
Haven were Tories. This proportion of Tories may be above the average, but 
throughout the state, after peace, Patriots and Tories generally dwelt together 
in harmony, in striking contrast to the Revolutionary times. 

Prejudice, passion and social contagion are responsible for much that calm 
deliberation would not have prompted. We can all pity the Tory, but the pur- 
,pose of this paper is Tory history with neither condemnation nor approval ; 
still I must say that whatever unwarranted abuses the Tory may have received, 
those high in authority, the General Assembly, Governor and Council of Safety, 
were always ready to forgive and "ever willing to exercise lenity and mercy — 
as far as may be c'onsisent with justice and publick safety." They had : 
and noble hearts, full of " tenderness and compassion," and thus our stat- 
much more indulgent and charitable to the Tories, than most of our - 
states. 



WHEN YOUTH IS DONE. 



BY ELIZABETH ALDEN CURTIS. 



We cannot hope the waning days will pass 
And leave no trace upon the plumed lea. 
Time's foot fall down the years, though light and free. 

Still browns the sward, and sears the ripened grass. 

So gazing deeply in life's misted glass 

Young charms that, wraith-like, for the nonce W< 

Fade swiftly, as the early sunsets flee 
When night comes down to wrap the still morass, 

But there be tender twilights for our years 
When we may turn us to abiding cheers. 

Then, sweet my love, reach down your hand to me. 
That standing pulse to pulse, and twain in one. 

We fix our perfect joy in memory. 
To bless and warm our hearts when youth is done. 



LIST OF BURIALS, OR -SEXTON'S LIST," OF THE CENTER 
CHURCH BURYING GROUND, HARTFORD. 



PREPARED FOR PUBLICATION AND ANNOTATED BY MARY K. TALCOTT. 

Corrections to be made in Part I— April, May, June Number, '98 : 1751, June 23, for 
Bunes, read Bunce ; 1758, Nov. 6, the words "bapt. Jan. 30, 1757," belong with the burial of 
Nov. 9, "Child of Lieut. Richard Goodman (Hezekiah)." 



1765. 

May 14 



16 

June 3 

12 

15 



Aug. 30 

Sept. 6 



Oct. 15 



31 
Dec. 2 
1766. 

Jan. 20 



3i 
Feb. 2 



Mar. 27 

3i 
April 5 



II. 



Widow Mabel Bigelow [b. Dec. 13, 
1685, dau. of Richard and Eliza- 
beth (Tuthill) Edwards ; married 
Jonathan Bigelow, Dec. 14, 1699]. 

Child of Ezra Andrus. 

Daughter of Samuel Day (Sarah). 

Son of Aaron Bull. 

Child of Daniel Olcott. 

Child of Mrs. Mary Nevins (Sam'l, 
infant). 

Wife of Obadiah Spencer (Anna). 

Daniel Edwards, Esq. , died at New 
Haven. [Son of Richard and 
Mary (Talcott) Edwards, born 
April 11, 1 701]. 

Jacob Cadwell Intered at Expence 
of Pelatiah Pierce. 

George Lord [son of Richard and 
Ruth (Wyllys) Lord, born July 8, 

1737], 
Child of James Tilley. 
Child of John Skinner, Jr. (John). 

Widow Skinner Intered at Expence 
of Samuel Barnard (The aged 
widow Elizabeth S.) [Elizabeth, 
dau. of Deacon Joseph and Eliza- 
beth (Butler) Olmsted), married 
Joseph Skinner, Jan. 28, 1707-8]. 

Child of Hezekiah Wadsworth (Ez- 
ekiel). [Bapt. Nov. 13, 1763]. 

Widow Seymour Intered at Ex- 
pence of Thomas Seymour, Esq. 

The Wife of Dr. Neal McLean 
(Hannah). [Dr. Neil McLean and 
Mrs. Hannah Knowles were mar. 
May i2, 1757.] 

The Wife of Joseph Bunce. 

The Wife of Simon Clarke (Sarah). 

The Wife of Silas Andrus (Sarah). 

Child of Zebulon Seymour [Mary 
Ann, bapt. in New Hartford, Jan. 
21, 1760-61]. 



April 8 



May 



26 



26 



27 
30 



9 

10 



Child of Silas Andrus (Sarah, in- 
fant). 

Mr. Richards. A Frenchman Father 
of Anson Richards. 

Sarah Daughter of Widow Anne 
Humphrey (widow of Dositheus). 
[Dau. of Dositheus and Anne 
(Griswold) Humphrey, b. Feb. 
26, 1747-8.] 

Child of Timothy Shepard. 

Hezekiah Wadsworth [bapt. April 
ii, 1725, son of Ichabod and Sa- 
rah (Smith) Wadsworth]. 

Mary Church. 

The Wife of Samuel Olcott (Mary). 
Aged 35. [Dau. of John Michael 
and Margaret (Beauchamp) Chen- 
evard.] 

The wife of Alexander Chalker 
(Mary) [dau. of Capt. John and 
Rachel (Olcott) Knowles, bapt, 
April 1, 1739]. 

Amy Gilbert. 

The mother of Susannah Butler 
(Mrs. Mary). 

John Knowles [blown up in the 
school-house. John, son of Capt. 
John and Rachel(01cott)Knowles, 
bapt. April 12, 1752]. 

Levi Jones [blown up in the school- 
house]. 

Richard Lord, blown up in the 
school-house, [son of John Hayes 
and Rachel (Knowles) Lord, 
bapt. June 14, 1752]. 
June 2 Dr. Nathaniel Ledyard, blown up 
in the school-house [son of John 
and Deborah (Youngs) Ledyard, 
bapt. Dec. 21, 1740]. 
4 Two children of Valentine Vawhan. 

8 Elizabeth, wife of Valentine Vaugn 

died. 

9 William Gardiner, [son of Dr. Sy 1 



13 
14 

24 



24 



24 



CENTER CHURCH BURYING GROUND, HARTFORD. 



161 



June 11 
12 



29 



July 17 





25 


Aug. 


9 




23 




28 


Sept. 


2 




19 




20 




28 


Oct. 


9 




9 




13 




14 




18 




20 




22 


Dec. 


16 



1767. 

Jan. 14 
26 

30 

Feb. 23 

Mar. [2 

16 

17 



28 
April 17 
May 7 



vester Gardiner, of Boston, born 
March, 1742]. (Buried by Roger 
Viets). 

Ruth Howard. 

Elisha Burnham is charged the dig- 
ing of grave for Richard, blown 
up in the school -house. [Born 
March 6, 1748]. 

Ebenezer Catlin. [Son of Samuel 
and Elizabeth (Norton) Catlin, 
born July 25, 1724]. 

The wife of John Walker (Martha) 
buried by Rev. Rogers Viets. 

The wife of Isaac Oakes (Rebecca). 

Child of Lieut. John Cole. 

Samuel Knowles. [Son of Capt. John 
and Rachel (Olcott) Knowles, 
bapt. Oct. 1, 1732]. 

Child of Gideon Bunce. 

Child of Daniel Olcott (Clarissa). 

Child of Joseph Wheeler. 

Child of Capt. Daniel Butler 
(Sarah). - 

Child of Samuel Watrous. 

Child of Ezra Hyde. 

Child of William Gove (William). 

Child of William Gove (James). 

Cyprian Powell is charged the bur- 
ial of a sister's child. 

Child of Elijah Clapp. 

Widow Elizabeth Eggleston, inter- 
ed at Exp. of the Town. 

Child of widow Hepzibah Ledyard. 

Mrs. Mary Langrell, died at New 
Haven. [Mary Hyde of Nor- 
wich, born Sept. 22, 1729, dau 
of William and Anne (Basset) 
Hyde, mar. March 26, 1754, 
Thomas Langrell. J 

Capt. John Cook. Aged 70. 

The Mother of Daniel Spencer 
(Widow Ruth). Aged 98. 

Child of William Hall (Tabitha in- 
fant). 

Daughter of William Barnot. 

A grandchild of Capt. Daniel Bull. 

Child of Moses Hopkins (Ashbel). 

William Dickinson (son of Moses) 
killed by discharge of gun. 

Thomas Seymour Esq., aged 62, 
[son of Capt. Thomas and Ruth 
(Norton) Seymour, born July 29, 

1705]. 
Child of John Brace. 
Child of John McLean. 
Samuel Watrous. 



June 15 

19 

30 

July 7 



30 



Aug. 


16 




18 


Oct. 


3 




6 


Nov. 


3 




7 




14 


Dec. 


7 




26 


1768. 


Jan. 


26 


Mar. 


r 



April 


22 


May 


2 




10 


June 


26 


July 


4 




1 a 




21 



a 1 



Sept 6 



Daughter of John Larkum (Sarah) 
killed by lightning. 

Two children of Elijah Barret. 

The wife of Elijah Barret. 

Child of William Adams Baq. (in- 
fant;. 

The wife of Motet Hopkins (Eliza- 
beth). [Moeefl Hopkins and I 
abeth Deming were mar. April ;, 
>7 r >3-] 

Child of Ashbel Steele. 

Child of Robert Sloan* -amuel 
drowned). 

Abijah Bunce [son of J 
Ann (Sandford)Bunce, bapt 
[9, [709-10]. 

Child of Cable Church (Ja- 

Capt. Daniel Butler. 

Child of Elisha Hopkins • James 
Buckingham). 

Thomas Bigelow [a tthan 

and Tabitha Big 
year] . 

Child of Thomas Green. 

Child of William Stanley. 

Child of Zebulon Mygatt. 

Child of Phineas Cole (infant). 

The wife of Isaac Buno 

Child of widow Sarah W 

The wife of John Pot wine, [Hunice 

Seymour, dau. of Th. 

Hepsibah (Ledyard 1 Seym 

born May o, 173a]. 
Hezekiah Coll] of Capt. 

Hezekiah and Eieptibah, 

Dec. 2t\ 1731]. 
Child of Sylva 

becca). 
Wife of l" ■ ■■■ Andrua Anna B 

nell, mar. May o. iTM] 

Child of Samuel Ma- ine). 

Thomas Clapp [>on 
Mary (King) ( q in North- 

hampton, March <>. 171s]. 

Child 01 John Murk. 
Child of Li< at J ■'■■■ I oto. 
Grove Collyer [son 

kiah and IK; 
j j years 
John White [801 

White, bora Peb, B, 1691] 

Child of John 1 
The aged M: He.-. 

the father of Jobs 

win. (d.S S N ithan- 

iel . 



266 



LIST OF BURIALS, 



Sept. 29 

Nov. 25 

26 



1769. 

Jan. 13 
6 



15 



Feb. 6 

12 

Mar. 10 



April 19 

26 
May 2 



17 



June 


16 




24 




30 


July 


24 




27 


Aug. 


23 


Sept. 


21 




28 


Oct. 


7 




9 


Nov. 


1 


Dec. 


1 


1770. 


Jan. 


5 



win, bapt. March 20, 1692]. 

Widow Rebecca Marsh. 

Child of John Barnard, Jr. 

William Day -'the aged." [Son 
of John and Sarah /Maynard) 
Day, bapt. April 24, 1692]. 

The wife of Caleb Turner. 

Dorothy Woodbridge (The aged 
Mrs). [Bapt. June S, 1679, dau. 
of Joshua Lamb of Roxbury ; 
widow, successively, of Rev. 
Dudley Woodbridge, and of Rev. 
Timothy Woodbridge, of Sims- 
bury] . 

A grandchild of Caleb Turner. 
(Pelatiah, son of Pelatiah). 

Mary Bunce. 

Wife of Deacon John Edwards. 
(The aged Mrs. Christian) [Chris- 
tian Williamson.] 

Son of Sylvanus Andrus (Lemuel). 

Widow Sarah Hollister. 

The mother of Caleb Bull. [Caleb 
Bull, Sr., mar, widow Elizabeth 
Bunce, probably widow of Thos. , 
and dau. of Joseph Easton]. 

Mrs. Sarah Flagg, [wife of Samuel, 
and dau. of Jonathan and Sarah 
(Sandford) Bunce]. 

A daughter of widow Meriba Nich- 
ols. 

Elizabeth Hastings. 

Child of James Thompson (infant 
dau). 

Son of Rev. William Patten. 

Deacon John Edwards. [Son of 
Richard and Mary (Talcott) Ed- 
wards, born Feb. 27, 1694]. 

Child of John Burket (Joseph, inft). 

Samuel Williams, drowned, intered 
at exp. of Dr. Smith (a stranger 
accidentally drowned). 

Child of Daniel Olcott (Daniel). 

Child of Benj. Bigelow, (Roderick). 

Child of Capt. Joseph Bunce. 

Infant son of Charles Kelsey, Jr. 

Daniel Seymour. [Born Oct. 20, 
1698, son of John and Elizabeth 
(Webster) Seymour]. 

Child of Jonathan Gross. 

Child of Joseph Akins. 

Two children of Joseph Knox. 

Capt. John Coleman. 

The wife of Isaac Dickinson. 

Deacon Joseph Holtom. [Born in 



Jan. S 



Feb. 11 

April 6 

12 



May 7 



June 



17 



30 

July 7 
29 



Aug. 3 





17 




21 




27 




20 


Sept. 


5 




12 




30 


Oct. 


27 


Nov. 


6 




12 




12 




22 



25 

Dec. 1 



Lyme, in 1693, son of John and 
Sarah Holtom]. 

Joseph Olcott. [Bapt. March 23, 
1707, son of Thomas and Han- 
nah (Barnard) Olcott] . 

Mrs. Hannah Bull. 

Child of Nicholas Brown. 

The wife of Ebenezer Watson. 
[Elizabeth Seymour, born March 
iS, 1743, dau. of Richard and 
Eli zabeth( Wads worth)Seymour]. 

Richard Edwards. [Son of John 
and Christian (Williamson) Ed- 
wards, born Oct. 26, 1727]. 

Child of Thomas Sanford, Jr. (Eze- 
kiel). 

Son of Zebulon Seymour. 

Child of Jared Bunce (George). 

Child of Thomas Ensign (infant). 

A sister of Samuel Farnsworth. 

The wife of Hezekiah Marsh. 
[Christian, dau. of Deacon John 
and Christian (Williamson) Ed- 
wards, bapt. Sept. 25, 1726]. 

Child of Samuel Farnsworth. 

Benjamin Flagg. 

Elisha Burnham. [Son of Richard 
and Abigail (Easton) Burnham, 
born June 22, 1717]. 

Sarah Burnham. [Dau. of Elisha 
and Sarah (Olmsted) Burnham, 
born Sept. 27, 1745]. 

Abigail Burnham. [Dau. of Elisha 
and Sarah (Olmsted) Burnham, 
born Ort. 25, 1757]. 

Widow Meriba Nichols. Aged 67. 

Ephraim Burnham. [Son of Elisha 
and Sarah (Olmsted) Burnham, 
born May 21, 1751]- 

Child of Barzillai Hudson. 

Wife of Timothy Church (Susanna). 

Wife of Capt. Joseph Barret. 

Minor Chalker 

William Floyd. 

Anne Eggleston. 

Merion Nevins. 

Miss Mary Fielding. Intered at 
Exp. of Eleazer Pomeroy. 

Joseph Wheeler. 

Widow Hepsibah Collyer. [Widow 
of Capt. Hezekiah, born Sept. 
13, 171 2 ; dau. of Sergt. Jonathan 
and Hepsibah (Marsh) Wads- 
worth]. 

Child of Dr. Thompson [James, 
son of Mary]. 

Ebenezer Benton. [Son of An- 



CENTER CHURCH BURYING GROUND, HARTFi 



Dec. 24 



16 



1771 




Jan. 


4 




11 


Feb. 


11 


Mar. 


15 




22 



May 1 

3i 
30 



June 



July 


17 




26 


Aug. 


7 




10 




15 




19 


Sept. 


1 




5 



Oct. 15 



18 





25 


Non. 


6 




9 




17 




17 




20 


Dec. 


23 




26 


1772. 


Jan. 


3 



drew Benton, bapt. Oct. 18, 1696]. 

David Seymour. [Born Oct. 13, 
1733, son of Hon. Thomas and 
Hepsibah (Merrill) Seymour ; 
" He was a very noted Sea Com- 
mander"]. 

Child of Robert Branpe [Robert, 
son of Rob't Bethwright or 
Bran th wait] . 

Child of Ezra Hyde (Ezra). 

Anna Hopkins, dau. of Thos. Hop- 
kins. 

John Barnard. 

Child of John Skinner (infant dau). 

Child of Charles Seymour. 

Daughter of John Lord (died April 
11). 

Child of Isaac Oakes (Thomas, 
infant). 

Child or Nathaniel Goodwin (Anne). 

William Wadsworth (obt. May 29th 
in the 49th year of his age ; born 
March, 1723). [Son of Joseph 
and Joanna (Hovey) Wadsworth]. 

John Talcott (Capt.) [Born Feb. 
27, 1699, son of Governor Joseph 
and Abigail (Clark) Talcott). 

Child of John Burket. 

Child of Jacob Byington. 

Child of William Hooker, Jr. 

Child of Consider Burt. 

Wife of John Skinner. [Mary, 
dau. of Ephraim and Mary (Nich- 
ols) Turner ; bapt. Dec. 31, 1704]. 

Child of Tim Shepard, Jr. 

Wife of Eli Shepard. 

John Ledyard, Esq.. a native of 
England, came to this country 
when young, Aged 71. 

Widow Mary Nichols. [Widow of 
Capt. William Nichols]. 

Child of Benjamin Morrison. 

Child of William Hall. 

Child of Jared Bunce. 

A Frenchman Intered at Exp. of 
Thomas Brown. 

A child of Samuel Filley. 

Child of Ebenezer Watson. 

Joshua Carter. 

Wife of Abijah Clark. 

Child of Jesse Maish. 

Wife of William Jepson. [Susanna. 

dau. of Daniel Col Iyer, mar. Dec. 

21, 1756]. 
Child of Daniel Goodwin. 



Aug. 



Jan. 30 Child of John I 

Feb. 5 Mother of Elijah Clapp. 

Mar. 3 Eli Shepard 

27 Child of Nathaniel Goodwin. 
April 17 Child of John B 

23 Child of Benjamin B . 
30 Child of Bleazer Pouh 
May 2 Deborah Cad well. 

13 Child of William M . 

25 Wife of John Skinner. Jr. 

Whiting, born 1730 ; dan of John 
and Jerusha (Lord) WhU 
June 10 Widow Amy Pratt. [ V. 
William Pratt . bon 
Windsor, dau. of Nathaniel 
Martha (Thrall 1 Pinneyj. 
Child of Daniel Taleott. 
Daughter of Ashb Si 
Child of William Hall. 
Child of Ebenezer Adams. 
Child of Neal McLean, 
The father of Simeon Graham. 

[Samuel Graham J. 
Daughter of William CadweH, Jr. 
Capt. Daniel Sheldon. 
Deacon Isaac and 1 
(Pratt) Sheldon ; bapt. Jm 
1726]. 
Child of Ashbel Barnard. 
James Taylor. 

Child of Neheu reU. 

Widow Lucretia Sheldon. [Lu- 
cretia. dau. of Jonah and S 
nab i Howard 

21, 1724]. 

Joseph Em 

Rev. Edward Dorr. [Born in 

Lyme, Conn. . No* -\ 7*1 

of Bdmnnd Dorr]. 
Child of Joseph Efosmer. 

Child of 1 '■ 

Jacob S 

Widow 1 '•'>■• Inten q 

Sam'l Day. [Elisabeth An 
widow of William Day, married 
April 1 v . 1 

Child of Z* 

A sisft rth. 

William CadweU, Jr. 

Child of Tb 
g Child oJ William Bib 
- p , wifV ■ w Mian 
peri< 
Bp B 
s Chloe Flagg. 
May in Charh 



20 
21 

25 
2 

7 
16 

19 

23 



27 

28 

28 

Sept. 14 



Oct. 



Nov. 2 

9 

23 

»3 



1773. 
Feb. ao 

as 

Mar. J 



268 



LIST OF BURIALS, 



June 



Aug. 



24 

2S 
21 



27 





28 


Sept. 


10 




14 




21 




28 


Oct. 


14 


Nov. 


14 




19 




26 




28 


1774. 


Jan. 


14 


Feb. 


8 




21 




23 


Mar. 


9 



23 



23 
April 5 
May 20 



26 
June 6 



July 26 
30 

Aug. 20 

Sept. 2 
'3 
14 
15 

Oct. I- 

27 



Child of Moses Kellogg. No^ 

David Shepard. 

Ebenezer Ensign. 

Mrs Abigail Wadsworth. [Widow 
of Rev. Daniel ; born April 13, 
1707, dau. of Governor Joseph 
and Eunice (Howell) Talcott J. 

Child of William Barnard. 

Child of Pelatiah Pierce. 

John Skinner. [Born July 1, 1697, 
son of John and Rachel' (Pratt) 
Skinner]. 

Thomas Gross. [Son of Freeman 
and Susanna (Bunce) [Deming] 
Gross]. 

The wife of William Burr. Dec. 

Child of Ashbel Barnard. 2 

Child of Aaron Seymour. 1775. 

The wife of Thomas Filley. j an> 

The mother of Stephen Turner. 

Child of William Adams Esq. (Ma- 
ry, born June 24, 1770.) 

Child of Samuel Benton. 

Child of James Pratt. 

Nathaniel Jones. 

Mrs. Cole. Intered at Exp. of Dan- 
iel Goodwin. 

The wife of Eli Warner. 

The wife of Sylvanus Andrus. 

Timothy Dodd. 

Child of Thomas Sloane. . Feb. 

James Bunce. [Son of Sergt. John 
and Mary (Barnard) Bunce ; bapt. 
March 12, 1693]. 

John Pantry Jones. [Son of Na- 
thaniel and Rebecca (Pantry) 
Jones ; bapt, Aug. 9, 1730]. 

The wife of Jonathan Taylor. 

Moses Taylor. 

William Goodwin. [Son of Wil- 
liam and Elizabeth (Shepard) 
Goodwin ; born July 9, 1699]. 

Child of Capt. John Chenevard. 

The wife o r Capt. John Chenevard, 
[Hepsibah, dau. of Capt. Heze- 
kiah and Hepsibah Collier ; born 
July 29, 1733]. 

The wife of Ezra Corning. 

Child of Moses Hopkins. 

Alexander Currie. 

Child of James Marsh. 

Child of Uriah Burkett (Lois). 

Daughter of Capt. Daniel Skinner. 

Child of Nathahiel Skinner. 

Lieut John Cole. 

Child of John Jeffrey. 



2 Widow Abigail Bunce. [Widow 
of John Bunce ; dau. of Zacha- 
riah Sandford ; bapt. Oct. 16, 
1692]. 

9 Child of Timothy Bunce. 

11 Wife of Asa Benton. 

12 Wife of Col. Wyllys(Geo.); Mary, 
a. 59 ; d. nth. [Dau. of Rev. 
Timothy and Dorothy (Lamb) 
Woodbridge of Simsbury ; born 
i7i'6.] 

23 Child of Daniel Talcott. 

27 John Lawrence, Jr. [Son of Hon. 
John and Margaret (Chenevard) 
Lawrence ; born Aug. 20, 1749.] 

3 Daughter of Josiah Clark. 

23 Child of Joseph Coit. 

2 Thomas Sanford, aged 80. 

3 John Wadsworth. [Son of Thos. 
and Sarah Wadsworth ; lived on 
the present corner of Asylum and 

. Trumbull streets, on the oldWads- 
worth property; aged 92]. 
12 Son of John Benton, aged 16. 

12 Cyprian Powell's mother, aged 70. 

13 Child of John Bigelow, aged 3. 
29 James Humphrey. [Son of Dosi- 

theus and Anne (Griswold) Hum- 
phrey; bapt. Oct. 19, 1746. aged 
29]. 

3 John Keith. [A native of Scotland ; 
master of one of the transport 
vessels which carried the troops 
of the Colony to the West Indies 
in 1740. At the' time of his death 
a merchant in Hartford ; carried 
to Middletownfor burial, aged 71] 

5 Samuel Wescaut, aged 26. 

5 Wife of Samuel Talcott. [Mabel, 
dau. of Hezekiah and Elizabeth 
(Hobart) Wyllys; born Feb. 13, 
1713. Aged 62. 

7 Minje Thompson. Intered at exp. 
of John bkinner. Aged 7. 
n Remember Anna Burkett, buried — 
(This is supposed to be daughter 
of Sexton) aged 9. 

13 Wife of John Dodd, aged 29. , 

14 Child of Caleb Bull, Jr., aged 5. 
22 Child of Jonathan Wadsworth, 

aged 10. 

24 Child of Bille Hooker, aged 2. 

25 Child of Jonathan Wadsworth, 
aged 8. 

26 Geo. Olcott. [Son of George and 
Sarah (Bunce) Olcott; bapt, Oct 



CENTER CHURCH BURYING GROUND, HARTFORD 






14 
12 

17 

23 

29 

I 

6 

7 

7 

11 

13 
16 
16 
22 



30, 1709.] Aged 65. 
Mar. 14 Child of William Adams, aged 7. 
Wife of Capt. Daniel. Bull. [Eliz- 
abeth] aged 55. 
Child of Caleb Church, aged 6. 
Child of Ashbel Spencer, aged 5. 
Child of Charles Cad well, aged 5. 
April 1 Child of Ezra Hide, aged 6 mo. 
Infant child of Mr. Basset. 
Phineas Cole, aged 45. 
Mary Ann Bidwell, aged 26. 
Child of John Bunce, aged 1. 
Child of Jos Boyngton, aged 3 mo. 
Child of Joseph Bunce, aged 4. 
Son of Thomas Steele, aged 6. 
Wife of John Lawrence Esq. [Mar- 
garet, dau. of John Michael and 
Margaret (Beauchamp) Chene- 
vard] aged 49. 
Child of Caleb Turner, aged 1. 
May 16 Child of widow Lydia Olcott, aged 5 
Samuel Mallery, aged 34. 
Wife of Samuel Read, aged 32. 
Moses Dickinson. [Son of Thomas 
and Mehitable (Meekins) Dickin- 
son] aged 65. 
Joseph Akins, aged 35. 
William Cadwell. 
Jno. Calder. Intered at exp. of 

Geo, Blanchard, aged 5. 
John McKnell, a soldier, aged 60. 
The mother of Peter Westerly, 
aged 68. 
25' [Elias Taylor, a child intered at the 
exp. of Susannah Curtiss, aged 
3 months. 
31 Widow Sarah Edwards. [Dau. of 
Nathaniel and Mary (Stanley) 
Hooker; born Nov. 7, 1704, mar. 
1728 Hon. Daniel Edwards,] 
aged 70. 
Aug. 5 Daughter of widow Abigail Sey- 
mour, aged 16. 
Wife of Joseph Talcott Esq. [Es- 
ther, dau. of John and Hannah 
(Sandford) Pratt j aged 71. 
Rev. Joseph Howe. [Born in Kil- 
lingly, Conn., Jan. 14, 1747, son 
of Rev. Perley Howe; Yale Coll. 
1765; pastor South Church, Bos- 
ton], aged 29. [In Hartford on 
a visit to his betrothed, Elizabeth 
Whitman, dau. of Rev. Elna- 
than]. 
25 Child of John Wells, aged 2. 
27 Child of Benjamin Paine Esq. . 
aged 2. 



June 



July 



24 



26 



Aug. 
Sept 



Oct. 



Nov. 



19 



27 



6 

7 
10 

18 
24 
27 
10 



Dec. 



1776. 



J; 



Fob. 






1 i 
U 
26 



Infant chi 

Xiel's wife. I:. 

the Town 
Mr. Shooter. Intered at the 

of the Town 
Infant child of Samuel M 
Dau of Martha Drake 
Infant child of M 
Child of Patrick Thorn. 

weeks. 
Wife of Caleb Hull. Jr. [Ret 

dau. of Jonathan But'.. 

winton] aged 27. 
Wife of John Spei 
Child of Isaac Sheldon 
Jonathan Seymour. [> 

and Elizabeth 1 Webster 1 - 

mour; born March 1 

aged 73. 
Child of Isaac Tucker, agi 
Son of Caleb Bull, age': 
Child of Samuel Burr. . 
Child of Mr. John Cadwell. 
Child of He/ekiah Turnei 
Child of Thomas Steele, aged 1. 
Wife of Bille Hooker, ag 
Mrs. Dorothy Steele. [Wi<! 

Jonathan, dau. of j.. 

Sarah ( Webster 1 M horn 

Jan. 26, n><;<>] aged - 
Wife of Ebene/.er Webster 

nah, dau. of Robert and Hannah 
<* (Beckley | Webst 

1695] age 
Wife of Blackledge Wei 
Infant child of Jacob Brown. 
Abner Porter of Tolland 
Child of John Griggs 
Child ot James 

Child of James Wat 
James Sands, 

at Exp. oi t:\ I 
I leacon OziasG 1 Iwin [Sot 

Nathaniel an 

Goodwin, born June 1 

aged M 
Samuel Barnard, bora 1 - 
Bbene S John 

ami Sarah M\ .. 

born [689] agl 

[nfant child oi Benjamin B .. 
Child o( Samuel Turnei agi 

Wife o: Timothy I : . 

Themothei Ro 

becct r 
dan 



270 



LIST OF BURIALS, 



Pantry] aged 86. 
Mar. 16 Wife of Moses Ensign, aged 42. 

8 Child of Daniel Talcott, aged 1 mo. 

1 5 The mother of Capt. Samuel Olcott. 
[Sarah, widow of Jonathan Ol- 
cott, and dau. of Joseph Collyerj 
aged 63. 

iS The mother of Zebulon Mygatt. 
[Dorothy, widow of Zebulon 
Mygatt; dau. of Thomas and 
Hannah Waters; born Aug. 28, 
1704] aged 80 

23 Child of Mrs. Patten, aged 6.' 

25 Jacob Wright, aged 76. 

29 Infant Child of Zebulon Seymour. 
May 3 Wife of John Wright, aged 47. 

22 Infant child of Daniel Seymour. 
June 18 Widow Susannah Grose [Susannah 
Bunce, widow of Freeman Grose] 
aged 72. 

22 Wife of Elisha Wells, aged 44. 

23 Timothy Phelps. [Son of Timothy 

and Sarah (Brown) Phelps, born 
Aug. 8, 1725] aged 51. 
July 8 Sarah Frasier. Interred at the Exp. 
of Colony of Connecticut. 
13 Child of Jos. Church, Jr., aged 7 m. 
20 Child of Cherry the Prisoner. (In- 
fant). 
25 Wife of Stephen Turner, aged 58. 
Aug. 3 Mercy Williamson. [Dau. of Capt. 
Caleb and Mary (Cobb) William- 
son, bapt. Aug. 13, 1699, at Barn- 
stable, Mass], aged 79. 
25 Son of Barnabas Hinsdale, aged 14. 
28 Child of Travis, the Soldier. [Pris- 
oner,] aged 2. 
Sept. 1 W T ife of Isaac Tucker. 

i Hannah Shepard, aged 26. 

3 Child of Cyprian Powell, aged 10 

7 Child of Brasillia Hudson, aged 2. 

8 Abigail Holtom. [Dau. of Deacon 

Joseph and Abigail (Hastings) 
Holtom: bapt. Jan. 18, 1718-19] 
aged 57. 

9 Infant child of Rebecca Bly. 

10 Child of Thomas Sanford, aged 4. 
20 Child of Jonathan Bull, aged 1. 

11 Child of Joseph Read, aged 1. 

12 Austin Ledyard. Son of John and 

Mary (Austin) (Hooker) Led- 
yard; born 1 751] aged 25. 

13 Hezekiah Turner. Interred at Exp. 

of Town, aged 29. 
15 Child of Jonathan Bull, aged 9. 

1 5 Child of Nathaniel Skinner, aged 4. 

16 Child of Ashbel Spencer, aged 2, 



Sept. 19 Alice Powell. Intered at Exp. of 
Elizabeth Lord. 

20 Child of Obadiah Spencer, aged 2. 

21 Child of Bevil Watrous, aged 1. 

21 Child of Nathaniel Goodwin, Jr., 
aged 1. 

21 Child of Caleb Church, aged 2. 

22 Child of Obadiah Spencer, aged 6. 

24 Child of Nehemiah Cadwell, Jr., 

aged 3. 

25 Dau. of Zebulon Seymour, aged 15. 
30 Samuel Goodwin. [Son of Samuel 

• and Mary (Steele) Goodwin ; born 
Oct. 10, 1 7 10] aged 66. 
Oct. 1 Samuel Benton's mother, (Miriam,) 
aged 60. 
1 Daughter of John Bidwell, aged 18. 

1 Wife of John Bidwell. [Mabel, 

dau. of Solomon Gilman, of East 
Hartford; born 1711, aged 65. 

2 Child of Aaron Bradley. 

2 Child of William Adams 2d. 

3 Child of John Barnot, aged 3. 

5 Child of Elisha Lord, aged 2. 

6 Son of widow Sarah Farnsworth, 

aged 9. 

8 Child of Samuel Benton, aged 3. 

9 Child of Thomas Seymour Esq., 

(infant). 
9 Child of Ashbel Barnot, aged 5. 
9 Child of James Bunce, aged 2. 
10 Widow Wilson. Intered at the Exp, 

of the Town, aged 65. 
10 Child of Samuel Clark. 

10 Widow Elizabeth Goodwin. [Eliz- 

abeth Collier (widow of William), 
dau. of John and Elizabeth (Hum- 
phreys) Collier, born April 14, 
1706] aged 70. 

13 Dau. of Elijah Spencer, aged 16. 

19 Son of Jesse Marsh, aged 10. 
Nov. 4 Infant child of John Hill. 

11 Capt. Daniel Bull. [Son of Daniel 

and Mary (Mygatt) Bull; bapt. 
Oct. 30, 1709] aged 68. 
28 Violetta Goodwin. [Dau. of Wil- 
liam and EMzabeth (Shepard) 
born Oct. 18/1696] aged 80. 
Dec. 14 Robert Currier, aged 62. 

22 Widow Vaughn, aged 40. 

23 Daughter of Matthew Webster, 

[Mabel, born 1749] aged 27. 
28 The mother of Daniel Goodwin. 
[Abigail, dau. of John and Mary 
(Blackleach Wells) Olcott, widow 
of Daniel Goodwin, born Feb. 
15, 1703-4] aged 73. 



CENTER CHURCH BURYING GROUND, HARTFi 



1777. 

Jan. 



Feb. 



Mar. 



April 



May 



22 
26 



19 



20 
22 



23 
24 



Wife of Benjamin Townsend. Died 
with small-pox*, aged 48. 

Joseph Church. [Son of Joseph 
Church; Yale College, 1768] 
aged 29. 

A brother of John Senter, aged 19- 

Child of vSamuel Winship, aged 1. 

Infant child of Benjamin Morrison. 

Mrs. Whaples, the aunt of Joseph 
Barnet, aged 98. 

The dau. of widow Abigail Phelps. 
Died with small-pox, aged 20. 

Child of Aaron Seymour (Infant). 

Infant child of Patrick Thomas. 

Jonathan Watson. Died with Small 
Pox; Intered at Exp. of Town, 
aged 25. 

Child of Frederick Basset, aged 2. 

The mother of Nathaniel Good- 
win. ("Martha, widow of Ozias 
Goodwin, dau. of Capt. Caleb 
and Mary- (Cobb) Williamson; 
born Feb. 13, 1700, Barnstable, 
Mass , aged 76.] 

Luther Shepard. Died with small- 
pox, aged 58. 

Infant child of Mr. Hunting. 

John Gurney, aged 78. 

Timothy Crowley. Intered at Exp. 
of Wm. Knox, aged 40. 

Rev. Elnathan Whitman. [Son of 
Rev. Samuel and Sarah (Stod- 
dard) Whitman; born in Farm- 
ington. Jan. 12, 1709] aged 68. 

Moses Dunbar. Was hanged and 
buried at exp. of State (for high 
treason) aged 40. 

Child of Timothy Bunce, aged 2. 

Jonathan Easton. [Son of Jona- 
than and Elizabeth (Cadwell) 
Easton, born 17 10] aged 65. 

Wife of Thomas Hinsdale. 

Rebecca Taylor (Infant). 

Edward Murphy, the Soldier, died 
with the Small Pox, and buried 
at Exp. of State, aged 33. 

Child of Stephen Hutchinson, aged 
8 months. 

Elisha Hopkins. Died with small- 
pox. [Son of Thomas and Mary 
(Beckley) Hopkins; bapt.Oct, 17, 
1731] aged 45. 
Joseph Barnot, aged Si. 
Wife of John Bradley, [Mercy, dau. 
of Ebenezer French of Guilford] 
aged 76. 



13 
19 

June 6 

[0 



13 



July r 

5 

14 

Aug. 1 7 
21 
22 
24 



26 
Sept. iS 



20 
21 
22 
22 
20 
28 



Oct. 



22 
25 



Elijah Clapp. [Son of 1 
and Mary (King; ( 

A son of John Barnot. 
small -pox 

Jacob Morris. \> 

Pox and buried at Ex: 
Bull. 

Wife of DeaoOO John Shepard, 
aged 68. 

Jonathan Olcott. Died with n 
pox. [ Son oi" Jonathan and Sarah 
(Collyer) Olcott, bapt. Auj< 2 
1735] aged 37. 

Jonathan Ashley. Died with small- 
pox. ( Son of Jonathan and Eliz- 
abeth (Olcott ) Ashley ; born April 
30, 1710] aged 70. 

Daughter of Benjamin Paine Esq, 
Died with small -jv-x 

Infant child of James Thompi 

Joseph Hosmer. | S 

Thomas and Ann 1 Prentice I 
mer; born Nov. 2: 

Charles Kelsey, aged B5. 

Benjamin Segar's infant. 

Stephen Turner, g 

Wife of Elisha Butler, aged 

Child of Samuel Mattox, 

Child of Consider Burt, aj 

Zaeheriah Seymour. [S-.- 
ariah and Hannah 
Seymour; born Sept. 24. 
aged 05. 

Child of Joseph 1 

Ebenezer Watson. S John 

and Bethial: I 
born in Bethlehem. Conn . 
publisher of the C 
Courant | .... 

Child of William K: 

Wife o\ Josiah Blakely. age 

Wife o\ Elisha Skiui 

Child 01' Samuel KilNmrn. 

Child o( Jonati 
Polly Vaughn, a.. 
Child 
worth, aged 1. 

Child o\ Ashln I - 
Infant child o\ John Hill. 
Chilil of 1< 

haps 

Sept.] ' »• 

Child 
Lydia 
Thou 

Y 



NEW HAVEN DEFENSES IN THE REVOLUTION AND IN 
THE WAR OF 1812. 



BY M. LOUISE GREENE. 



During the Revolution, New Haven was a town of between seven and 
eight thousand inhabitants. Somewhat less than half of these were scattered 
within the present limits of the city, while the remainder spread themselves 
over that part of the town which then included what is now known as East, 
West and North Haven, Hamden, and parts of Woodbridge and Bethany. 
The original plat of the town, bounded by the present Meadow, George, York, 
Grove, Olive and Water streets, together with the small spur of land which 
extended out to receive the shipping, was the most thickly settled, especially 
on the water side. The harbor then extended much farther into the land than 
now. Within these limits, or adjacent to them, there was in 1772, counting 
every dwelling house, " store or shop with a fireplace in it," 440 houses, and in 
1775 there were 370 dwelling houses alone, thus giving for that period a well- 
populated area. 

Further, New Haven was one of the two chief towns of the colony, and 
in the State House the Fall session of the General Assembly duly convened. 
Then as now it was both a county and a college town. Over the then unfenced 
and much rumpled Green looked forth both county jail and college chapel, 
while at the southeast corner centered the many cart-ruts, shortening the dis- 
tance from the main roads to the public market located there. 

To the northeast and northwest of the center of the town loomed the "Old 
Sentinels," the " Red Mounts" of the early Dutch sailors, at whose base the 
debris of earlier ages had formed a rough triangle with its apex between the 
beetling crags of trap and red sandstone, whereon the early planters had 
sought a haven on the harbor edge. Already to the townsmen the grey-red 
parapet of West Rock had proved a friend to freedom by safely sheltering the 
Regicides from the wrath of Charles II, and the day was fast approaching 
when the trembling people, fleeing from the anger of George III, would seek 
safety on its heights. 

When the Stamp Act and Boston Port Bill made armed resistance prob- 
able, the exposed situation of Connecticut was early apparent to her clear- 
sighted statesmen. With Long Island Sound forming a highway for the 
enemy's vessels, and its fine harbor of New London coveted as a base for 
operations between Canada and Delaware, Connecticut would most probably 
become the object of a regular invasion or of predatory raids across her bor- 
ders or along her coast. She invited such attacks the more because she soon 
came to be known as one of the richest and most patriotic of the colonies. 

Preparations for defense were begun as early as 1774, when Roger Sher- 
man was preparing to attend the first Continental Congress. The General 
Assembly of Connecticut ordered the town to double the required supply of 



NEW HAVEN DEFENSES. 



2 : 



50 lbs. of good gunpowder and 200 cut bullets, and 300 flints per :xty 

soldiers, which they had been required to keep on hand ever ;5. The 

town of New Haven immediately commanded the construction of a new 
powder house of sufficient size, and requested the selectmen to see that the 
powder be quickly obtained. 

In December Governor Trumbull received from his son in N k the 

following advice : 

" It will be expedient to secure a supply of powder as soon as possible, the 
sooner the better, as it is apprehended that if the Admiral carries his present 
plan into execution of stationing a small vessell in every harbor, creek and 
bay along shore, that it will be, by and by, next to impossible to secure such 
supply." 

Another letter, written a little later by a Hartford correspondent, an- 




FROM AN OLD PAINTING OF NEW HAVEN GREEN, 1 

The small building in the rear of the White Church was whore 
British Invasion. '1 he buildings shown are. Colony State House. Yal« 
and White Haven Church. 

nounces that, " The deliberations of the Assembly 

is a rumor that there is a great deficiency of powder in the 

stores, which the governor has a right to supply, and. in i 

creeded that 300 lbs. of powder and a corresponding pro] 

purchased at the publick expense, and a ship is to be sent to 1 1 * 

powder." 

Whether this particular ship was ever sent I do Q< 
one of the many sent out from this time forth to the end 
of powder both for home and general defense. A, 
were raised and special permits granted for car,, • 
Indies or elsewhere, could be exchanged for the gre. 
further states, "the militia in the whole colon, IS t> 



2 74 NEW HA VEN DEFENSES IN THE 

most towns, they have a deserter from His Majesty's Forces by way of Drill- 
Sergeant. Nothing but a Spirit of Independence would surfer matters to be 
carried to such extremities." Near North Haven even the clergyman was 
drilling, the writer says. 

New Haven had her train-band militia, and also her famous Governor's 
Guards. In 1775, the householders divided themselves into two companies ) 
electing their own officers, who, in turn, were subject to Colonel Fitch, whom 
the Assembly had appointed to have charge of the town supply of powder. 
Immediately a town-meeting ordered all the inhabitants, who had failed to 
enroll themselves, to form a third company in like manner. Failing to do this, 
they were to appear, together with those Tories who had not left town upon 
a previous order to do so, to show why they hesitated to boldly enlist them- 
selves in the patriot cause. A company of forty artillerists, to have charge of 
the carriage guns, was formed at the same time. Captain Thomson's company 
was granted the special privilege of drawing double the usual rate of one-half 
pound of powder per man, or thirty pounds. Lest the precious stuff should be 
wasted, it was voted not to use it in weekly drill, and that " no man was to 
wantonly discharge his gun for the space of two months " under penalty of fine. 
The same meeting voted, " That the Committee of Inspection at Lyme send 
an express to Colonel Fitch of the earliest intelligence of the arrival of any 
fleet or of any hostile appearance on the Sound, and that Captain Sears was to 
have ready means for transporting similar intelligence of danger from the 
direction of New York." 

It was also voted to ask the General Assembly for row-galleys, floating 
batteries, and whatever was proper for the defense of the town ; also for a 
hundred stand of arms to " be kept in the College Library for the use of a com- 
pany to be formed there." 

But, first of all, this same town-meeting voted, " that a Beacon be forth- 
with erected on Indian Hill, East Haven, and that Phineas Bradley, Mr. Doo- 
little and Mr. James Rice be a committee to erect the same, according to their 
best judgement. Voted that said Committee, as soon as the Beacon is finished^ 
fix on a proper day for firing the Same, and give notice thereof, advertising in 
the papers, and requesting the ministers in the neighboring Towns and Parishes 
to Communicate the Same to their people, which notice is recommended to be 
given on Thanksgiving day: Voted that the Beacon be fired by written order 
from Col. Fitch, and in his absence from Capt. Thomson, Capt. Brown or Capt. 
Ailing, and by no other order or authority.. ...Voted that the Committee to 
erect the Beacon do build a Watch-Box near the Same, and that Capt. Thom- 
son order a watch to be kept their Continually." 

From the new lighthouse in the open mouth of the harbor the lines of the 
shore and the great hills beyond, present the same general appearance as in the 
days of '76. The old lighthouse, built in 1856, replacing an earlier one, built 
in 1780, or possibly before, stands at Lighthouse or Five Mile Point, and 
Indian Hill, Beacon Hill, Fort Hill or Fort Wooster Hill (as it has variously 
been called) rises to the height of two hundred feet at its eastern knoll, the 
chief break in the low lines of the harbor's contour. This elevation stands 
half way between the town and the pretty baylet of Morris Cove. Some minor 
changes in the coast line and in the harbor level have occured. For instance, 
in 1765 Long Wharf was not over thirty rods in length, but the water at its 



REVOLUTION AND IN THE WAR OF 1812. 



*75 



foot was as deep as in 181 1, when it was three-quarters of a mile long 
change was due to the annual accumulations of mud, chiefly on the north and 
west side, which finally- resulted in the total filling in of the old winter h. 
in the lee of the west shore. The common ^tide rose, as it now rises, six 
The beach or shoal, which almost closed the entrance to the inner hai 
represented on one of President Stiles' maps as touching the west shore at 
extreme low tide. This beach projected landward in a northeasterly dire- 
to within about two miles of Long Wharf. Opposite to its northern half and 
about equally distant from the Wharf and Light House Point, close to the 
shore, so close as to form at high tide a moated island, lay an " insulated 1 
of considerable elevation above the water." With but ninety rods between it 
and the beach, it commanded the only channel by which boats of anv consid- 
erable size could approach the town. 

Capt. Thomson, with a detail of thirty men, was ordered by the General 
Assembly, in October, 1775, to begin the erection of a battery on this rock. 
Owing to the disquieting rumors of danger from several British fleets, the 
force was increased to fifty men and the work pushed with vigor, in ordei 
have this Black Rock battery in readiness to receive its share of the six eigh- 
teen pounders and ten twelve-pounders ordered by the Assembly, in Novem- 
ber, for New Haven. Before the battery could be completed, severe weather 
put an end to work. The men were dismissed December 23, Capt. Th< m 
being allowed " ^3 for one and one-half month's work in extra cold weather " 
The men had undoubtedly worked zealously, spurred on, at first, by friendly 
rivalry with their fellow patriots on the hill behind them, laboring to finish the 
beacon at the appointed time ; and, at last, by the report from Cam; • 
the approach of a hostile fleet. 

We have the following notice from the Connecticut Journal^ " The to v. 
New Haven, having this day erected a Beacon on Indian Hill, at East H.. 
now Beacon Hill, about a mile .and a half southeast of the town ; and on: 
us, their Committee, to give public notice thereof ; we now inform the public 
in general and the neighboring towns in particular, that the Beacon will be 
fired on Monday evening next, the 20th instant, at 6 o'clock ; all pen 
then desired to look out for the Beacon and take the bearing of it from I 
respective places of abode, that they may know where to look for it is 
an alarm, which will be announced by the firing of three cannon. If our 
enemy should attack us, and we be under the necessity of making X this 

method to call in the assistance of our brethren, we request thai all pel 
who come into the town will take care to be well armed, with a good BUM 
bayonet, and cartridge box, well filled with cartridges, under their pi 
•ofncers,and repair to the State House, where they will receive 
Fitch, what post to take. 

The ministers of the several parishes of this ami the DC 
are requested to mention to their respective congregations the time 1 
Beacon will be fired. 

Phineas Bradley, \ 

Isaac Doolittle, ^ Commissionei 

James Rice, 

New Haven. 14th N 
The beacons were either tall trees, roughly hewn of theii 




276 NEW HA VEN DEFENSES IN THE 

masts or poles, with wooden spikes or pegs driven in by which the watch could 
quickly climb, with lighted torch, in order to fire the basket of combustibles, 
which hung from a crane near the top. The flames, spurting upwards, soon 
ignited the barrel of tar which frequently topped the pole. 
Its light by night or its smoke by day spread the alarm 
throughout the country side. Talcott Mountain, Beacon 
Hill and Tuthill Heights, Long Island, thus protected the 
long line of the Connecticut Coast. 

As soon as the colony's marine could be organized, her 
armed vessels, the Spy, Defense, and later the Oliver Crom- 
well, cruised at large. Row galleys, or whale boats, carry- 
ing ship-guns and fifty men, viz ; the Shark, Crane and 
Whiting (built at New Haven) rendezvoused at New London,, 
and by three well defined courses patrolled the whole 
coast. Privateers were let loose to prey upon the enemy 
and brought in many a rich prize as well as much reliable 
information. A system of espionage was established by the 
organization of numbers of small light boats, well desig- 
nated by their name " spy-boats," whose boatmen gave the 
governor timely information of the enemy's movements,, 
and were often in correspondence with the larger vessels of 
the colony. The regulations to prevent smuggling and 
illicit intercourse with the enemy were so strict that at. 
times the people suffered severely from embargoes, and 
at times " not even a rowboat or a canoe could leave any 
port, bay, creek or river in the state without a written permit." All had to be- 
drawn upon shore, secured and ready on demand. All suspected vessels were 
subject to capture or to search. 

In order to carry out these measures as well .as defend the town, work was. 
begun on Black Rock Fort early in March, 1776, at first with thirty, the follow- 
ing week with fifty men. Capt. Thomson was given as assistants, a Lieutenant 
and two Sergeants. The fort was finishsd in, June. Orders were issued to build 
cheap barracks near by, not to cost over ^25. ^74 were allowed Capt. Thom- 
son toward building the fort, and ^"200 for his company, the equivalent of a 
pound in present currency being three and one- third dollars. The work of the 
fort was so well done that in August a detail from- there was ordered to Mil- 
ford to assist the people in building a similar fortification in their harbor. In 
the fall Black Rock barracks were finished, shingled and an outside chimney 
constructed. Mr. Bishop of New Haven was appointed barrack-master. 

It must have grown very cold this winter for the cannon at Black Rock 
were removed to the town. Immediately there followed such a misuse of flags 
of truce that the guns were promptly sent back again, and a permanent detail,, 
sufficient for firing them, stationed in the new barracks. January 30, 1777, 
strict orders were given that, " No Vessel or Boat will for the future be per- 
mitted to pass Black Rock Battery without a written Licence from one of the 
Civil Authority of the Towne. Agreeable to a late Resolve of the General 
Assembly of the State." 

The fort proved its usefulness. For instance, the following March, its 
guards frightened off a British frigate with two or three tenders, trying to- 



REVOLUTION AND IN THE WAR OF 1812 



277 



creep in close to the east shore. In June, three small vessels were taken in 
the Sound, with thirteen abscounding Tories on board, and were sent in to 
Black Rock. That the gunners' shots were not always effective in quite the 
way they were intended to be, one Capt. Phipps, hailing from the enemy's 
direction, could vouch for. A shot sent over his deck as an intimati 
heave to, fell short of its mark and tore away the greater part of the I 
lower jaw as punishment for his foolhardiness. At this time the guard con 
sisted of one Lieutenant, one Sergeant, one Corporal and ten or more pri\ 

The colony had built the fort, private capital a powdermill, and it was ex- 
pected that the town would take further necessary measures for its own 
defense. There were ordered in 1778, "two small works at West Bridge, cap- 
able of receiving four small pieces of ordinance with a sufficient number of 
men to defend and serve them well." The works were thought to require 
" two days work with good team and about seventy days of other lab 

" The only other pass into Town from the Westward," on the slope of East 
Rock, was defended by an earthwork capable of receiving two or three field 
pieces, and costing one-half the labor of the preceding. East Haven and V 
Haven were given one carriage gun apiece, and were required to enroll their 

inhabitants in the militia. 



/' /.' T II 













O 17 JTJD 



MAP OP NEW HAVEN ANI> HARBOR. 



Later slight earthworks were 
raised at ( )yster Point, on 
the west side, and on the 
small bluff at U 
to which on the day of the 
invasion two small g 
were drawn. In additi 
gun was planted near the 
East Haven ferry, and a 
piece in the field, a short 
tance to one - 
On the fatal Sunday of 
4, 1779, the militia were un- 
der command 1 
Sabin; the < 1 
under Capt HillhoU! 
was in the W 

tions to 'her 

company ; the artillery, in- 
creased to ninety iner.. 
under Ca 

and was divided between the 
town, East and Wi st Ha 
their stations 

plat, the fort udW< 
along the coast and tl 



with guards or pickets thrown out 
the town. 

The peaceful communion Sabbath ended with the dl» 
war's alarms, and the intended first public celebration in Ne« 
pendence Day was rudely turned from patriotic S] 



278 NEW HA VEN DEFENSES IN THE 

behalf of the liberty they had planned to celebrate ; from precision of military 
marching with empty guns, to the hurry-scurrying by shortest cut, through 
woods or across fields, to intercept the enemy, and by whistling bullets from 
behind fence and tree cut off his approach to the town. Had not the people 
remained so long unconvinced of danger, success might have crowned their 
efforts. An express from Westfield (Bridgeport; warned them at 10 p. m., Sun- 
day, that the enemy's fleet was ofl Stamford Point and headed for New Haven. 
President Stiles urged the immediate calling in of the militia. But it was not 
until the watch at Black Rock discovered the advance sails, one mile southwest 
of the Southwest Ledge (where the new lighthouse stands), and sounded the 
alarm of three cannon shots, that the town roused to the reality of its danger. 
Then confusion filled the streets. The bells rang, the drums beat to arms. 
The Beacon flared the news to the country side. Of the townspeople, a third 
fled for safety to the Rocks, or further into the country; a third awaited British 
clemency to Tory friend or lukewarm patriot ; a third rushed to arms. At 
sunrise the guard at West Haven and President Stiles, stationed with a spy- 
glass in the college tower, saw the enemy prepare to land some fifteen hundred 
men, under Gen. Garth, commonly called "the Wolf," from the fleet of forty- 
eight sail, Sir George Collier commanding. The boats went back to land a 
similar force, under Gen. Tryon, on the east shore. 

Gen. Garth's forces, meeting with no opposition, save from the bullets of 
two retreating guards, who had gone to the shore to report the enemy's move- 
ments, marched his men to the West Haven Green, and there rested them, so 
as to give Gen. Tryon time to land and to join him, about noon, in the town. 
By the time Gen. Garth was ready to advance, the New Haven people had 
massed their forces at West Bridge ; the Derby and other militia were pouring 
in, and Capt. Hillhouse, with many college boys among his volunteers, was 
near enough to engage the British vanguard and drive it back upon the main. 
Old President Daggett was in waiting for his own little historic fray, and 
Bradley's men stood in readiness to remove the planks of the bridge, after 
Hillhouse's orderly retreat across it, and to cannonnade the British descent of 
Milford hill so warmly as to cause their long detour, of five miles, in the burn- 
ing sun, to the next ford at Westville, or Hotchkistown. The attempt of the 
patriots to drag their guns across the fields, and head off the British as they 
entered from the Derby road, failed for lack of time. The Americans could 
only fire down upon the enemy as they mounted the steep ascent from West- 
ville, and stubbornly contest every foot of ground to the entrance of the town. 

While such were the deeds on the west side, no less brave ones were being 
enacted on the eastern shore. A small company of East Haven men, with a 
single cannon, disputed, as long as was reasonable, the approach to the shore, 
at Lighthouse point, of Tryon's men, who came on in boats, each carrying in 
the bow a gun. Half a mile from the shore, the line divided, making one land- 
ing east of the Point and another in Morris Cove. As the eastern division 
landed, a British officer fell as Lieut. Campbell had fallen on Milford hill. 
The patriots retreated along the beach to join their comrades, who had made 
a stand with two guns at the knoll before mentioned. These, in turn, had to 
retreat when the British forces joined on the shore of the Cove, and Gen. 
Tryon, taking possession of the bluff, directed the marines to protect the 
march of the soldiers, while he signalled to Sir George Collier to move up the 



REVOLUTION AND IN THE WAR (>1 , 

fleet in order to silence the guns of the Fort, which were, in his own w 
causing him " some little annoyance." As soon as the British had forced their 
hotly contested march to the point on the highway leading to town where a 
side road makes off to the Fort, they halted. Gen. Tryon ordered a partv for- 
ward to capture the field piece, which Lieut. Pierpont had been serving' I 
the field near the fort, and also to storm the fortifications. The fighting on the 
road above was resumed, the Americans falling back to Beacon Hill, where 
they hoped to make a stand, but overpowered by numbers, they had to retreat 
to the Saltonstall and Branford hills. The enemy took possession of and en- 
camped about Beacon Hill. 

Meanwhile, the small garrison of nineteen men at the fort, augmented by 
a few neighbors, diligently served their guns, under the command of Capt. 
Moulthrop and Lieut. Bishop. But their scanty ammunition was soon ex- 
hausted. They then spiked and dismounted their guns, and retreated along 
the shore, but were made prisoners by skirmishers before they could come up 
with their own forces. Silent guns and an empty fort met the storming party, 
whose occupation of the works was the signal for the men-of-war and trans- 
ports to move up as quickly as possible, because the tide was falling 
determined resistance had prevented the meeting of the admiral and the two 
generals until nearly two o'clock. At that hour the ships lined the whole 
length of the harbor, and the men-of-war lay on spring cables, with guns run 
out, waiting the signal to shell the town. The signal was not given. Their 
reception had been too hot ; the chances of foraging or of cattle raiding, the 
objects of their visit, were not good ; the soldiers were plundering and 
already so drunk and unmanageable that the marines were forbidden to 
land for their share of the spoils. The Americans were increasing by hundreds 
in the outskirts of the town. The British found it impossible to hold the bridge 
on the east side, and during the next morning Gen. Tryon was forced to 
the stand on Beacon Hill to one thousand Americans under Gen. Ward. These 
immediately brought field pieces and kept up a constant fire on the anchored 
ships. The result was that the enemy judged best to quickly I 
troops, and they weighed anchor that evening, after having burnt the public 
stores and buildings, and seized all the artillery and ammunition they could 
find. Their last act 'was to send back a boat to fire the barracks of the 
which they saw at once reoccupied. 

Immediately after the invasion, the state ordered stronj to be 

thrown up on Beacon Hill ; twelve hundred and fifty nun were distribute 
the posts between the Connecticut River and Stratford: Branford, Guili 
and Saybrook received a special guard, and ninety-four men ai 
ordered to the Fort. In May, 1781, Black Rock was reported M unfit : 
men in, but capable at small expense of being made defensible, and "to afford 
the Necessary Means, which may also have a happy Influence to quiet the 
of the Inhabitants." A request for two brass pieces, together with i. 
draw them, to take the place of the old, heavy and unwieldly 
curred in and ^"ioo were forwarded to begin the repairs. 

In 1782 the guard at the fort consisted of three office] nineteen 

privates. At the close of the war New Haven was requin 
cannon, mounted and under the care of the commanding 1 
nor's Guards. 



a8o 



NEW HAVEN DEFENSES IN THE 



The raid for a few cattle, in 1781, on West Haven, was the only other visit 
of the enemy to the vicinity.* 

From the close of the Revolutionise old fort sank gradually into decay, 
■and in the early years of the century illustrated the Anti- Federal policy, 
always opposed to the old adage, " In the time of peace prepare for war." 




liar. . 




MAP OF BRITISH INVASION. 
By permission Capt. C. H. Townsend. 

Jeffersonian gunboats, not forts and fortifications, were the order of the day 
until the war storm of Europe, with its Berlin Decrees, Orders in Council and 
Milan Decree brought the war clouds to our very door. In 1807 a systematic 
fortification of the whole Atlantic coast was undertaken. New York and the 
large southern cities were first considered, later New Haven. An entrance 
forced either there or at New London would give access to the United States 



*No attempt to do more than sketch the invasion is possible here. A very complete ac- 
count is given in Capt. Charles Hervey Townshend's monograph, "The British Invasion of 
New Haven." This includes also many personal accounts, letters and extracts from official 
records. 



REVOLUTION AND IN THE WAR OB 1812. 

arsenal at Springfield, as well as to the factories of fire arms and to tl 
mills, scattered in the vicinity of both Hartford and New Haven. 

The commerce of the latter city was not inconsiderable. Her shipping 
reduced by the Revolutionary War to one vessel of thirty tons in 1 783 ba 
the following June increased to thirty vessels engaged in West fodiai 
foreign trade ; and her seven or eight sloops had increased to fifty-six. In the 
period, 1804-7, fully one hundred vessels cleared annually for foreign ports 
The embargo (December 22, 1807— March 4, 1809) fell with terrific force, and 
-and by July, 1808, seventy-eight out of New Haven's eighty two vessels were 
rotting at their wharves. One hundred shipwrights and a host of mechanics 
and furnishers of ship supplies were out of work. Thirty-two commercial 
houses watched, with anxious eyes, the bareness of Long Wharf ently 

lengthened to accommodate the expanding trade. The raising of the em 1 
notwithstanding the still remaining restriction of the Non-Intercourse 
directed against the English and French, relieved the town of a poverty, v. 






^*&y?: 



§A^T0^^^MSh^0J?^. 




NEW HAVEN HARBOR — AFTER AN OLD CUT BY J. W. BAEBEJL 

A, Wi st Rock; B, Lont? Wharf; C, Campbell's Grave; K, East Rock. //. Tort Hale: A 
Magazine with Barracks opposite ; JV, Fort Wooster. 

had sent about one-ninth of the population to soup kitchens, and dri* 

fifth to subsist on these and other forms of charity. Within 1 month, thirty 

vessels had put to sea, and the repeal of the act, May, 1810. brought flc 

times until the embargo of ninety days, which prefaced the outbreak of the 

War of 181 2. 

In 1808, " agents were appointed and furnished with fandfl for the ere 
of a battery, magazine and barracks for the defense ot" New Haven ha- 
The battery was to be placed on the site of old Black Rock Port As the 
channel had deepened to the eastward, the location was even better th. 
the days of '79. On April 27, May 3. and May n, res: 
States government bought of Messers Kneelatul TownsenJ. True 
Philemon Augur, a tract of land on the east side of New Haven h.. 
by the name of King's Island, with a strip of land for a high* rod* 



2«2 



NEW HA VEN DEFENSES IN THE 



wide, for $275 ; a second tract adjoining the harbor, containing one-half acre, 
for $125 ; and a third tract of the same size for $30.00. 

The battery was to hold six guns, and the barracks to contain forty men, 
and an appropriation, in accordance with the acts of Congress, of February 11 
and June 14, 1809, of $6,295.96 was made for it. The report of December 11, 
describes it thus : " Fort Hale, situated on the eastern side of the harbor of 
New Haven, an elliptical enclosed battery of masonry, mounting six heavy 
guns ; a small brick magazine, standing some paces to one side in a field, and 
brick barracks for fifty men and officers." At the breaking out of the war tl e 
guard consisted of seventy-eight artillerists. The magazine held about twenty- 
five barrels of gun powder. The fort received its name from Captain Nathan 
Hale, the patriot spy. 

At the declaration of war, most of the New Haven merchants called home 
their ships. About six hundred seamen scattered, some to enlist on board 
New Haven or other privateers ; some to enter the navy, and some to serve on 
gunboats, which it was soon found necessary to employ in a night patrol of the 
lower harbor, for almost immediately the Connecticut coast became the swarm- 
ing ground for privateers and cruisers of both nations. Early in 1813, the 
British declared a blockade of the whole coast north of the Capes of Delaware, 
exempting certain blockaded ports for the commerce of neutral nations. Of 
these New Haven was one. Thus on July 10, 18 13, sixteen foreign ships entered 
and twenty cleared this port. Spanish, Swedish, Norwegian, Portuguese and Rus- 
sian ships frequented the harbor, with the result that British and American 
vessels, sailing under false colors, were among them. An attempt to put an end 
to this sort of thing, by a new embargo bill, failed in the Senate. The British 
fleet, under Sir Thomas Hardy, began a local blockade in June, and succeeded 
in shutting up in New London, until the close of the war, the United States 
frigates Macedonian and Constitution. The temptations to run the blockade 
were great, for a successful trip was as lucrative as it was hazardous; and from 
1812a regular system of signalling was arranged by which skippers could know 
when the way was clear to New York, and when likely to be disputed. Still 
greater were the temptations to the unscrupulous to traffic with the enemy. 
A rigid enforcement of the rule, that there should be no communication with 
the foe, except by officers of station under a flag .of truce was imperative. For 
this, the services of the fort, of the Block House, erected at the end of Long 
Wharf, and garrisoned by native sailors, and of the gunboat patrol were 
required? 

The first alarm, because of special danger to New Haven, came on the 
night of September 13, 181 3, when a British frigate and sloop of war stood 
close in to the Old Lighthouse. A marauding expedition was feared. The 
next April a fleet of twenty-five sail destroyed $150,000 worth of property at 
Saybrook. A week later two of the enemy appeared off New Haven harbor, 
and as it was known that two frigates, a sloop, a brig and a seventy-four man- 
of-war were only a few miles off, the people had reason to recall the previous 
British invasion. In July, sailors, supposed to belong to a British man-of-war, 
recently seen off Guilford, came asho're at the Lighthouse, on the night of the 
twentieth, and made searching inquiries concerning the marine guard, the 
forces in the harbor and the defenses of the town. When, in August, Sir 
Thomas Hardy made a second attack upon Stonington, the feeling of the town 



REVOLUTION AND IN THE WAR OF 1812. 



283 



was: " The enemy is hovering on the coast. Where the next blow will be at- 
tempted no one can tell. Preparations to repel invasion cannot too speed, 
made." 

The false alarm of a descent by way of Branford, on September 6th, 
brought home the fullest sense of peril. Troops were called out ; six hundred 
men assembled under Col. Sanford. The Horse-Guards were sent to Branford, 
eight miles away, and patrolled the coast the entire night. The British had 
landed at Stony Creek and Indian Neck, respectively four and tw Tom 

Branford, and had, while leaving the people unmolested, stolen all their boats. 
They got away twenty minutes before the arrival of the Branford tr< 
They had also made a landing at Lighthouse Point in vain search for water. 

During the preceding fortnight, a battery of several heavy guns had been 
erected at the Long Wharf pier. This, though temporary, was capable 1 




WEST HAVEN' GREEN. 



sisting heavy shot and was thought to be effectual, together with the U 

protect the shipping against any force which the enemy v B into 

the harbor. But now voluntary subscriptions, in money 1 

called for to complete a fort on Prospect or Beacon Hill. " for th< 

fense of the Harbor, City and Country, and which when finished will ai 

very great protection to all this part of the coast. Troops/' the D 

ued, " will be here in a few days to man the works. Pen 

bute their services will report to Capt. Boddington or to 

many have reported that it has become necessary to assign pa: 

the different working parties." 

Enthusiasm was at a high pitch. The neighboi 
a hundred or more men, who came marching in with 
Several companies had full bands, and were welcomed with mil OteS. 

4 



284 



NEW HA VEN DEFENSES IN THE 




WEST BRIDGE. 



In the North Haven contingent was Doctor Trumbull, the state historian, who 
though eighty years of age, set an example with his shovel, after recommend- 
ing their efforts to the favor of Almighty God. The Ring Bolt Guard, com- 
prising the sailors who found themselves ashore, did good service. Societies, 




LIGHT IIOTSE I'OINT — SOl'THWEST LEDGE LIGHT IN THE DISTANCE. 



REVOLUTION AND IN THE WAR OF 1812 







BLUFF AT MORRIS COVK, 
From which General Tryon is said to have directed the movements of the British. 

like the Mechanics, a literary society, assembled at Tomlinson's Bridge to 
march for a long day's work on the fortifications. All tolls were remitted to 
workers coming or going. The first week in October, Captain North nip's squad 
of about eighty men from Fort Hale took their turn. By a spontaneous 
of popular favor the new fort received the name of the Revolution.. 
Gen. Wooster. 




BEACON mi l PROM fHE SOI HI. 



286 



NEW HAVEN DEFENSES IN THE 




NEW HAVEN FROM BEACON HILL. 



On September 13, there had arrived two companies of artillery and one 
company of horse to be stationed near New Haven. Governor Smith recom- 
mended to the October Legislature the increase of the artillery, guns for the 
new fortifications and the granting of a select corps. That body responded by 
the enlistment of one thousand, three year men for home defense, and a special 
guard of one hundred men for the fort. Two months later the treaty of Ghent 
was signed, and early in February the news of peace arrived in America. On 
February 13th, the cannon of Forts Wooster and Hale thundered the good news 
to the country round about, and in May, the soldiers enlisted to serve through 
the war, were discharged. 




OLD FORT WOOSTER, BEACON HILL 



REVOLUTION AND IN THE WAR OF i / 






The third and last fort on the little rocky isle remains to be described. 
In the military report of 1821, the batteries at New Haven were reported 
"'too small to offer any resistance." In this and the two preceding reports, a 
system of fortifications along the entire cost was outlined. It was intended to 
have this system developed gradually. The proposed fortifications were listed 
in the order of their importance, as of the first, second and third class, [t 
proposed to erect new batteries to protect New Haven from deprec: . 
an enemy, and to make her a port of refuge. Nothing, however, wa> done 
immediately, as New Haven was in the second class. In 1826, the port of 
New London had risen to far outrank New Haven, both as a harbor of refuge, 

and as a possible 
base of operations, 
and also as an im- 
portant defense for 
Long Island Sound 
and its commerce. 
Hence the military 
report that v 
suggested the sub- 
stit new 

work to replace the 








ENTRANCE TO MOAT. 
FORT HALE. 




THE MORRIS COVE BLUFF, PROM I *'KT WW> 



slight redoubt at Fort 
Wooster, and the en- 
largement of Fort Hale, 
at a total cost of $59,- 
609.18. Little or no 
money had been spent on 
either fort since the close 
of the war. If the new . 

plan had been carried out, Fort Hale would have cost 
held twenty-five men in time of peace and two hundred and I 
time of war ; and Fort Wooster ^7,793-oc holding twenty A 
and one hundred and fifty-five in war. Nothing was done, however 1 
report of 1836, the same recommendation was repeated, With - id 
requirement of new cannon and six barbette guns, thirty fci B> 

that time such improvements could not raise either de- 
class. Still nothing was done and the fort gradually followe 
on the road to ruin. Its guard dwindled from the twenty-two , Uo-£ 

and eighty men of 18.4. In ifift a total of fifty men. including 



288 



NEW HA VEN DEFENSES IN THE 



two lieutenants, three corporals, three sergeants, two musicans, six artificers, 
and thirty-six matrosses and privates were divided between Forts Trumbull 

(eighteen guns) Griswold 
(twelve guns) and Hale 
(six guns). In 1831, the 
fort was in charge of 
Capt. Thomas, formerly 
of the 25th U. S. Infantry, 
who with his family lived 
at the barracks. 

Late in the history 
of the Civil War, funds 
to the amount of $150,000, 
or over, were appro- 
priated for a rnodern 
defense to replace Fort 
Hale. 

During the summer 
and fall months of 1865, 
the embankments were 
built, a parapet on the entire land front and a portion of the water front. A 
partial rebuilding of the traverses was made necessary because of settling due 
to the nature of the material used, beach-washed sand. A good clayey soil 
was obtained about thirty yards from the fort and made excellent material for 
covering all embankments. No work was done in the winter months, but 




TABLET MARKING THE SITE OF THE BEACON, BEACON HILL. 




RUINED DRAWBRIDGE, FORT HALF 



REVOLUTION AND IN THE WAR OB 1812. 



2%<) 



by the next October, the grading", sodding and grass sowing were 1 ompli 
A sluice way was cut through the rock at the angle of the ditch and furn- 
ished with double gates and an overflow. Five granite plinth bltt 
set, a platform laid, six embrasures cut and a drawbridge built, whi'.< 
of the appropriation remained unspent. In cutting the sods in the ncighb< 
lots it was found necessary to rope gangs of men to the ploughs as the g: 
was too light to bear either oxen or horses. 

In February, 1867, the public property in tools, etc. was sold at an 
and the fort placed in charge of a keeper. The war was over but for about 
fifteen years six one hundred pound Dahlgren guns maintained their peaceful 
watch, until about 1885, when they were removed. The custodian froi: - I 
1893, when the fort was turned over to the New Haven Park Commissioners 




TROYING OLD FORT HALE, 1865 



as a part of Fort Hale Park, was Capt. Charles H. Townshend The Umted 
States did not renounce its ownership in the Fort Hal. properf 
subject to immediate re-oecupation by the government at any 
needs require. The land on which the old maga me Stood K» 
considered by military experts a fine location etther foi 

^Mo^tSn thirty years of improvement in the,-, ■ . 

fense, and the same number of years o. neglect leavea Nev. Haven,. tl 

time, with a ruined fort for her pr°tectmn. 

In the changes and chances of a contest witii ■ re ,. 



290 



BLIND FOLD. 



may again hear the sound of battle, and the government has made some pro- 
vision for such a contingency. In such an event the Connecticut men of 
to-day will prove that they are not one whit less valiant than were their 
forefathers. 




FORT HALE AS IT IS TO-DAY 



BLIND-FOLD. 



BY ANNA J. GRANNISS. 



I saw a little child with bandaged eyes, 
Put up its hands to feel its mother's face, 

She bent, and caught the tender groping palms, 
And pressed them to her lips a little space. 



I know a soul made blind by its desires, 

And yet its faith keeps feeling for God's face — 

Bend down, O Mighty Love, and let that faith 
One little moment touch Thy lips of Grace. 



TkeS 




e)uceory; 

iiccorv 

^4^Tn^ *l* e f>* kj ilxe road 
* J\ dust-covered , STvaaaUnq Thina, 
unwiTiiw.a xlr|e render alory 

l)|e miasummer sunsl\i He 
v u>m Win a. w 



/) V v VJ ' ^l e Succory 

N U'ates,ana upraises 
)ieKdail\my-friViae<j 

eyes of blue. 
Vlo Tna-frer ^ou/ dusfy tVjc 



e r>tirror$ 



H« \ 



road-iua 



3 



€dven I- 



fjue . 

fley\,ure see r\umarv tv^ ur ®i 
W live dlisi" o^ \Tg Pldce , 
b;ani A* ne av «W^ vision 



rean\s | ra 



over i 



hi 



ace. 




A PASTORAL. 



BY HERBERT RANDALL. 



A many years ago, we're told, 

There dawned a summer day, 
When up thro' purple, red, and gold, 
The sun came bounding as of old, 
And started on his way. 






A PASTORAL. l<n 

Pan rose betimes to guard his flocks; 

In orchards droned the bees ; 
The warblers came to sing and build, 
And, as Pan played, their flute-notes trilled, 

And joy was on the breeze. 

Thro' dreamy woodlands babbling streams 

Wound on to meadows fair, 
Where crimson amaryllis grew, 
And iris, white, and harebells, blue, 

For dryad queens to wear. 

So broke the day, the legend says ; 

Nymphs wandered in the dew ; 
The swallows twittered, wheeled, and preened, 
The tree-tops laughed, and leaves careened, 

As Pan his syrinx blew. 

The day grew langorously sweet 

With dreamings of content; 
Soft clouds moved slowly o'er the skies, 
While troops of rainbow dragon-flies 

On noonday light besprent. 

The shepherds leisurely reclined, 

The fleecy clouds drew near, 
As Pan awoke a tender theme, 
So sweet, the tree-tops, birds, and stream, 

Enraptured, paused to hear. 

The dryads 'mong the lily-bells 

Bad them their swinging cease. 
And all the flocks upon the leas 
Breathed low beneath the list'ning trees. 

Charmed by the wondrous peace. 

At last so slumbrous grew the day, 

(Thus have the sages said) 
Poor Pan, aweary, fell asleep : 
His pipes no longer charmed the sheep; 

Dark drifted overhead. 

And so the leaves and blossoms died, 

And sorrow rilled the air; 
The nymphs and bees all hid away. 
The flocks and birds all went astray, 

While slept their keeper there. 

O might we give these storm-swept yew 

And solemn wintry sku is, 
For summer days, beloved of yore, 
And drink their hallowed joys once more ! 

But Pan still sleeping lies. 



SOME COMMON EVIDENCES OF GLACIAL ACTION IN 

CONNECTICUT. 



BY W. H. C. PYNCHON. 



" And feel by turn the bitter change 
Of fierce extremes, extremes by change more fierce, 
From beds of raging fire to starve in ice ... . 
Immovable, infixed, and frozen round, 
Periods of time," . . . Paradise Lost. 




GLACIATED SURFACE OF THE TRAP ROCK. TRINITY COLLEGE, HARTFORD, CONN. 

That Central Connecticut was once the seat of great volcanic activity is 
well known. The beds of volcanic ashes which are scattered here and there 
throughout the valley and more especially the great trap ridges — fragments 
of what were once great flows of molten lava — bear unerring testimony to 
this fact. It is readily conceivable that a period of quiet should follow the 
period of intense action — a period in which things should cool down and 
return somewhat toward their normal state — but it seems hard to conceive 
that nature should somewhat later swing to the other extreme and that a period 
of cold should set in that would suggest a change almost as fierce as that 
of which Milton speaks. Yet Connecticut passed through an experience like 



GLACIAL ACTION IN CON NEC T/CUT. 

this when the northern half of North America lay buried under the ice and 
snows of the Glacial Period. 

The many people who ask the question, « Where can I 
the Glacial Period r may be divided into two groups. The former t k t 
dence for the Glacial hypothesis, the latter accept the hypothesis and are 
simply anxious to see the marks of its action which the continental ice sheet 
left behind it. The discussion which the first question raises is almost wholly 
outside the scope of this article, and can only be taken up incidentally in 
answering the second question-the question with which this paper h 
deal. 

A good while ago geologists observed certain phenomena which seemed 
to require special explanation. This consisted in the main of large dej 




WATER-LAID BED OF SAND AND TRAP FRAGMENTS. CEDAR MOl NTAIN. II \KTI >>ki 



of gravel and of certain smoothings and groovings of the rocks 

localities, notably the northern part of the British Isles. These they HI 

took to explain in various ways, but one theory after another had to be 

dropped as impossible, until nothing was left but the theory that t' 

nomena were due to a great sheet of ice covering the region. Later ini 

gation into the " actual workings " of glaciers existing in mount., 

the present day, and the observation that Greenland is under 

of ice, have so strengthened the theory that now it is universally 

The question now remains, what are these evidences i 

where can they be seen in Connecticut ? 

It may be of advantage to pause a moment to consider th( • ••' N 



596 



SOME COMMON EVIDENCES OF 




GLACIAL STRIAE, SUMMIT STREET, HARTFORD, CONN. 

modern local glacier, the laws of its motion and the effects which it produces 
on the region it traverses. 

On high ranges of mountains, whose tops are in the region of eternal 




SECTION THROUGH A SAND PLAIN. 



GLACIAL ACTION IN CONN ECU < UT. 







DETAIL OF SAND PLAIN, SHOWING 



cold, the great masses of snow work down the slopes toward the valley that 
run down the sides of the range. As this mass passes down it becomes 
densed by its own weight until it turns into ice, though it is for the I 




1KA-ERODED 1 



M PKII l, 



2 9 8 



SOME COMMON EVIDENCES OF 




STREAM CUTTING AWAY A BANK OF GLACIAL DRIFT, HARTFORD, CONN. 

part a white ice. Thus we have a river of frozen water flowing- down the 
valley, and we find that it follows much the same laws as a river of liquid 




'ERCHED GLACIAL BOWLDER, TAFTVILLE, CONN. 



GLACIAL ACTION IN CONNECTICUT. 

water, for it wears away its banks and carries the waste material thus obtained 
on with it .in its course. The flow of a glacier is necessaril;. Lc Conte 

places the speed at from one to three feet per day. As the ice stream n 
slowly along, fragments of rock roll down upon it from the crumbling cliffs 
which bound its channel, and the accumulation of these fragments forms a 
long line of debris on top of the glacier a little way from its edge. These 
accumulations are known as "lateral moraines." The surface of the glac: 
not smooth and unbroken, as might be imagined, but it is very rough and is 
broken by great rifts called " crevasses." Into the crevasses plunge the 
streams formed by the melting of the surface ice, and with the water go many 
of the rock fragments which have been mentioned. The water finds its way 
through to the bottom and there flows along as a subglacial stream which 
emerges at the foot of^the glacier. The ice as it moves along tears up frag- 
ments of rock, and these, together with the fragments which have come down 
through the crevasses, are ground up and form a mass of debris under the ice 
known as the "ground moraine." 

But the glacier, besides tearing up fragments of rock, does other • 
It grinds the rock bed over which it flows to a smooth, undulating surface 
(for the ice can bend to fit the inequalities of its bed; and on this smoothed 
surface it cuts, with the aid of imbedded rock fragments, more or less deep 
grooves. This smoothed surface is called "glaciated surface," and the 
grooves are called " glacial striae." 

Furthermore, it is found that, though the glacier flows steadily down the 
valley its foot never gets beyond a given point — a point where the tempera- 
ture is so high that the ice melts away as fast as it comes down from above. 
But as the ice melts away, it necessarily deposits all the fragment- 
which it has brought with it, and the vast mass of debris which is thus formed 
is called the "terminal moraine." 

Having now considered briefly the workings of a local mountain glacier. 
let us see if there is a similar action in the case of a great regional 
such as that which covers Greenland. Le Conte estimates the probable 
thickness of this sheet as from 2,000 to 3,000 feet. It moves steadily sea 
breaking up into separate glaciers in the many deep valleys 
which indent the coast. These glaciers as they reach the water break B] 
fragments which float off as the icebergs of the northern u a 

There is good reason to believe that at a certain time in the 
history of the world, known as the Glacial Epoch or Period, a sin) iheet 

covered the northern part of North America down to about the 40th pa: 
of latitude. This regional ice sheet had apparently vario 
and retreat, but, when it finally withdrew, it left the sir 
profoundly modified. It is to call attention to some 
fications, especially as seen in Connecticut, that this pap 
designed. 

Perhaps the first of these evidences of ice action P »s tl 

glaciation of rock areas. Wherever the ice passed over bed 
projections and loose fragments and ground down the main n 
undulating surface. All the rocks of the state sho* 
perhaps, especially well seen on the trap ri< 
Within the limits of Hartford excellent examples ma] 
5 



3°° 



SOME COMMON EVIDENCES OF 



where Trinity College stands. Wherever the trap of this ridge comes to the 
surface the smoothed and almost polished surface can be seen. In some cases 
actual troughs have been cut in the rock, a fine example having recently 
been uncovered by the workmen at the city quarry. In other cases the rock 
shows the finely ruled parallel striae. These are well shown on a small out- 
crop west of Summit street and just north of the stairs leading down to Zion 
street. The striae are also clearly defined on the rocks along the New 
Britain road, a few miles beyond Elmwood. 

The interesting question next arises— what has become of the fragments 
which the glacier tore from the bed rock ? This vast amount of broken material 
or " drift," as it is properly called, is apt to be overlooked on account of its 
very abundance. The gravelly soil of almost all our cultivated land, the vast 



r »$ '*- •wi'J-V*? 



k 




MODIFIED DRIFT, ALLEN PLACE, HARTFORD, CONN. 

hills of gravel through which our highways and railroads are cut and of 
which the latter build their embankments, the steep faced sandy bluffs along 
our rivers all belong to the vast mantle of drift spread over the land. The por- 
tion which rests upon the bed rock and hides it from sight for the most part 
is usually very firmly compacted of clay and pebbles and is known as "hard- 
pan." This apparently corresponds to the "ground moraine" of the local 
glaciers. 

As the ice moved in general from north to south, it will be seen that the 
drift is likely to be of the same material as the bed-rock to the north of it. 
For this reason the drift of central Connecticut is mostly of trap and sand- 
stone or shale, and is usually of a dark red color. Moreover, as these kinds 
of rock break readily into small pieces, there is a general scarcity of the large 



GLA CIAL AC TION IN CONNE C TIC UT. 3 o i 

rounded fragments commonly known as "bowlders." But when you go into 
the eastern or western part of the state, regions of tough crystalline r 
containing plenty of light colored components, the aspect of the d< 
changes. Here the drift becomes very light in color and bowlders of all sizes 
abound. 

Where, along its southern edge, the glacier melted away as rapidly 
advanced, we find the remnants of a vast " terminal moraine." There 
good deal of reason for us believing that Long Island marks the p 
this moraine south of Connecticut. 

Before speaking more fully of this distribution of the drift, it ma 
well to note some points in connection with the end of the Ice Age. Without 
raising any question as to the subdivision of time into which the era may 
be divided, it may be safely said that gradually conditions so changed that 
the edge of the ice sheet began to recede toward the north and, as it melted, 
it of course dropped the drift which it carried. It is due to this that we get 
the great mass of surface drift which overlies the " hard-pan." It covers hill 
and dale, and in the regions where bowlders were formed is liberally sprinkled 
with them. In eastern and western Connecticut it is no unusual thing to find 
these blocks scattered so thickly over a field that a person may traverse a 
considerable distance by jumping from one to another. The marked differ- 
ence between the drift of the central and of the eastern and western por 
of the state may be seen in travelling the length of the Valley Division of the 
New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad. From Hartford to Middle- 
town the drift is in general of a reddish color and is very free from bowlders. 
At Middletown the road leaves the Triassic area and passes into the region 
of the ancient Archaean rocks. The drift at once becomes much lighter in 
color and bowlders of crystaline rock are seen on every side. 

Some of these bowlders are of immense size— one near Mohegan on the 
Thames River being probably the largest in this country, as far as is known. 
It is these blocks of the smaller sizes that furnish the materia! ^t of 

the stone walls. Not infrequently the melting ice left a large 
stranded on top of a ledge, where it often forms a " tilting stone ling 

rock " of more or less local celebrity. A very beautiful " perched block " of 
this type may be seen at Taftville, a few miles from Norwich. 

But, while the melting glacier deposited the drift in a mixed 
the surface of the country, it should be remembered that the Sowing 
suiting from this very melting re-arranged a large portion of this nto a 

distinctly sorted and stratified condition. Such water-assorted >'< 
ally called " modified drift " or " washed gravel." Sometimes it 
in a long, winding embankment or"esker" which probably once 
filled the vaulted channel of some stream running underneath 
"Eskers" are often of such size that they resemble an ancient 
a forgotten railroad embankment. A very tine exam seen at 

Compounce Pond near Bristol. 

An "esker" usually ends in a more or less level " sain! ; e the 

subglacial stream, emerging from under the ice. spread the drift ut over a 
considerable area. A section through a " sand plain " shows ma ratifi 

cation due to water action. These plains frequently occur 
«eskers" The town of Saybrook stands on such a plain, also the tow 



302 



SOME COMMON EVIDENCES OF 



Essex. A large part of the city of Norwich is located on a deposit of this 
kind and the sandy levels lying to the north of New Haven are probably of 
similar origin. Smaller deposits of " modified drif t " may be seen in many 
places. The gravel which is dug at the head of Allen Place in Hartford is 
of this nature, and there are similar beds in West Hartford, near Vine Hill, 
The trolley line from Hartford to New Britain cuts through an interesting de- 
posit of this sort on Newington Avenue, near the north end of Cedar Moun- 
tain. Here many layers of fine, white sand rest on a bed of irregular frag- 
ments of trap. The structure has unfortunately become much obscured by 
the action of the elements and the caving of the bank. 

Mention should be made of one peculiar form, which deposits of un-modi- 
fied drift sometimes take. It is that of an elliptical, round-topped hill, with 




TYPICAL VIEW OF A REGION COMPOSED ENTIRELY OF GLACIAL DRIFT. 



its long axis corresponding to the direction in which the ice was moving. 
There have been many theories as to just the manner in which these " drum- 
lins " were formed, but none of them are wholly satisfactory. The large hill 
known as " Buena Vista," lying west of West Hartford, is a good example of 
this form, and several others of a similar nature are to be seen on the road to 
Simsbury, about ten miles from the city of Hartford. 

These are some of the thoroughly common phenomena which bear 
witness to the Glacial Period, somewhat after the principle that "a workman 
is known by his chips." For it should be remembered that these are, in a 
certain sense, only the chips. The real masterpieces which the ice wrought are 
far greater. They are the changing of streams and drainage system, the 
changing of shore lines, the creation of lakes and profound changes in the 
geographical distribution of flora and fauna. Geologically speaking, ,the 



GLACIAL ACTION IN COXNECTIi 






Glacial Period is a recent event, and the surface of the land has as yet I 
means become re-adjusted to the changed condition which followed the 
invasion of the ice. 

Geological phenomena are frequently but the often repeated sta^- 
that recurring circle of events in which Earth's history repeats itself for 
The Preacher spoke truly when he said—" The thing that hath been, it is that 
which shall be ; and that which is done is that which shall be done ; and there 
is no new thing under the sun," — and ages to come may prove that I should 
have completed the final line of the quotation from Milton, and should 
have omitted the words — 

" thence hurried back to fire." 




TWILIGHT. 



BY SALLY PORTER 1 k* ■ 



When Nature paints the western 

With pink and blue and 
And evening shades are drawing nigh, 
When Nature paints the western 
The gentle breezes moan and sigh, 

And weep that Hay is dead. 
When Nature paints the western 

With pink and blue and red. 



PETER PARLEY"— AS KNOWN TO HIS DAUGHTER. 



BY EMILY GOODRICH SMITH. 



PART I. 

These recollections of my father are rescued from Time's " Omnium Gath 
erum." They are put upon record, in memory of the children of sixty and seventy 
years ago, who knew the earliest stories of Peter Parley and studied his lesson 
books, made so attractive to them ; for the children of those children, who grew 
up on his school-books, many of whom knew him personally, and for the grand- 
children of to-day, who have had their curiosity excited through hearing the odd 
name of " Peter Parley" mentioned at intervals, and are invading the "query 
columns " of the newspapers with questions as to his identity. 

Every generation or two there is a return wave, which bears upon its crest 
the name of some prominent character in the past, quiescent, though not forgot- 
ten. Writers and publishers are quite aware of this fact, and are keenly on the 
watch for the first sign of a returning wave. Within the last three or four years, 
the name of the children's friend, Peter Parley, has been upon the lips of those 
aged readers who learned from his books, Constant mention of him has been 
made in educational articles in the newspapers, and the magazines have brought 
him to mind again. Many letters to myself, urging me to write of him and his 
work, prepared me for the request of the editor of The Connecticut Quarterly 
to give some reminiscence therein, which I gladly do in a most informal and unpre- 
tentious manner. This first part of my story is told entirely from a child's point 
of view, in language such as a child would empfoy. Ignoring the royal "we," as 
unsuited to the subject, I have written simply in the first person, a simple record. 
In order to avoid repetition, I have not confined myself rigidly to a sequence of 
dates, but now and then, when speaking of some charactaristic of my father, as, 
for instance, his love for music, I have grouped together events occuring at wide 
intervals. 

Air. Goodrich very rarely referred to his family tree. Suffice it to say it was 
well rooted in English soil, and as early as 1628 there were upon its American 
branches the names of governors, mayors, senators, diplomats, Revolutionary offi- 
cers, college presidents, clergymen, and judges. We give a portrait of one of 
them, an uncle, P^lizur Goodrich. 

Samuel Griswold Goodrich, Jr., was born in 1793, in Ridgefield, Conn., where 
his father was pastor for years. Their home was a large rambling house, pictur- 
esque in its appearance and surrounded by several acres of very fertile lands, 
which was carefully farmed and added largely to the comfort of a numerous and 
growing family. Mr. Goodrich's salary as a clergyman was but four hundred dol- 
lars a year. He added to this by taking into his household six or eight young men 
to fit for college. The old homestead overflowed with life, kindliness and an at- 



PETER PARLEY--AS KNOWN TO HIS DAUGHTER 



3<>5 

mosphere of religion which was never gloomy. In these happy surround* 
grewapace. Hismotherwas Betsy Ely, daughter of Rev. Col. John Eh of L 
where she often met our own officers and those of Fran< Icrmany 

was a most cultivated woman, but slightly tinged with sadness, caused by the 
troubles of her country, the disasters which beset her father and i, rati- 

tude of Congress toward him. 

This delightful home was known far and wide in the state for its -mi., 
pitahty. Travelers of mark left their servants and equipages at the tavern but 
were entertained personally at the parsonage. Here judges and sen 
of the government and public men of varied opinions often met. I i 





THE FATHER AND MOTHER OF 



'EI' IK I'AKI I \ . 



sions and learned talk were frequent, and often in their midst would be ni I 
eager but modest little lad, listening and sometimes venturing a pertinent 
tion. When on their return that way some of them brought him desired DC 
others left such behind them for his use. On these he grew and thr 
studied and hoped. At five years old he had been sent to a dame school, kept by 
Aunt Delight Benedict, whose nose and cap ran to the sharpest oi points He 
started off in high feather, taking his little chair with him, 1 It had the 
several generations, — it is one hundred years older to-day.) In this chaii 
Benedict seated him under her wing where she could convenient!) tap his head 
with a huge brass thimble. She called him to read his letter-. ,\vd with 1 ruler 
indicated the one he should name. 

"What's 'at? What's that?" 

He looked in her face without reply. 

At the third question and a prod with the thimble, he said quk 

"I did not come to tell you the letters, you tell 'em to me." 



3 o6 "PETER PARLEY-— AS KNOWN TO h fS DAUGHTER. 

She looked at him amazed but said no more. At recess she led the culprit 
home, now and then assisting him by a pull at the ear. His parents were called 
in solemn conclave and the story told. You could not convince him he had done 
any wrong. He was willing enough to say he was sorry if he had been rude to 
"Miss Daylite" but he couldn't see it in that way. " Thammy didn't go to tell 
Miss Benedict wat's A and wat's B," and there he took his stand. So far school 
was a failure. Later on he had a few months chance at the " three R's " at " West 
Lane Academy," and this closed his educational opportunities outside of his 
home. 

Early in his mind blossomed a desire for good literature, fostered to begin 
with, by a copy of the English " Mother Goose," sent him from London by an 
uncle. Instead of entertaining him, he was disgusted. The tales were so un- 
meaning, the poems so silly, the language vulgar. Childlike he at once picked out 
its most objectionable features and went about repeating some of the undesirable 
rhymes. In reply to an inquiry from his mother who scarcely recognized her little 
son in this unusual attitude, he brought her his gift, telling her once for all that he 
meant to write better books for children ; stories they would love to read, rhymes 
that would teach something, and facts told in a way that would at first attract, 
then cling in the mind. Bravely he kept this promise which grew with his growth 
and developed more and more in his brain the plan for good and entertaining 
reading for the young, and lesson-books made interesting for the scholar, until 
Peter Parley had become a well-known and favorite writer for children, and Eng- 
land, America, the Continent and "The Isles of the Sea" knew his works in 
many languages. 

We have not space to tell of the years when he was building his plans, but 
to his life's end he never forgot what he owed to the advice given him by Miss 
Lydia Huntley (later Mrs. Sigourney), when, a shy youth of sixteen or seventeen, 
he was in a book store in Hartford. Through this he studied French, learned to 
dance, took part in debates, sought the company of refined young ladies, and was 
one of the fortunate members of her Literary Society, the first of its kind in 
Connecticut. 

Presently, assisted by an uncle, he went abroad for counsel from older and 
wiser heads. He visited dear, quaint Hannah More at " Berley Wood " and was 
entertained by her there, coming away greatly encouraged by her sympathy and 
the gladness with which she welcomed his broad plan for attractive and instruct- 
ive literature for youth. 

He often told me of how carefully he sought a no m de plume ; something 
which would catch and hold the public ear. Many a book has fallen flat on the 
market because of a faulty title as a send off, which, being withdrawn for a while, 
renamed and reissued, has floated on to success. 

While deliberating on this fact one day, he was declining the verb " Par lee— 
to speak," and found what he sought — "Peter the Talker — Peter Parley" — and 
he adopted it then and there. 

His first book was written abroad and published in 1823, " Parley's Tales of 
the Sea," and had an immense sale. One hundred and sixteen Parley books were 
his own, and fifty-four compilations, beside "Merry's Museum," published as a 
monthly for many years ; the "Token," a gift book, and "The Cabinet Library." 
John and Epps Sargent, Royal Robbins, and S. P. Holbrook, Esq., assisted in the 
larger and more important compilations. 



<< PETER PARLEY --AS KNOWN TO HIS DAUGHTER. 

For -Peter Parley's Method of Searching Geography," Mr. Goodri< 
$300 and the publisher made a fortune by it. It was translated 
aries for use in their foreign schools. Hon. Donald G. Mitchell, in 
tells of the recollection of this little book which came over him when I 
the Tower of London. 

Of the " Natural History," George Du Maurier says : " Last, but not 
of our library, was Peter Parley's ' Natural History,' of which we knew c\ 
by heart." 

Mr. Martin, of the "Conversation Corner," in a recent number of t 
Congregationalist writes: "We have no doubt, were it needed, that 1. -- 
people could rise and repeat the widely famous lines, "The World i- roui 
like a ball, seems swinging in the air." 

His series of school histories, have been adapted lor the blind in 1 
type, and are still in use in schools. We understand that his*"K 
admirably adapted to interest and improve, are still published in St. Louis. 

Charles Sumner found in the depths of a Cornish coal mine a copy "t • 
of the Sea," side by side with one other book — the Bible. In telling my father 
this, he remarked :. ■ " Goodrich, this is fame." 

My father was one of those men, who, with a stern profile, had a 
winning expression. Every baby stretched out its little arms to him, and children 
gathered to him like bees, while animals, large and small, regarded him as their 
friend. In those days when there was no organization for their protection, he 
was a humane society m himself. He dearly loved his home, lie built his 
place named " Rockland " at Jamaica Plain, near Boston, with careful 
house in which he hoped his family would grow and prosper. Every cent <> 
was paid out of his own honest work. By this time he had become in 
circumstances, enjoying the results of his labors. 

The rose garden, built especially for my mother's pleasure, was fumed 

picture and no pains were spared to make it a delight to the eye, Klowi 
shrubs dotted the brilliant green lawns and loop-holes were cut out t<» make al 
tive views. In short, no other gentle- 
man's residence in those clays was 
more perfect or desirable. 

A great deal of the time his mind 
was working to shape some great 
thought and well we children under- 
stood that when we saw him walk- 
ing up and down on the broad piazza, 
with his hands behind him, he must 
not be interrupted. But in the morn- 
ing, before he went into Boston to 
business, he always had a frolic or 
a talk, or a walk with us, and we 
waited about in the neighborhood for 
his call to us to brush his coat and see 
that he was an immaculate gentlemen 
in every way. Now and then ho 

; -i 1 An Uncle > 

would have a word to say to the 




3 o8 "PETER PARLEY"— AS KNOWN TO HIS DAUGHTER. 

gardener or the stable boys as he sauntered down there with us hand in hand. 
We were never allowed to venture into these regions, but there was a lovely hill 
rose up just opposite the great barn doors, which, in the early spring, was one 
carpet of blue violets, with yellow eyes — one could believe a tender cloud had 
come down upon it like a mantle of beauty. 

Here we camped, keeping keen watch for his coming again, and if perchance 
he was robed in his soft velvet dressing gown, he would have his pockets full of 
kittens, or an impudent puppy, or some fluffy chickens, just struggling into life ; 
and meanwhile he was filling our small minds with ideas and thoughts of strength 
and beauty which stayed by us through life. Or, it might be at the " children's 
hour " before the open grate, wfTen perched on his knees like inquisitive birds, 
we plied him with questions without stint and listened to stories galore. 

How vivid are these scenes. As I " think back" they come before 
my mind's eye like an old-time daguarreotype scarcely dimmed by age. 
Among these is a picture of a summer morning, when the family as 
usual are gathered to see the head of the house "mount and away." He did not 
care much for a lord, but he dearly loved a fine horse, and always had two or three 
of them in the stable. Ariel, his riding horse, was standing ready saddled in front 
of the veranda. She was an exquisite specimen of equine beauty, coal-black, 
polished like satin, with a white star on her forehead and not another hair upon 
her save black. She never would tolerate being tied, so a groom stood just in 
front of her. She obeyed my father with perfect docility but with anyone else 
she was not reliable and was, to tell the truth, a rather dangerous animal. But 
this morning she won our fervent gratitude and admiration by an intelligence 
which seems to me marvelous, at this late day. 

My mother, seated on one step of the piazza, had my six months' old brother 
beside her, holding him by his long dress. All in a flash, no one ever knew how 
it happened, the baby suddenly rolled over and down beneath the horse's feet. It 
takes little time to tell, but it seemed hours before we could catch a breath. Then 
my father said in a scarcely audible whisper, but full of anguish, " Let no one 
stir." The mare was in evident distress, and understood as well as a human, the 
terrible danger of the situation. She began an almost inperceptible movement of 
her small feet, walking slowly, but surely, away from the baby who was calmly 
looking about him, quite unaware of impending danger. 

My parents' faces were white and drawn and my father's lips were set and 
held between his teeth to keep from groaning aloud. Of course we children could 
not appreciate the horror that those moments contained, but I never forgot the 
scene. It was, as it were, seared upon the tablets of my memory. 

Meanwhile, our pretty Ariel had moved far enough to one side for mother to 
grasp and withdraw the child, and then the mare seemed to wilt and a sweat broke 
out all over her so profuse that great drops fell to the ground. 

Later she grew too nervous for everyday use and my father reluctantly sold 
her. She became a great racer, known as the " Lone Star," and was famous all 
over the country. 

My -father early became somewhat of a public man and entered with enthu- 
siasm into politics. As a very young man, when aid to his uncle Gov. Chauncey 
Goodrich, of Hartford, he had met most of the members of the famous Hartford 
Convention, and had already made for himself a reputation as a publisher and a 



« PETER PARLEY^-AS KNOWN TO HIS DA t G 309 

man of great literary attainments, beside being an admirable conversationalist and 
witty speaker and lecturer. My mother, an English woman by birth, ..ark- 

able both as a singer and musician, and between them they drew all thai 
sirable of surrounding society of talent, culture and charm. '1 heir guesl 
brought with them foreigners of note, and entertaining ere long be 
tory on account of the position he had attained. At stated intervals father 
large dinner parties to gentlemen, while their wives were enjoying 
in the drawing-rooms, or on the wide veranda at " Rockland 
matter of course, and such " chamber concerts " as were held there were 
treats indeed. Brainard wrote a song for my mother called the • Sea 1 '- I ^nich 
she set to an old Welsh air. I heard Daniel Webster ask her for it one evening 
and she sang it, accompanying herself with the harp. Wild, weird, intent 
seemed to hold something in its measure which seized upon We 
feelings and he sat where he could watch the singer ; as she closed with th. 
gloomy lines, where the voice mounts higher and higher and then abruptly descends 
in a long wail, — he was so motionless that the other listeners noted it,— 

"Tis the sea-bird, sea-bird, sea-bird, 

Lone witness of despair, 
'Tis the sea-bird, sea-bird, sea-bird, 

The only witness there." 

Then a few liquid notes of the harp and she was the very " mocking-bird "h 
Her trills, echoed through the large rooms and halls — -trills I never heard equalled 
— even Grisi made a fiasco of them. They are unheard now, not only on account 
of their extreme difficulty, but the present style of musical composition does not 
lend itself to them. 

My father was of an eminently social nature and a delightful entertainer, and 
he and my mother made their home most attractive. There was always more « 
less of a house party, and "Afternoon Tea" was known there shed 

fact a generation ago. 

Of a summer afternoon, elegant equipages from Boston and neigh! > 
towns drove out for a call, or in winter brilliant sleighing parties filled th 
with their tuneful bells and not unseldom a delicious seranade would seem ti 
in the air. 

My brother and I had favorites among these intimate friends. He would 
draw as near to Webster as he dared, being recognized onl) by a sudden rai 
of those great, gloomy eyes and a kindly glance. 1 was more drawn to H 
thorne, who would sit remote and silent, brooding over the outlini e oi 

those weird tales which surprised and startled the reading world. His a 
filled out, his ships were going on summer seas, freighted with - 
fascinating, that they soon reached the " Fortunate Isles." Hi 
one of the earliest makers of our literature. 

Lothrop Motley, afterward one of the most famous oi the great - 
his age, drew us like a magnet. 

N. P. Willis, full of life and jokes, bore with us as we drilled up I 
just for the pleasure of hearing Motley's winning voice 01 to watch the nppk 
laughter running over Willis' speaking face 1 le was nothing U not [ s 
sharp, and at times went beyond the allowances of polite writing and 



PETER PARLEY-— AS KNOWN TO HIS DAUGHTER. 



tion, but with his light curly locks and brilliant eyes, he made a perfect foil to 
Motley. The latter was a gentleman in every sense of the word, and something 
in his gracious, quiet manner, presented an example of the best style of an Aneri- 
can. In after years he became a giant in literature. 

I can remember to-day, though half a century has elapsed, the enjoyment 
these guests all seemed to feel. In perfect sympathy, drawn together with the 
high purpose of refining and elevating the world of letters, their faces were in- 
stinct with enthusiasm and glowed with the desire to give of their best. 

The result of these simple gatherings was world-wide. These sturdy, young 
Americans went forth to represent the growing literature of a youthful republic. 
Most, indeed all of them, were for years contributors to the "Token," one of the 
earliest books edited by Mr. Goodrich, in which the reader will find embalmed 
some of the choicest gems of poetry and prose. This dainty annual has now be- 
come one of the treasured " Americana," found in large city libraries only. It 
will reward the seeker for " Gems of purest ray serene " are bound between its 
covers, — a very treasure book. Park Benjamin and Greenwood, Bryant and 
Doane, Washington Irving, Emerson, Percival, Brainard, and others beside those 
mentioned above, contributed to make it for seventeen years, a valued and sought 
for work. 

My father's study was a fascinating room into which we ventured, only 
on distinct permission. Its large, square table, covered with green broadcloth, 
with all the elegant stationery and ornamental paraphernalia so useless to the wri- 
ter; gifts from many friends of elegant ink-stands, elaborate pen-racks, paper- 
cutters, erasers, pen-knives and other adjuncts. These were seldom used. I can 
see now the long black leather portfolio filled with blotted sheets, ink-stained, 
marred here and there with figures and notes and memoranda thereon. Here he 
wrote down his thoughts, shaping his sentences as he walked up and down his 

spacious room, often smiling as a pleasant 
thought came over him. Now and then 
casting a loving glance out upon the wide 
drive-way or down a glorious steep bank 
where ornamental trees caught the eye. 
Down this bank in winter we coasted. One 
sled was built expressly for me with a back 
and a shelf behind it on which my grand 
old Newfoundland sat as we flew down the 
snowy incline, he barking wildly. 

»^H ^0 It was always a pleasure, even a rest, 

t^^^fff^^ iL f° r m y father to see children at play, and 

/W MM. ^L ne encoura g e d the coming of others to join 

in our happy games. For many years there 
had been at Jamaica Plain, an important 
and flourishing boarding school for boys, 
kept by Mr. Charles Green. There were 
lads here from the West Indies, the Spanish 
South, and especially from New England. 
The Boston contingent was very large. 

CHAIR WHICH "PETER PARLEY USED ° . Ti 

in school. Russell and John Sturgis, Masons, Lowells, 




PETER PARLEY-— AS KNOWN TO HIS DAUGHTER. 



3" 



Putnams ; young commodores, embryo ambassadors, who* 
days have gone round the world. 

Every other Saturday at Rockland, our lovely home, 
children. It was an understood fact that the four boys of this "had 

the best all-round record for that term, were invited to join us. Tin 
ereel a privilege and much sought after. Thus father secured us desirable 
mates in a small village, and surrounded himself with the men \ :h. 

I saw the name of one of these playmates of ours mentioned as an ini|>ortant 
factor in a recent diplomatic move, within the week, who painted f<»r me such a 
set of paper dolls, as no modiste's advertisements of to-day can equal. 

My father was deeply stirred by martial music, and greatly enjoyed or. he 
concerts ; but these little home gatherings were his greatest pleasure. Hi^ : 
ness for Scotch songs was remarkable and to gratif) his taste my mother took 
lessons of the famous Dempster. What was an odd feature in thi> was that 
father could not catch airs though he recognized them at 01 a hen 

walking up and down thinking out some speech or lecture, we would hear him 
keeping time to his steps, humming, all on one key, 

"Oh, 'tis my delight of a shiney night 
The season of the year." 

That was all, but it seemed to be a great help to him. When we children 
heard this, we would be "just round a corner" read) to pounce Oil him. tor that 
remarkable ditty was a signal that he was in a merry mood, and we made the 
of such hours. We would dance about him, begging tor a walk or a talk, which 
was our most valued time with him. 

He always halted more or less on one knee and kept time t«» hi- step with a 
cane, which had descended to him from Matthew Griswold, and on the I 
piazza at Rockland was many an imprint of the brass ferrule. I lere w 
with him nearly every day, or down the long drive which th as mar- 

ble. He could not mount hills or many steps, as all his life Ion- lie s fl 
attacks of breathlessness,, which were very startling and we never cou] 
to them. As I write I recall how many a time we waited outside in- stud) 
terror-struck at the attacks which seized him. They would yield 
agony, fighting for his breath and leaving his face white and drawn 
over, he always had a smile for us, two terrified little mites, his ardent 1. 
he could not speak. 

I have wandered far afield from the topic of music and his fondm 

The scene changes to the music-room of the Amercian Consul in 
the family, denied of all other guests, were holding their last meetr 
Howard Paine. He was leaving the next day, for Tunis, as ( onsul 
away, remote from kindred and friends; his heart was low and .ad. and ap| 
sive of the outcome; he clung to this home evening and seetne 5 
and weary that my mother called us to the piano and gentl) Struck the , 
-Home Sweet Home." Paine buried his face in his hands to hide a f< 
One by one we too broke down, and grasping each b) the hand, he huj 
the room. We had one letter from him telling us of the dn 
of the Consular rooms stripped oi their furniture, then esc 
Then the bitter, bitter news of his sudden death read 



3 i2 J' PETER PARLEY"— AS KNOWN TO HIS DAUGHTER. 

who spoke his language, with no friend to close his eyes, he passed away. He, 
who had thrilled continents with the words of "Home, Sweet Home," was dead, 
on alien shores, the loneliest man in Christendom. 

Many a delightful musicale was held in these pleasant rooms, though not 
called by such a pretentious name. Ole Bull, Paul Julien, Thalberg and many 
a genius gave us of his best. My father said he never played upon but one instru- 
ment, a whistle made for him by his older brother, "from the old willow which 
drooped over the mossy home-roof." " 'Twas," said he, "by far the sweetest mu- 
sic of my young life." 

Greatly to his delight, as the household grew up to maturity, the two sons 
developed remarkable musical talent. The younger, the baby of the earlier pages, 
became not only a most accomplished, musician, but a composer as well. By this 
time we were living in France, and he had the best instructors to be secured. 
The two brothers had each a "parlor grand" in their apartments, and of a sum- 
mer eve the brick court of the "Cite Vinde," on the Boulevard de la Made- 
leine, would be full of listeners to the lovely melodies, and they, with others, 
played hand pieces with great effect, their little soirees being much sought after. 

In after years, Chauncey, named for his great uncle, the governor of Con- 
necticut, had become a young man of fourteen, nearly six feet tall and a wonder 
to his friends. He understood chemistry and mechanism from the letter A. He 
built a piano of exact proportions and tone. When not wrapped in music, he was 
absorbed in inventions, the mechanic arts, etc. Thalberg had begged that the lad 
might remain with him, as a pupil, for two years ; he would make him equal to the 
greatest artist, but father was unwilling. By this time we were on a visit to 
America, intending to spend a winter in Washington, D. C, and looking forward 
with delight to the novelty of our Capitol -city and its vast interests. Alas for 
human foresight. But a few days and my father sickened with a dangerous 
attack of varioloid. He and my mother removed to the rooms occupied by my 
brothers on an adjacent street, to which we three children went every day and 
talked to my mother at the window. The anxiety of my parents was of course 
very great and increased my father's sufferings. . After a week or two, Chauncey 
who had been passing long hours absorbed in the wonders of the patent office, 
came home one day, complaining of distressing pains, which, followed by a severe 
chill, developed into pneumonia. Alone, frightened, and totally unused to illness, 
I do not know what would have become of us if Miss Dorothea Dix had not at 
once hurried to our assistance, an angel of mercy. The President sent his physi- 
cian and offers of sympathy, and help came to us on every hand. Meantime the 
dread disease worked its will, and one evening his brother and sister watched the 
sinking breath of the loved one alone. As dawn approached he stirred and whis- 
pered, "Tell mother I'm in my boat." 

I looked atliis watch ; it ran down with a sudden whirr. Leaning to glance 
at the invalid, we saw with a hush of terror that life had passed with the breaking 
main spring of the watch. 

Kind friends took charge of the preparations for the funeral, and my mother 
was able to come to us then, but poor father bore his anguish alone, without a 
farewell of the boy in whom he had taken such pride. 

Great interest was shown in Washington, for the stalwart, handsome lad was 
seen by many, and at one or two simple home concerts had improvised melodies 



« PE TER PA RLE Y -—A S KNO WN TO HIS I) fi [< 



3'3 



which brought tears to the eyes of music lovers. J In devotion to the Patent 
Office had also been noted. It took his life from him. 

The inevitable hour came and our rooms at Willard's were filled with 
pathizing friends. Fillmore was there, Gen. Marcy stood near the open 
Clay looked sadly upon the beautiful young face and said to Webste 
ones stay and such a lamp of life as this goes out." Both Sighed deeply and i* 
a tearful company that watched the shutting away of so much promise from our 
eyes. Very many of the friends accompanied us to the Congressional Cenw 
on the banks of the Potomac. Here we laid him to rest upon the brow <>\ a hill, 
where the waters of the river seemed to chant a requiem, and returned heart- 
broken to our homes. 

Our winter plans were blighted, our hopes in our young brother had 
stricken down. Mourning, sad and unhappy, we returned to Paris. Thalberg 
shed tears of regret. The brother closed his piano and seldom played ••after 
Chauncey died." The effect upon my father was lasting, He did not rally tmm 
the shock with his usual strength of mind, and long years after we heard him 
draw a painful sigh as he looked upon-the famous artist Cheney's sketch of this 

bright youth. 'Twas all we had remaining. 

At one of the early literary gatherings at Rockland, Cheney was pn 

He watched Chauncey, who was absorbed in a railroad he was building. The 

engine was made from a quart cup and ran on a rail of laths, with a great p 

steam, quite down the long hall. Cheney rose and made a request t«» my father 

who rung the bell and told 

the servant who answered it to 

take Mr. Cheney to the fuel 

house and see that he found 

what he wanted. 

Child-like, full of curi- 
osity, I followed and saw the 

artist select three long slim 

bits of charcoal, rub them to a 

point on a brick and then re- 
turn to the reception rooms. 

Here he took the sketch men- 
tioned above, on the cover of 

a large paste-board box. 

Our home, "Rockland," 

was one fell day shattered as 

by a bolt of lightning. My 

father came out from Boston, 

silent, white and stern. We 

had, as usual, run to meet 

him, but shrank back as he 

beckoned my mother into his 

study and closed the door. 
Later my brother told me 

that a wicked man had taken 

all papa's money and we had 





Sll 1101 BTTI 01 



PBTl RPA» 



3 i4 "PETER PARLEY ''—AS KNOWN TO HIS DAUGHTER. 

not a cent to live on. A friend whom he trusted as he would himself had failed, 
borrowing from my father such large amounts that it crip]: led his work, threw him 
into the debtor's prison and forced him to face the fact that he was a poor man. 
He passed one night in jail, a short time, indeed, but it seared his heart as 
with a hot iron. 

When this became known, Boston rose to the occasion. He was immediately 
bailed out. Moneyed men offered him large amounts with which to start again. 
Harvard College would educate his eldest son. The finest school in Boston 
opened its doors to the young daughter. But he would accept nothing. He took 
up his writing again, walking to Roxbury every day, a distance of two and one- 
half miles. One devoted friend finally persuaded him to accept the loan of a 
horse and sleigh through the winter,, and he began at first principles. 

This blow so shattered his home and family that it broke his spirits and 
shadowed his life for many a day. 

In our once happy home men were now seen taking up and carrying away 
carpets ; friends with tears falling fast bore away the rare and beautiful furnish- 
ings which came from abroad. We children wandered around like little ghosts, 
driven from pillar to post in doubt and anxiety untold. Our parents desired to 
send us to our relatives in Boston ; we would not leave them. But I may not pro- 
long the scene. There came a day when there was a great gathering down at the 
stables, and we children were hidden amidst the blossoms on " Violet Hill." A 
man was standing on an old chair, pounding the back of it, and, as I thought, say- 
ing "Going, going, going, gone!" The horses and carriages went at a private 
sale. My brother's pretty pony, had been driven away. Our pet mooly and her 
calf trotted lowing down the lane, when Leo, my huge Newfoundland, came 
dashing up to us, amidst the violets, with a frayed rope about his neck and a dan- 
gerous gleam in his usually soft eyes. 

William, father's especial valued servant, came running up to me with tears 
in his eyes, begging me to go with him and help tie the dog under the chaise of a 
gentleman who had bought him. Sold to a stranger, my dear, dear dog ! On 
whose broad back I had ridden and who had drawn me in my little go-cart all 
about the place. Never ! Spite of poor William Preston's sad word, " Now Miss. 
Meely, he done got to go," I buried my head in the blue blossoms and wailed 
out, " He's a wicked man to take my dog." 

Just then a handsome gentleman came up and said, " What is it, little one? 1 
Is he going and you love him?" He shall not leave you. Put this in your 
little dress pocket and remember that I gave you this, and gave you back your pet 
because you love him and he loves you and you shall not be separated." I never 
knew Wm. Preston was pledged not to tell me the name of this good Samaritan,, 
who found me] faint and sorrowing and poured oil upon my wounds. Not till 
night, — the last one spent in our beloved home, when I took off my dress did I 
remember that I had something in my pocket. I thought it was a button. It 
was a gold piece. A twenty dollar picture ! 

The good-byes to our people were heartrending. The gardner absolutely re- 
fused to go. He planted himself on a sawhorse on the piazza and doggedly sat 
there. He had neither kith nor kin and was rather uncouth looking, with red hair 
and those pale blue eyes which are so appealing. One leg was shorter than the 
other, and when he pushed a wheel-barrow it was a funny sight. But we had 



AN OLD DAGUERREOTYPE. ,15 

been rigidly taught not only politeness, but kindness to all. "A 

my father, "is one who serves. He gives us good work in return for 

money." 

John remained with us. The last straw was when the old nurse and her 
daughter, our playmate and guardian, came to say good-: 

The mother was a retainer of the family and had been with us five 
ing now to a dear friend in Boston. Mother hastened the adieus,- lif< 
ing too harrowing. Suddenly the young girl threw her apron or "tii " r her 
head and wailed out in Scotch, "Oh, my heart is fairly sk winched on I 
ran round the house. 

We walked down the drive-way and entered the gardner's lodge, which 
to be our refuge. In the next early morning we heard hammering without and 
went to see what it meant. A fence was being built between us and our c 
home — we were shut out — "at the gate disconsolate." "Oh, Paradise! < >h. 
Paradise ! " " Going, going, gone ! ' ' 

(To be Concluded.) 



AN OLD DAGUERRKOTVl'K 



BY ANNA M. TUTTLE. 



It has a somewhat bygone look, 
This little black, thick-covered book, 
Whose velvet welt, whose slender hook, 

Some tarnish shows. 
But though elusive to the sight, 
Propitious turnings to the light 
Will, scarcely dimmed by time's still flight, 

A face disclose. 

A stiff, old man, with features dressed 
To match his suit of Sunday best ; 
The high-cut broadcloth, satin vest 

In wrinkled sheen. 
The thick stock tied with wifely care 
'Neath flapping tabs of linen fair, 
The high-brushed peak of thin gray hair. 

All plainly seen. 

His look, so solemn and severe, 

My childish heart would thrill with tear. 

Did I but meet his eye-glance here, 

In days agone. 
Yet children loved him well, they say. 
And all my awe had lied away, 
No doubt, had once those eyes of gray, 

Upon me shone. 

My ancestor in direct line, 

His blood flows in these veins of mine. 

His faults and virtues inteitu 

To tint my own, 
I trace him in those I hold dear, 
His form and features re-appear, 
Wrinkles like his have year by year 

Deepened and grown. 

There, close the little faded case, 
And lay it in its wonted place, 
I like the solemn, shadowy face, 

Let it rest ne.ii 
The Bible and the huge ehapoau 
Of training days oi long ago, 
The sword and cane that yearly gTO* 

More quaint and queer. 



* 

A SOCIAL STRUGGLER. 



BY JANE MARLIN. 



" Louis Richards called yesterday on his way back to Boston and he has 
promised to look up my credentials for me at once, so that I can join the 
1 Daughters of the American Revolution ' at their next meeting," said pretty 
Bessie Bradford across the breakfast table to her young husband, at the same 
time gracefully brushing a crumb from the spotless table-cloth with her long, 
aristocratic hand. " I've always intended joining the 'Daughters' you know, 
and possibly the ' Colonial Dames,' for Mrs. Doane, the State Regent of the 
Daughters, and a prominent member of the Dames, has been most awfully 
gracious since I told her that my great-great-grandfather Peck was a major in 
the Revolution and a personal friend of- Washington. Why grandmother says 
that he so distinguished himself and came home so covered with glory, that the 
minister stopped preaching the first Sunday he attended church, and said, 
1 Show Major Peck and his wife to my seat and let every one rise and welcome 
this brave soldier.' That is a record to be proud of, don't you think? Yes," 
with a deep sigh, " I am a great stickler for ancestry Dick, and I am going to 
show these snobs who have cut us because we are poor, that we are entitled, 
by the right of brains, birth and breeding, to their greatest respect and esteem. 
Don't laugh, dear, I am most awfully serious and it hurts me to think that you 
are making fun of me and not giving me your support and sympathy." 

" Oh me ! oh my ! Bessie dear, but I am tired of all this nonsense. What 
does it amount to any way ? We have only a small salary and can't afford to 
entertain and be entertained by the one hundred and fifty aristocrats that the 
town boasts of. Why, sweetheart, ten to one of these same Daughters and 
Dames would be ashamed to have their ancestors come back and pay them a 
visit, even if they did fight in the Revolution and come over in the Mayflower. 
I've got you and you've got me, isn't that enough, little wife ? " 

" O, I suppose so Dick. Of course I am happy with you but I do wish that 
you cared a little more for the conventionalties and society. Can't you see that 
our social position isn't as good as the Keiths- and they have even a smaller 
salary ? That is because they have established themselves by their pedigree, 
and blood will tell every time. If you could boast of a major in your family 
I'll wager that you would be as proud of it as I am and quite as eager to have 
it known and to join the Sons." 

" Indeed, madame ! Well, let me tell you that I could easily join the 
Sons if I cared to do so. I don't say that my great-great-grandfather hob- 
nobbed with the immortal George, but he served in the war, and that is all that 
is necessary I believe." 

" Yes, that is all that is necessary, but I wouldn't go in on a private. When 
I parade my ancestors they must be worth parading. What, going ? And you 
were not going to kiss me," and Bessie's eyes filled with tears as she held up 
her pouting lips. 

" Would you kiss her," said Dick, as he led her to the glass and raised her 
pretty, frowning face, "Yes, I'll ldss away every frown. You are all right lit 
tie girl even if you have got pedigree on the brain. Look up your old major, 
God bless him, go ahead and win and no one will be more proud of your social 
triumphs than I. But it is time that I was at the office, so au revoir, madame," 



A SOCIAL STRUG GLER. 3 , 7 

and with a light, merry, happy laugh, Dick left the house, mounted his wheel 
and sped down the hill towards the bank where he was teller. 

They had been married not quite two years, and Dick wa n d of his 

dainty young wife; very proud of her musical ability, for Bessie had a roicc 
a bird and she was quite the pet of the pastor and parishioners of the old, brick 
Unitarian church where she sang every Sunday ; and Bessie loved Dick equally 
well, but she was an ambitious, energetic, little body, full of life and animal 
spirits, fond of society and its ceaseless round of dinners, dances and teas. 
This was the one bone of contention between them, society, for v. .k at 

heart cared so little. Of course he wanted his wife to shine and to establish 
her as became her beauty and education, but he was poor and plodding, and to 
be perfectly honest he found it hard to give her the musical instruction that 
her voice demanded and make both ends meet at the end of the year, 
had never had much chance to get ahead for his father had died when he was 
a mere lad, leaving his mother with two younger children and a lot of unpaid 
bills, and Dick had been forced to give up school and to put his shoulder to the 
wheel and work for their support. He had loved Bessie secretly for vears but 
it was not until the brother and sister were able to care for- themselves, and the 
mother married again, that he asked her to become his wife and to share his 
heart and home. He fitted up a pretty little cottage, a few blocks from the 
bank, and for a year they were as happy as could be ; then Bessie, wh<» had al- 
ways had a social bee buzzing in her bonnet, discovered that they could never 
be taken up by the smart set as long as they lived in the unfashionable part of 
the town. A slave to her every whim, Dick rented a house over on the hill io 
the right section, and their struggle for social recognition began. The people 
of the manufacturing town were quite devoid of culture and refinement. 
commodities often denied to the nouveau riclie, so after many months of Bt 
ing Bessie found herself daily in tears because Mrs. de Sno': 
van Ordinaire had cut her. Then aunt Rebecca arrived and told her of her 
noble ancestor, and her courage and ambition took on renewed : 
resolved to join the Daughters of the Revolution, going in by • if an 

ancestor who would, if he were alive, command the respect and recognition of 
the whole community. 

When Dick left she busied herself with her household < 
blithley as she thought of the coup de tonnerre that awaited the van I hrdiaa 
and de Snobberleighs, both prominent among the Daughl 

Dick, as he worked away at the teller's window, smiled several tin 
himself, for the morning mail had brought him a large, bulk) enve .ring 

the government seal. Just before he went out to lunch b k out 

the large sheets of paper and as he read them he whistled 
street, with the following refrain: " Dere's No Doubt 
Born.'' Then he replaced the papers in the envelope and put them av. 
desk. Ten days later the postman handed Bessie a lett( 
of the State of Massachusetts, and with trembling fing< 
took out the official looking documents, glancing first at th< 
they bore the secretary's name. Yes, there it was in I be- 

side it a pale green stamp with " Sigillum Reipub 
■at the top the magic words, " Revolutionary Wa 
As Bessie read down the first page all of the bright, r 
the happy light died out of her eyes and her pretty, fres 



3 i8 A SOCIAL STRUGGLER. 

and ashen, but she bravely read on to the end, then the papers fell from her 
nerveless hands and with a great sob of disappointment she buried her face in 
the cushions of the couch, crying bitterly. There Dick found her when he 
came home, and to his eager enquiries and demonstrations of love, she pointed 
to the papers on the floor, then burst into tears again. Dick picked them up 
and read : " Revolutionary War Service of Nathaniel Peck. Nathaniel Peck 
appears in a descriptive list of enlisted men belonging to Hampshire County, 
age nineteen years, statue five feet eleven inches, complexion light, term three 
months, residence Amherst, vol. 39; p. 217. Appears with rank of private on 
muster and pay roll of Captain Job Alvord's company, Col. S. Munay's Regt, 
Hampshire County raised to reinforce the Continental army for three months.. 
Enlisted July 14th, 1780, discharged Oct. 10th, 1780." Poor Bessie, her pride 
had suffered a terrible fall and she was for a time inconsolable. Dick, good, 
kind-hearted fellow that he was, picked her up in his arms, and after she was 
soothed and quieted, and her dampened and ruffled plumage dried and straight- 
ened, said : " Don't you mind, Puss, we are all right," and drawing a letter 
from his pocket he handed it to Bessie and she read, through her tears, of 
brave, staunch old Colonel Bradford who fought and died for his country and 
whose great-great-grandson her husband was. What did she do ? Well, she 
just put her arms around his neck, kissed him and told him how proud she was 
of him, and how she had known from the first that he came of good, old stock. 

A few days later Aunt Rebecca came for her annual visit. She had scarcely 
had time to remove her bonnet when Bessie, vexed and humiliated, brought 
her the papers which she had received from the Secretary of State with the 
glorious war record of Nathaniel Peck. 

"There, Aunt Rebecca, read about your major, major indeed ! A pretty 
fool you have led me to make of myself over the old idiot. So the minister 
stopped his sermon to welcome him, did he ? A smart minister, that ! A 
nineteen-year-old private must have been surprised at such an honor! Men 
who don't fight and are drafted don't expect such attention from preachers of 
the gospel. Oh it is disgraceful after I have gone around turning up my nose 
at dear old Dick, and his family, and they descend from Colonel Bradford who 
fought so bravely at Bunker Hill. Why I am not fit to wipe their old shoes. 
I could strangle Nathaniel Peck, yes I could ! " and Bessie, quite out of breath 
threw herself in a chair. " The worst of it all is the lie I have told Mrs. Doane. 
What ever will she think of me ? I will never join on such a record, and I told 
her just before the papers came that I had sent for them and should probably 
have them ready for the next meeting, which is to-night." 

" Wall, Betty, I can't 'zactly see what all this tirade means ; " and the as- 
tonished old lady, after reading the papers carefully, took off her spectacles 
and polished them upon her black silk apron. " I nuver told you that our an- 
cestor 'listed in Massachusetts, dud I ? His wife lived there with her family 
an' 'twas in Amherst that the minister spoke to him. Your great-great-grand- 
father was a major in the Revolution, jist as I told you, an' he was a personal 
friend of Washington. You needn't gone to all this bother 'bout the papers, 
fer I've gut 'em to hum. I sintfor 'em several months ago, thinkin' as how I'd 
jine the Daughters myself, old as I be ; but I had a little common sense, Betty, 
and afore I wrote to the Secretary I looked up the gineology and found out 
that Major Peck 'listed from Connecticut. All you've got to do is to git your 
papers and then it seems to me that you can hold up your head 'bout as high 
as anybody I know of." 



OLD-TIME MUSIC AND MUSICI. 



BY N. H . ALLEN. 



As outlined in my last article (Vol. Ill, Page 286), Mr. Flavel Goldthwaite 
and Mr. Christopher Lyman carried on the work in Hartford, which had been 
interrupted by the collapse of the Jubal Society, but not until 1827. During 
the three years, from 1824 to 1827, Mr. Goldthwaite had taught singing schools 
in the North and South Parishes. From these schools the choirs were 
recruited by choosing the most efficient singers ; but the larger bodies were 
known as Singing Societies, and frequently gave concerts. Such a society 
was also maintained in the Episcopal Parish. An error in the last paragraph 
of my former article gave the date 1847, when it should have been 1S27. The 
first meeting, held at Major Lynde Olmsted's house, for the purpose of organ- 
izing the new Choral Society, was on the 24th of October, and has alread} 
been mentioned. Seven gentlemen were present, and later the assistance of 
five ladies was secured, and the first rehearsal was held. Nov. sth. in a room 
under the North Church, where there was a small organ. This room was used 
by Mr. Salmon Phelps, who had shortly before removed from Hebron to I 
ford, as a school-room, and was the stated meeting place of the Society until 
Jan. 20th, 1828, when it met in the Center Church. No particular night in the 
week was set apart for rehearsals, and they were as often held on Sunday :. 
as any other. Frequently there would be two rehearsals a week, and again 
there would be an interval of more than a week. 

The following resolution was adopted at the third meeting : 

"Resolved, That Messrs. Charles Spencer and D. Dutton, Jr., be B 
upon Miss Louisa Gillingham, with power to make such arrangement with her. for r 
ance in the Society, and for the instruction of the ladies belonging I 
expedient ; provided, however, that they do not obligate the Societ) 
One Hundred Dollars." 

This sum Miss Gillingham accepted, and at the fifth 
present to assist, and came frequently, but not regularly. Thus M 
the Secretary, records that on the twenty-second of Jam:, 
lingham was also present, and sang, most enchanting 
she expects to sing at the Society's Concert." 

The new members who were admitted during the iir>: 
Dr. John W. Crane, Mr. Anson Colton, Mr. James Bull, Mr. Daniel 1 
Mr. Aaron Stetson and Mr. Elam Ives, Jr. 

This made an active force of eighteen singers, including 
the leader. Formidable pieces were attempted; how well 
must be left to conjecture. 

The first concert of the Choral Society was given in the C 



on 



Friday evening, January 25th, 1S2S. On the programme ue and 



3 2o OLD-TIME MUSIC AND MUSICIANS. 

from "The Messiah" and "Sampson," by Handel, and the "Hallelujah" from 
the " Mount of Olives," by Beethoven ; also a full anthem by Kent. 

Miss Gillingham contributed generously by singing Handel's "Angels Ever 
Bright and Fair," Haydn's " With Verdure Clad," and " On Mighty Wings," 
from the "Creation," and a duett with Miss Lucy Clapp, from Handel's "Judas 
Maccabeus." It will be seen all through the records of this early society, that a 
serious purpose actuated the promoters, and very little cheap music appeared 
on the programs which they brought to a public hearing. It is altogether 
probable that the performances were far below the standard of to-day ; and it 
appears from the correspondence of Mr. Goldthwaite and Mr. Lyman (some of 
which has been given), that they did not even hope to attain ideal results with 
the material at hand. They just as clearly saw, however, that their labors 
would be reflected in the work of future societies, and were determined to 
familiarize the singers under their control — and the public too — with the best 
choral music obtainable. Acting on this principle, no doubt, the next step was 
one of seeming rashness, for it was no less than announcing the preparation of 
the " Messiah," by Handel, for the second concert. Detached choruses from 
the " Messiah " had been heard in Hartford for more* than twenty years. It 
will be remembered that the Hallelujah Chorus was sung by nearly one hun- 
dred voices at the dedication of the present Center Church, December 3d, 1807- 

It was the desire of the directors to present the work in its entirety 
so far as material was available. Four soloists of sufficient culture were not 
to be had in Hartford. Miss Gillingham was competent to do the work of the 
soprano, and she did more than that, taking some of the tenor parts, and by 
transposing some of the alto parts. Mr. Goldthwaite, whose voice apparently 
was a high baritone, took the bass solos and recitatives, and also some of the 
tenor numbers; notably " Every Valley Shall Be Exalted." The choruses were 
sung by nineteen singers, but in this they had a distinguished precedent ; for 
Handel gave the " Messiah" himself in 1759 with nineteen chorus singers and 
four soloists. This first performance of Handel's " Messiah " in Connecticut 
took place in the North Church, Friday evening, April 18th 1828. The accom- 
paniments were played on the organ by Mr. Deodatus Dutton, Jr. Mr. 
Lyman, as Secretary of the Society, makes this entry in the records: 

' ' The time occupied in the performance was about 2 hours and 20 minutes. Miss Gil- 
lingham sung with more than her accustomed excellence, the members of the Society acquitted 
themselves much to their credit, and the numerous audience retired highly gratified." 

The preparations for giving the oratorio were interrupted by a request for 
the assistance of the society in a cause that was appealing strongly to the 
humane people of Hartford at that time. 

This is set forth in the secretary's record, as follows : 

"Sunday evening, March 9th. A suggestion having been made to the officers of the 
Socjety that the Ladies of the Committee for collecting contributions for the suffering Greeks, 
would be glad to have a concert given to assist them in their generous work, a meeting was 
held this evening at the house of Mr. Charles Spencer to take the subject into consideration. 
The following resolutions were passed : 

"Resolved, That a Concert be given by the Choral Society for the benefit of the 
Greeks. 



OLD-TIME MUSIC AND MUSICIANS. 

"Resolved, That the avails of the Concert be paid over to the 1 | ,reek 

Committee. 

"Resolved, That the Concert be given on Friday evening, the 14th instant. 

"Major L. Olmsted was appointed a Committee to obtain permttaos fa thi m of the 

Center Church for the occasion. 

"Messrs. Goldthwaite and Dutton were appointed a Committee to pn :il of 

music. 

"Attest, C. C 

Rehearsals were held every evening, with full attendance, until the 
cert was given. Miss Gillingham generously offered her services, and a 
Cyrus P. Smith of Brooklyn, "who was fortunately passing through town at 
the time," was also induced to take part, and sang Handel's "Arm, Arm ye 
Brave." 

This concert was very well attended, and netted the handsome sum 01 
$153.54- which was added to the Greek fund. 

At a rehearsal held in the North Church, Thursday evening, July 24th. 
1828, a communication to the President was read and acted upon. The letter 
was as follows : 

"To the President of the Choral Society: 

Sir ; — I take this method of requesting yourself and the society over which you preside, 
to confer upon the Senior Class of Washington college a very great favor. 

"It is this : That the Choral Society will sing several pieces of Sacred Mu- 
approaching Commencement of Washington College. This favor will be received with . 
fulness by your petitioners. 

"D. Dutton, Jr.. 
"Committee on behalf of the Faculty and Senior Class of Washington Coll< . C>nn 

"Thursday, July 24th, 1828." 

This invitation was accepted, and on Thursday, August 7th. M 
writes : 

"This day being the Commencement of Washington Colleg< 
Center Church to assist in the services of the occasion. 

"The following pieces were sung at intervals of the exercis 

We Praise Thee, O God, . . I <«'«. 

Glory Be to God, .... 

Then Round About the Starry Throne, 

Achieved Is the Glorious Work, . . ;hi\dn 

Now the Work of Man's Redemption, ) 
Hallelujah to the Father, ' 

"{Miss Gillingham was also present and sang On Mighty Wing! 
'Creation.' 

"Mr. James Carter performed the Voluntaries, and Mr. Dnttoa 
also an interesting part in the Collegiate Exercises, played the accom] 

S 

Mr. Dutton was a senior in Washington College, which N 
esting part " referred to in Mr. Lyman's record He was then r, 
teen years of age, and died four years later. He must hx\ 
musician, for he was the first to play the organ placed in the O 
1822. 



322 



OLD TIME MUSIC AND MUSICIANS. 



The midsummer heat seems to have had no depressing effect, for on the 
27th of August the society again met for rehearsal, after which the members 
were entertained by two visiting musicians. " Mr. B. L. Barclay, vocalist and 
performer of music from England, and Mr. T. T. Dyer, teacher and publisher 
of music from New York, attended the rehearsal, and after hearing a few 
choruses performed by the Society, gratified them by the performance of a few 
favorite airs." 

The Society met a part of the time in the North Church and a part in the 
Center Church until December, 1829, when the meetings began to be held in 
Dr. J. D. Bull's Hall, corner of State and Front streets. A few orchestral 
instruments were then brought into use, Mr. Salmon Phelps playing the first 
violin, and Mr. S. Merrick the second violin, Mr. Lyman the flute, and Mr. 
Daniel Copeland the double-bass. At this time, too, Miss Caroline Hoadley, 
Miss Emeline Seymour and Miss Rice joined the chorus. On Sunday 
evening, February 21st, 1830, the Society met at the South Church to rehearse 
with the new organ. The last concert rnentioned in the records was given 
April 1st, 1830, in the North Church, and with the notice of a few meetings 
thereafter the book ceases to give further information. 

The name of Miss Louisa Gillingham occurs frequently, and enough to 
excite curiosity, for she appears to have been educated in a good school, and 
far in advance of any other singer in Hartford at the time. There were three 
sisters, all taught by their father, who had been well trained in the pure 
Italian school of singing and in the English school, of oratorio. The sisters 
were living in New York in 1826, and with Mr. Paddon, gave a concert at the 
Representative Chamber in Hartford on the evening of August 9th of that 
year. The program opened with the overture to " The Magic Flute " as a 
four-hand performance on the piano by Misses A. and L. Gillingham. The 
rest of the program was made up of vocal solos, duets, trios and one glee for 

four voices, selected from works by 
Handel, Haydn, Mozart, Rossini, 
Bishop and others ; a very difficult and 
exacting list of pieces. I also have the 
program of a concert which the same 
company gave in Boston on the 23rd 
of August, in which many of the same 
H pieces appear. 

Miss Louisa Gillingham must have 
settled in Hartford very soon after 
this, as the Choral Society procured her 
services in the autumn of 1827. Miss 
Emma Gillingham, who also lived in 
Hartford at the time, became Mrs. 
Bostwick, and was for many years a 
favorite singer in this region and in 
New York. 

The program above mentioned is 

one of a collection of fifty or more, 

which I have before me, covering the 

w. t. babcock. most of the first half of the century, and 




OLD-TIME MUSIC AND MUSICIANS. 

throwing much light on the musical activity of Hartford and near-by towns. 
One or two features are striking : the preponderance of vocal music, and the 
great familiarity with the works of Handel, Haydn, Mozart, and many of the 
English anthem writers, acquired by our early singers. 

Here are several examples of the "List of Tunes" performed by the 
Euterpian Society in 1817 and 1818 ; quaint sheets, yellow and crumpled, of 
fine hand-made paper with edges untrimmed. This is quite the fashion now t 
but it does not seem so sincere. Following these is a very ancient looking 
sheet with the "order " of a juvenile concert, with the full text of the pieces, 
and much' more cheerful poetry than one would be led to expect. Next comes 
a " Select Oratorio " by the Psallonian Society, at the Second Baptist Meeting 
House, West Side, bearing the date May 9th, 1821. This is not a Hartford 
program, and the name of the town is not given. May it not be Meriden ? 
Tickets were for sale at the stores of Henry Cushing and Oliver Kendall, and 
the printers were Jones and Wheeler. I would like some assistance in locating 
this performance. Passing over several concerts by the Jubal Society, we 
now come to what in these days would be called a song recital. The announce- 
ment is made on handsome paper, strikingly printed by P. B. Goodsell. I find 
the whole document so interesting that I wish to give it entire : — 

VOCAL CONCERT. 
Mr. A. Taylor. 
At the recommendation of several gentlemen, amateurs of music, and 
particularly of vocal excellence, has concluded to give another and last con- 
cert, at Morgan's Assembly Room, on the evening of FRIDAY, October 10, 
1823, for which occasion he has made the following selection of songs, whic 
will be sung by him, accompanied by the Piano-Forte, viz.: — 

Part First. 
Song, " Alone, retired, beneath some Tree," from the 

opera of "Love in the Desart," composed by . /•'> 

Do., "On this cold, flinty Rock," with the Recitative— 

" Ye gloomy Caves," from the same opera 
Do,, "The Thorn," 
Do., "Beware of Love," 

Do., "Said a Smile to a Tear," . B% 

Do., "The death of Abercombie" . Bt 

Part Ski 

Song, "Jessie, the Flower of Dumblane," 

Do., "Scots wha hae wi' Wallace bled." written by 

Do,, "Bonnie Blue," written by Burns 

Do., "Dulca Domum," 

Do., "I'll love thee ever dearly." 

Do., "The Anchor's weighed, farewell, remember me." 
In addition 'to the above Mr. T. will sing (by particular des 
"Lord remember David," "Fallen is thy- throne, Israel," and "1 
50 cents, to be had at the bar of Bennett's Hotel, at Morg< 
the store of Messrs. Huntington and Hopkins. It is particulai 
.paid at the door. Performance to commence at half-pasl - 

A grand concert for the benefit of the Orphan A »»*« 

1826, brings our Mr. Taylor before the public again, three 
-positively last appearance." Other performers were, Mrs, - 



3 2 4 OLD-TIME MUSIC AND MUSICIANS. 

Knight, Miss Coates, and. Signorina Garcia ; Messrs. Moran, Knight, Gear, 
Jones, and Weight. Dr. Boyce's duet, "Here Shall Soft Charity Repair" was 
sung by " Mr. A. Taylor and an amateur." What charitable condescension on 
Mr. Taylor's part ! Who was Signorina Garcia? It is a coincidence that the 
afterwards great singer Malibran, then known as Signorina Garcia, was in the 
country at the time, having arrived in New York with her father in the 
autumn of 1825, and was then seventeen years of age. The rather poor 
Italian opera company which Garcia brought with him was disbanded in 1826, 
and he went to Mexico. Marie Garcia had about this time married Eugene 
Malibran, an elderly and supposedly rich merchant in New York, who very 
soon after the marriage failed, and became destitute, Madam Malibran 
remained in this country until September, 1827, working hard to support 
herself and husband, by singing in public and private concerts. It is 
hardly supposable that she would be in Hartford to sing at a benefit concert, 
but she may have been engaged as a special attraction. 

An Oratorio was given, with Mr. Goldthwaite as leader, by the North 
Singing Society on Tuesday evening, May 1st, 1827, and was repeated on 
Thursday evening, May 3rd. An examination shows it to have been made up- 
of parts of Haydn's "Creation," King's ''Intercession" and Handel's 
"Messiah," with a number of single pieces. A note precedes the program, 
which is as follows : The Society will be assisted in the Oratorio by performers 
from the different choirs in the city, also by Mrs. Ostinelli, who will preside 
at the Piano-Forte. She will also sing in several of the pieces. 

Miss Pease and Mr. Newell vocalists, 

Messrs. Ostinelli and Warren will perform on the violins. 

Mr. Neiber the trumpet, and 

Mr. Wether bee the concert horn. 

Mr. A. Copland the violoncello, 

Mr. Dozvnes the contra-basso, 

Mr. Willoughby the clarionette, and 

Mr. Lyman the flute. 

From the advertisement of this concert in the Conn. Mirror it appears 
that Mr. and Mrs. Ostinelli, Messrs. Newell, Warren, Neiber and Wetherbee 
were from Boston. Mr. Paddon, before announced "from New York," found 
it profitable to remain in Hartford as a teacher. In my collection is the 
following announcement : 

GRAND SACRED CONCERT. 

At the Episcopal Church, on Monda}^ next, Sept. 24 (1827) will be performed by Mr. 
Paddon and his Pupils, a GRAND CONCERT of SACRED MUSIC, consisting of the fol : 
lowing sublime Pieces : 

Part ist. 
vSolo, " Comfort ye my People saith Your God." 
Duett, " For the Lord shall comfort Zion." 
Solo, " Praise the Lord with cheerful noise." 
Duett, " O Lovely Peace with plenty crowned." 
Solo, " The Trumpet shall sound and the dead shall be raised." 
Solo and Chorus, " Great God, what do I see and hear ?" 



OLD-TIME MUSIC AND MUSICIANS. 



3'5 



Part 2m>. 
Duett, " The Lord is a man of war ; Lord is His name.'' 
Solo, " Angels ever bright and fair." 
Quartette, " Come unto me all ye that labour." 
Solo, O had I Jubal's Lyre, or Miriam's tuneful 
Duett, " Turn thee O Lord and deliver my soul." 
Solo, " Let the Seraphim in burring Row." 
Tickets at 50 cents to be had at H. and T. J. Huntington's Book Sto 
States Hotel and at Bennett's City Hotel. 
Hartford, Sept. 27, 1827. 

• 
Composers names are not given, but it is easy to detect that, as usual* 
Handel's name is well in the lead, seven of the twelve pieces being of his 
composition. 

A choral concert was given in Christ Church, Friday evening. 
1829. The names of performers are not given, except that of Miss Louisa 
Gillingham, who was the soloist. 

Mr. B. S. Barclay's concert at Allyn's Hall, August 11, 1829, had a pro- 
gram of sufficient quaintness to be given here entire. 

Part I. 
Overture — Full Band by Amateurs .... L 
Song— MR. BARCLAY, " The Blue Bonnets" . . Bra 

Song— MISS GILLINGHAM, -'The Lass O'Gowrie" 
Song— T. S. BARCLAY, "The Maid of Langollen" /. C 

Glee— Three voices— "The Red Cross Knight" . D 

Song— T. S. BARCLAY, "Sound the Horn" . . Alexr. Let 

Glee— Three Voices— "Dame Durden" . . Sight it: 

Part II. 
Overture— Full Band by Amateurs . . Martini 

Song— MR. BARCLAY, "My Bonnie Lass now turn 

to me," arranged by . . • . £. fvt 

Song— MISS GILLINGHAM, "I see them on their 

winding way" .... Haydn-* 

Catch— Four voices— "Scotland's Burning" 
Song— T. S. BARCLAY "Said a smile to a tear" 

accompanied by Mr. Carter. 
Catch— Three voices— "Three blind mice" 
"The Hunter's Chorus"— Full vocal and instrumental 

band 

On the 8th of October, 1829, Mr. Barclay gave another concert, in the 
same hall, and, with others, announced the first appearance in H.. 
Miss Pierson, lately from England. From the advent of 
English organist trained in the cathedral service who ma 
in Hartford in the first years of the century-it will be seen thai 
vocal music had been formed entirely on English mod< 
until the arrival of these educated English soloists, whose names app at in 
the later programs, that secular music had been given any 
concerts in which they introduced catches, rounds, and 
English ballads of the time, led to a demand tor chorus mns 
which early English composers had bountifully provided. 1 » CB 

was formed by the most cultured singers in Hartford, ai 
years. 



326 



OLD-TIME MUSIC AND MUSICIANS. 



The earliest program I have seen of the Glee Club is dated January 28, 
•1835. The names of leader and singers do not appear, and probably will 
not be known, unless the records of the organization should fortunately be 
discovered. I have reason to believe that the Glee Club was in existence 
several years, but am now unable to say when it was disbanded. Scattered 
through this collection of old programs are a few that indicate ambitious 
performances in neighboring towns. Thus what was called an Oratorio was 
given in Bristol, May 3rd, 1826. It was actually a miscellaneous choral 
•concert, with instrumental overtures at the beginning of each part — the first 
by "Seignor" Bach — and an oration at the end of the first part. The piogram 
does not say who the musicians and the orator were. The concert closed with 
Handel's Ha'llelujah Chorus. 

Another program is that of a concert of anthems and sacred choruses 
given on the 14th of March, 1827, in Berlin. A similar concert was probably 
given in the Presbyterian Church (Worthington Society) Berlin, August 20th, 
1828. The program reads : " If fair weather, if not, on the first fair even- 
ing." In a former article it was stated that the Worthington Society pur- 
chased an organ in Boston, of Leavitt's manufacture, in 1792. This was 
probably ten years earlier than the first organ appeared in Hartford — that 
built by Catlin for Christ Church ; but it was more than thirty years after 
Richard Alsop's presentation of an English organ to Christ Church, Middletown. 
Mr. E. Ives, Jr, conducted a performance of anthems, hymns and motetts 
in Wethersfield, April 15th, 1829. This was probably the closing exercise of a 
term of singing school, when the work was confined to one book, as the page 
number is given in nearly all cases. 

Another out-of-town program is that of a concert given in the Baptist 
Church, Meriden, May 29th, 1829 ; and still another, of much later date, given 
in Bristol, by the Bristol Sacred Music Society, at the Congregational Church 

Nov. 8th, 1838. 

With a concert given in the Bap- 
tist Church, Hartford, Feb. 11, 1835, ap- 
pears for the first time, the name of a 
musician, who for many years probably 
stood at the head of his profession in this 
city. Mr.. Win. J. Babcock, as organist, 
accompanist and teacher, did a great deal 
to shape the course of music in and about 
Hartford, and tradition has it that some 
of his accomplishments were very unusual. 
First, he was a phenomenal sight-reader, 
and was so well grounded in harmony 
and counterpoint, as to be able to trans- 
pose and play the most difficult oratorio 
accompaniments in any key desired. It 
is said that he was not an emotional 
musician, but in many ways, intellectu- 
ally, he seems to have been little short of 
thomas appleton. a wonder. No attempt can be made here 

to give a sketch of his life, as space does not permit. His likeness is 
presented with this article, but an account of his'career[must be put off to 
a later number. 




OLD-TIME MUSIC AND MUSICIANS 



3*? 



The year 1835 was notable, as in that year the first three-mxavaX organ 
brought to Connecticut, and one of the earliest ever built in Amei 
up in the Center Church. An account of the dedication has already been 
given ; and the case, still in use, although considerably changed about the key 
desk, is familiar enough to everybody. In the first volume of the Amn 
Magazine of Useful Knowledge,, bearing date of 1835, is a description of this 
old Thomas Appleton organ, written by the editor, Nathaniel Hawthorne. 
[It is said that Hawthorne with the aid of his sister, wrote the whole of the 
first volume of The American Magazine, for which, owing to the in solver. 
the publishers, they received no pay.] 

A part of the description will surely be of interest in this place : u The 
superb organ, which is represented by the engraving on the opposite page 
is just finished at the Manufactory of Mr. Thomas Appleton, for the Congrega- 
tion worshipping in the Center Church, Hartford. This elegant super- 
structure, in point of architecture and symmetry of proportion in its exterior, 
is not surpassed by any Organ extant. Mr. Appleton has comprised in this 
instrument a greater volume of tone and brilliancy than we have ever 
witnessed in any Crgan of its size. Its dimensions are, 25 feet in height, i 4 
feet in breadth and 11 feet in depth. It has three sets of keys, and 36 register 
stops, a coupling stop to connect the great organ with the pedals, or both 

organs with the pedals, and a coup- , 

ling stop to combine the whole three 
organs into one. 

"The contents of the above 
Organ are as follows, viz.: The Great 
Organ consists of two Open Dia- 
pasons, two Stopt Diapasons, one 
Principal, one Twelfth, one Fif- 
teenth, one Tierce, one Sesquialtera 
with three ranks, one Cornet with 
five ranks, one Mixture with three 
ranks, one Trumpet and one Clarion 
with seventeen sub-bass pipes, em- 
bracing eight hundred and sixty- 
seven pipes. 

" The Choir Organ consists of 
one Open Diapason, one Dulciana, 
one Stopt Diapason, one Principal, 
one Flute, one Cremona, and one 
Bassoon, embracing three hundred 
and forty-eight pipes. 

"The Swell Organ consists of 
one Open Diapason, one Stopt Dia- 
pason, one Principal, one Dulciana, 
one Cornet of three ranks, one 
Clarionet, and one Hautboy with 
a Tremlant, embracing three hundred and thirty-thret 

"The largest wooden pipe is 20 feet in Length, 14 
inches in width. The largest metal pipe is 14 feet in length by 




OR( w OF CBNT1 K CHI K. H, 
ORIG1NA! 1 \ \ 



328 



OLD-TIME MUSIC AND MUSICIANS. 



diameter, and weighs ioo lbs. The whole number of pipes is fifteen hundred 
and forty -eight. 

" Other specimens of this experienced artist's workmanship are exem- 
plified in those noble superstructures in Boylston Hall and the Bowdoin Street 
Church (Boston). We understand that two very first rate and expensive 
instruments, one for Trinity Church and the other for the Boston Academy of 
Music, are about being erected in this manufactory, which will doubtless 
redound equally to the credit of the artist and the honor of our country." 




TITLE PAGE OF OLIVER BROWNSON S " SELECT HARMONY. 

Mr. Hawthorne elsewhere writes that organ building may, in the 
future, be carried farther than this, but he is by no means sure is that it is 
possible ; and yet, when the musician reads the specifications of this primitive 
work, he will smile, and understand that because it is so hopelessly old- 
fashioned it is here given as a curiosity. The "superstructure," as Mr. Haw- 
thorne is pleased to call the case, must remain a thing of beauty, however, as 
long as it endures. 

A curiosity of quite another kind is the engraved title page of Oliver 
Brownson's Select Harmony, done by J. Sanford in. 1783. It represents the 
choir standing in the front row of the gallery, around three sides of the 
church, as was the custom of the time. John Adams, writing from Middle- 
town in 1 771, mentions the music he heard there in the meeting house : " The 
front and side galleries were crowded with rows of lads and lassies, who per- 
formed their parts in the utmost perfection. I thought I was wrapped up." 

Cheesboro's History of Saybrook mentions the custom of placing the choir 
as in this picture. 

Just above the circle, where the musical notes appear, are the words, 
u A cannon of four in one,"and within the circle are the words, to be sung to 
the "cannon," as follows : 



"Welcome, welcome every guest, 
Welcome to our music feast, 
Music is our only chear, 
Fills both Soul and ravish'd Ear. 



vSacred nine teach us the mood 
Sweetest notes be now explor'd, 
Softly move the trembling Air, 
To compleat our concert fare." 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMLNI 



Querists should write all names of persons and places in such a way that 
they cannot be misunderstood. Always enclose with queries a self-addressed 
stamped envelope and at least ten cents for each query. Querists should write 
only on one side of the paper. Subscribers sending in queries should state 
that they are subscribers, and preference in insertion will always be given them. 
Queries are inserted in the order in which they are receized. On accottn 
our limited space, it is impossible that all queries be inserted d as 

querists desire. Always give full name and post-office addro • ries and 

notes must be sent to Wm. A. Eardeley-Thomas, 50th street and Woodland 
avenue, Philadelphia, Penn. The editor earnestly requests our read- 
sist him in answering queries. His duties are onerous enough in other direc- 
tions, so that only a limited amount of time can be devoted to query researches 



Notes. 

Contributed by Rollin U. Tyler, Esq., Deep River. 

45 "On a wooden knoll overhanging the 
Connecticut River, about 100 rods south 
of Maromas Station of the Conn. Valley 
R. R., and in the limits of Middletown 
township is located an ancient burying 
ground, long since abandoned. It is 
visible from the R. R. track and only a 
few rods distant. The grave marks of all 
kinds indicate that at least 25 or 30 peo- 
ple have been buried there. This is a lit- 
eratim copy of all the inscriptions that I 
could find. The original spelling, capi- 
tals and alignment are preserved. The 
inscriptions are all in brown stone, some 
of which are broken and thrown down. 
'Other grave marks of ordinary native 
stone." 

Here lies 

Interr'dthe Body 

of Mr. Daniel 

Prioer who died 

March ye 24 1754 

in ye 89 year of 

HIS AGE 

Here lies 

the Body of Mrs. 

Sarah Prier late 

wife of Mr. Daniel 

Prier who Depart 

ed this life april 

ye 11th 1708 in ye 37th 

year of her Age 

In Memory 

of Mrs. Mary Prioer 

formerly the wife of 

Mr. John Leuc \s 

but died the wife 

of Mr. Daniel Prioer 

August ye 7TH 1750 in 

ye 83RD Year of HER AGI 

Here lies 

the Body OF 

Mrs. Christian Prior 

late wife of Mr. 

Ebenezer Prior 

who died M vrch ye 

20, 1739 in ye 2qth year 

of her Age 



Here lies 
rr'd im 
l:< idy 1 ■! .' 
Abigail Li i who 
died Aprii 

I HE BOl , 
MRS. M \h 

1 . \ 1 1 WIFI Ol M k 
Li ' 
DIED JANI \k\ \ 
1753 IN \ I 

Of HER ■ 

Annie 

i.i 1. i>\\ ..ii 1 

01 MK I.i ■ 

MRS. Many Li i 
Decembej 

! I 
'i I \K .'I HI K 

Mini i 
I.i 1 Daughtei 
MR. I. Mk» 

Mary i.i e die d 

[I M 

A.. I I 

in ki 
1 ies 

BODl <>v Mk 
l>\\ 11- HOLLISTl 

HE l'H !• 1 I 
l>k<'\\ N \ 

i ill ■ , H 1753 IN 

M VK "K 111- \ 
(ONI : 

(6ni 
on i fr agm 

B1 R I 

Kl \H 

S '■ 

< \H Willi - 

-MORE! Dll D < I 

II- 

; \ K v 



10. Ibington, O C 

(Continued 



1 So 



[an, 1 ;. Mi Ui ■• F»^ s ><ed to 



33° 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT. 



have died in an apopletic Fit, being 

found dead about half an hour after 

he was missing — he was in the 56th 

year of his age. 
Feb. 2. Mrs. Lucy, the wife of Mr. 

John Sharpe, age 72. 
Feb 3. Sarah Fraizer. 
Feb. 13. Mrs. Edney, the wife of Mr.. 

Nat'l Ayer. 
Mar. 4. Mrs. Mary, the wife of Mr. 

James Trowbridge. 
Apr. 12. Mr. Jeduthan Truesdell. 
June 5. Mrs Judith, the wife Mr. Ed- 
ward Paine. 
June 29. The widow Ringe. 
July 24. Allice Chandler, daughter of 

Mr. Si'as Chandler. 
Aug. 19. A child of Mr. Reuben Spald- 
ing, age 20 months. 
Nov. 24. The wife of Mr. Amariah 

Storrs. 
Dec. 22. Mary, infant child of 

Amasa Storrs. 
1802. 
Mar. 6. Mr. Silas Rickard, age between 

80 and 90 years. 
Mar. 24. A child of Mr. Isaac Rindge. 
May 24. Dr. Jared Warner, in the 

46th year of his age. 
June 10. The wife of Mr. Chester 

Sharpe. 
Oct. 16. A child of Capt. Squire 

Sessions. 
Oct. 16. A child of Mrs. Ford of 

Hampton. 
Nov. 9. Lavinia Goodell, in the 22nd 

year of her age. 
Nov. 20. Mr. Jesse Goodell, in the 

26th year of his age. 
Nov. 21. A daughter of Obadiah Hig- 

ginbotham. 
Dec. 25. A child of John Bennet. 
1803. 
Jan. 10. Mrs. Abilene, the wife of Mr. 

Appleton Osgood, age 41. 
Mar. 13. An infant child of Moses 

Edmunds. 
Nathan Chase, son of Mr. Seth Chase, 

aged 16. 
July 26. Mr. Obadiah Higginbotham. 
August. Molly Hayward. 
Sept. 2. An infant child of Samson 

Hazard, an Indian residing at Hamp- 
ton. 
Sept. 4. An infant child oH 

Stephen Utley. rp • 

o o a • c ,. u-u r r I wins. 

Sept. 8. An infant child of .' 

StephenUtley. J 

Sept. 13. Oliver Woodworth, aged 6 



years, a child of Mr. Woodworth of 

Norwich, that lived at the house of 

Mr. Ruben Sharpe and was murdered 

by Caleb Adams of Brooklyn, who 

lived at the same place. 
Sept. 14. Widow Molly Truesdell, aged 

8g. 
Sept. 16. The wife of Mr. Seth Chase. 
Oct. 3. Widow Sarah Dean. 
Oct. 10. Widow Elizabeth Griggs, in 

the 87th year of her age. 
Dec. 7. Infant child of Dr. David 

Ingals. 
Dec. 12. Widow Zerviah Lyon, in 

the 83rd year of her age. 
Dec. 26. Zerviah Goodell, in the 73rd. 

year of her age. 
1804. 
Jan. 6. Acsah Higginbotnam, aged 24. 
Feb. 8. Capt. William Osgood, in the 

65th year of his age. 
A child of Mr. Sessions, who moved 

here from Hampton. 
April 30. Widow Anne Wheeler, in 

the 85 th year of her age. 
June 11. The wife of Mr. Zechariah 

Osgood, 70th year. 
June 20. The wife of Mr. Ebenezer 

Stoddard, aged 77. 
Oct. 6. Mr. Moses Griggs, in the 46th 

year of his age. 
Oct. 8 An infant child of Silas 

Rickard. 
1805. . 

Jan. 4. Josiah Stowel, aged 21. 
Jan. '8. Mr. John Sharpe, aged 78. 
Mar. 1. Mr. Nathan Griggs, aged 64. 
Mar. 8. Widow Rachel Ashley, aged 

April 2. The wife of Aaron Wedge, 

aged 30. 
April 16. Mr. Daniel Goodell, aged 64. 
April 20. An infant child of Dr. Joshua 

Grosvenor. 
May 16. Mr. Ephraim Ingals, in the 

80th year of his age. 
July 23. Mr. Samuel Sumner, in the 

79th year of his age. 
Aug. 30. The wife of Mr. William 

Sharpe, aged 66. 
Sept. 7. Mr. Ephraim Stowell, aged 72. 
Nov. 2. Mr. William Abbott. 

(To be continued.) 



47. Contributed by George Boughton, 
Esq , of 47 Division St., Danbury, Ct. 
Record of marriages by Rev. Samuel 
Camp, who preached in the Cong'l Ch. 
in Ridgebury, Fairfield Co., ., fromCt 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMEh I . 



IV 



Jan. 18, 1769, to Nov. 21, 1804; he 
was dismissed in 1804, but lived in 
Ridgebury until 1813, when he d. aet 
68-2-20. Ridgebury society is located 
in a part of both Danbury and Ridge- 
field. If one party to a marriage lived 
in the town of Danbury and within the 
limits of Ridgebury society, and the 
other lived in Ridgefield and within the 
limits of Ridgebury society, Mr. Camp 
describes it accordingly. Upper Salem, 
Fredericksburgh, Southeast, Philippi, 
Philipp's Patent, Nine Partners, Cort- 
land's Manor, Poundridge, Little Nine 
Partners and Duchess Co. are all in N. 
Y. State. 
1769. 

1 — Mar. 6. Peter Castle, junior, of 
Danbury to Rebecca Osborn of 
Ridgefield, Ridgebury Parish. 
2 — Sept. 14. Matthew Northrop to 
Hannah Abbott, both of Ridgefield, 
Ridgebury Parish. 
3 — Nov. 16. Ezekiel Osborn to Sarah 
Bennett, both of Ridgefield, Ridge- 
bury Parish. 
4 — Nov. 18. James Lockwood of Noble 
Town to Mary Street of Ridgefield, 
Ridgebury Parish. 
5 — Nov. 29. Samuel Northrup to 

(Pun?)Riggs. 
6 — Nov. 29. Abraham Rockwell to 
Esther Riggs. The two last all of 
Ridgefield, Ridgebury Parish. 
1770. m 

7— Mar. 22. Daniel Keeler to Abigial 
Isaacs, both of Ridgefield, Ridgebury 
Parish. 
8 — Apr. 26. Jonathan Taylor to Amy 
Benedict, both of Danbury, Ridge- 
bury Parish. 
9 _Oct. 8. Aaron Hull to Abigail 
Whitlock, both of Ridgefield, first 
society. 

1771. 

10 — April 25. Ephraim Smith of Phil- 
ippi to the widow Elizabeth Hamblin 
of Ridgefield, Ridgebury Parish. 

1 1 — June 27. Benjamin Jones of Phil- 
ip's Patent to Elizabeth Rockwell of 
Ridgefield, Ridgebury Parish. 

1 2 — Aug. 14. Thomas Conclin of Salis- 
bury to Anne Keeler of Ridgefield, 
Ridgebury Parish. 

I3 _Dec. 4. Theophilus Taylor of 
Danbury to Rachel Northrop o\ 
Ridgefield, both of Ridgebury Parish. 

J 772. . . . 

I4 _Feb. About this time married 



Jeremiah Burchan 

both of Ridgefield, RidgeL.:. 

I 5 — J une 15- Nehemiah Keeler to 
Eleanor Rockwell, both of Ridge- 
field, Ridgebury Par. 

16 — Nov. 5. Nathaniel N 
Ridgefield to Chloe Baldwin of Dan- 
bury, both of Ridgebuf 

17 — Nov. 19. '1 imoth) I 
sire Sears, both of Ridgefi< 
bury Parish. 

18 — Dec. 9, Samuel Ualdwii. 
bury to Hannah Northrop 01 Ridge- 
field, both of Ridgebury Parish 

19— Dec. Caleb Parmer of Phillippi 
to Tamer Stevens of Ridgefield, 
Ridgebury Parish. 

1773 

20 — Mar. 2 Jeremiah Keeler ot I 
Salem to Lydia Keeler of Ridgefield, 
Ridgebury Parish. 

21 — Aug. 10. Daniel Tuttle to Naomi 
Stevens, both of Ridgefield. Ridge- 
bury Parish. 

22 — Aug. 11. Stephen S i of 

to Ruth Bened; 

Ridgebury Parish. 

23— Aug. n. Noah Starr to Sarah 
Keeler, both of Ridgefield, Ridge- 
bury Parish. 

24— Sept. 30. Abijah I k to 

Lydia Burchard, both of Ridgefield. 
Ridgebury Parish. 

25 — Dec. 22. Ezekiel Hodge of the 
Nine Partners to Ml 
Ridgefield, Ridgebury Parish. 

48. Danbury, Conn. rown R 
births, marriages and 1 
Wm. A. Eardeley-Thon I. 

[Continued from 1 age 1 15] 
p 358, Joseph Bennet OsDOT 
Jonathan of New Fairfield, m \ 
1 So 1. Esther, dau. of 

Danbury, and had I, Hiram. 
1802. 

CalebCurtis Greg< 1 
bury, m. N01 13, i7< ■ '■ 
Thomas S ind had 

1 lohn Sears, * rt - 

June 7. 1799- 

1 So 1 . 

Frederick Jones W 

1783, Rachel, dau < I Lai i 

Starr, and had I, He 
1785, •, Fro'.r 
1788. 

Phineas 1 obdell of Ridgefield, m 



33 2 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT, 



6, 1793, Lucinda, dau. of Thaddeus 
Bronson of Danbury. 

p 359, Ephraim Gregory Stevens, son of 
the late Thomas Stevens, m. Nov. 20, 
1802, Sally, dau. of Joseph Benedict, 
jr., of Danbury. 

Elijah Morris, son of Shadrach, m. Apr. 
8, 1798, Olive, dau. of Eliphalet Stev- 
ens, and had 1, Jachin, Jan. 12, 1799. 
2, John Stevens, Jan. 14, 1801. 

Bennet Pepper of Danbury, m. Oct. 19, 
1801, Sally, dau. of Luke Gridley of 
Bristol, and had 1, Gridley, July 22, 
1802. 

p 360, Eliakim Peck, eldest son of Abijah, 

b. , m. Nov. 3, 1786, Polly, 2nd 

dau. of Caleb Starr, and had 1, Charles, 
Sept. 4, 1787. 2, Bulah (dau.), Oct. 

15, 1789. 3, Sally, Mar. 21, 1792. 
4, Starr (son), Apr. 2, 1795. 5? Ama- 
rilas (dau.), Nov. 26, 1797. 6, George, 
Aug. 11, 1800. 

Peter Benedict, 4th son of Thad'us, Esq , 
m. Dec. 22, 1779, Anne, eldest dau. of 
Abijah Peck, all of Danbury, and had 1, 
Ezra, Feb. 28, 1781. 2, Betsey, Dec. 

16, 1782. 3, Hannah, Dec. 20, 1784. 
4, Isaac Hoyt, Dec. 24, 1786, d. Dec. 
8. J793- 5? Abigail, Jan. 26, 1789. 
6, Eli Starr, Sept. 14, 1791. 7, Anne, 
Jan. 9, 1794. 8, Isaac Hoyt, Dec. 12, 
1795. 9> Samuel Ward, Mar. 12, 1798. 
10, Rachel, Feb. 20, 1801. 11, De- 
borah, Jan. 23, 1804. 

p 361, Joseph Taylor, 2nd, b. 1703, d. 
Nov. 7, 1793. 

Richard, a black man, son to Patience, 
who was a servant for life to Joseph 
Taylor, b. Dec. 5, 1779, and Richard 
was married to Isabella, a negro woman, 
May 1, 1802. Their son, Isaac Sydney, 
b. Nov. 2, 1803. 

Saul, a free black man, married Dosias, b. 
Mar 11, 1777, a black woman. Their 
son was born April 18, 1800. 

Additions to Items on page 115, Jan., Feb., March 
Number, '98, Danbury Town Records. 

James Hodges, eldest son of Ezra. 
Benedict, 2nd son of Theophilus. 
Thomas Bri^/gham Benedict. 
Lemuel B. Bailey (possibly name should 

be Samuel), /f.th son of Samuel, m. 

Abby, 2nd dau. of Abraham. 
Clarissa Stedman, b. Jan. 23, 1772. 

(To be continued,; 



49. Marriages on records of St. John's 
Protestant Episcopal Church, Stamford 
and Greenwich, (copied by Wm. A. 



Eardeley-Thomas). Continued from 

page 116. 
1764. 

Feb. 19, Sylvanus Hait and Mary Bets, 
both of Canaan Parish. 

Oct. 21, William Woodward and Ame- 
lia Medows of Rye. 

Nov. 7, Basil Bartow of Westchester 
and Clarissa Punderson of Rye. 

Dec. 20, James MacDonald of Bedford 
and Elizabeth Belding of Stamford. 

Oct. 29, Zephaniah Hubs and Elizabeth 
Purdy, both of Rye. 

J 7 6 5- 

Jan. 11, William King and Olive Board- 
man, both of Stamford. 
Jan. 13, Jeremiah Anderson of Green- 
wich and Susanna Willson of Rye. 
Feb. 21, James Crawford of Pound 

Ridge and Rachel Benedict of Ridge- 
field. 
John Smith of Bedford and Anne 

Crawford of Pound Ridge. , 

Mar. 6, Daniel Heviland and Esther 

Lawrence, both of Rye. 
Mar. 21, William Miller and Mary 

Haviland, both of Rye. 
Mar. 25, Ebenezer Haviland and Tha- 

mar Bud, both of Rye. 
Mar. 30, Dr. Edward Joyce, N. Y., and 

Sarah Sacket of Greenwich. 
1766. 

Jan. 25, Daniel Ghorum and Abigail 

Waterbury, both of Stamford. 
Apr. 1, Nicholas Falch of N. Y. and 

Sarah Harison of Greenwich. 
Apr. 23, Eliot Green and Marcy Seely, 

both of Stamford. 
June 5, John Aspinwallol Flushing and 

Rebecca Smith of Queen's Village. 
1767. 

Mar. 19, Jacob Slauson and Kezia 

Weed, both of Stamford. 
1772. 

Nov. 10, Silas Hamlin of Amenia 

Precinct and Polly, dau. of David 

Lines of Stamford. 
1767. 

Apr. 23, Nathaniel Munday and Sarah 

Jarvis, both of Stamford. 
June 4, Samuel, Whitney of Stamford 

and Abigail Ferris of Greenwich. 
1768. 

Jan. 12. Simeon Raymond of Norwalk 

Sarah P(S)angbon of Stamford. 
Sept. 18, Alexander Bishop, jr., and 

Mary Bates, both of Stamford. 
1769. 

Jan. 14, Thaddeus Duning of Norwalk 



GENEALOGICAL DEPART Ml: 



5 33 



and Mary Goold of Stamford. 
Feb. 18, Lewis Marvin of Rye and 

Sarah Middlebrooks, of Stamford. 
Feb. 25, Joseph Smith of Canaan and 

Mary Waterbury of Stamford. 



50. Inscriptions from gravestones in Lieut- 
enant Henry Bennett's Burying Ground 
in Sherman, Ct., copied and contributed 
by Wilfdrd C. Piatt, Esq., New Fair- 
field, Ct. [Continued from page 114.] 

Ephraim Hubbell, jr, son of Ephraim and 

Johanna, d. June 6, 1770, aged 27 

years. 
Kent Wright, who died Oct. 27, 1776, 

aged 37 years. 
Daniel Buck, who died Sept. 26, 1802, 

aged 47 years and 2 months. 
Samuel Ackley, only son of David. 
Eunice, wife of Benjamin Pickett, died 

Nov. 6, 1810, aged 76 years 
Judah Morgan, who died April ye 3rd, 

1744, in ye 58 year of her age. 
Mr. Nathan Hubbell. 
Mrs. Mabel Stewart. 
Alexander Stewart, Esq. 

Copied and contributed by Wilford C. 
Piatt, Esq., Old Leach Burying Ground, 

in town of Sherman, Conn. 
Ichabod Leach, who died May 3, 1813, 

aged 63 years. 
Ruth Leach, wife of Ichabod Leach, who 

died June 2, 1822, aged 63 years. 
Lecty, daughter of Ichabod and Ruth 

Leach, who died Feb. 24, 1789, aged 3 

years. 
Lecty, daughter of Ichabod and Ruth 

Leach, who died Jan. 20, 1816, aged 24 

years. 
David Leach, who died Aug. 28, 1836, 

aged 57 years. 
Lydia, wife of David Leach and daughter 

of Jonathan Bulkley, who died May 21, 

1806, aged 24 years. 
Elizabeth Bulklev, daughter to Jonathan 

and Lydia Bulkley, who died March 

19, 1804, aged 22 years. 
Lydia, wife of Jonathan Bulkley, who 

died Aug 31, 1805, aged 52 years. 
Jonathan Bulkley, who departed this life 

Nov. 4, 1815. Born Nov. 15, I75 1 - 
Gideon Congor, son of Joel and Anna 

Congor, who died April 24, 1800. aged 

14 years. 
Stephen Davis, who died Dec. 25, 1838, 

aged 71 vears. . 

Hannah, wife of Stephen Davis, who died 

Oct. T2, 1829, aged S3 y ears - 
Died March it, 1801, Electa, daughter of 



Stephen and Harm.; aged 1 

year and 6 months. 
Die <l Oct. 1; . daughter of 

Stephen and Hannah Davis, aged 1 

year and 1 month. 
Daniel Davis, who died Feb. ;, 1 

aged 38 years. 
William Davis, who died June 24, 1 

aged 47 years. 

This cemetery is over in the lots, near 
a swamp, and it is supposed that a great 
many were buried in what is now the 
swamp land. There are but few tomb- 
stones, a majority of the graves l>eing 
marked by a common stone, with no in- 
scription placed at their head. 



Queries. 



153. White, Isaac, Sr., of Greeni 

Mass., b. 1720-5, m. Elizabeth . 

Desires his ancestry:' I 5. E. 

154. {a) Brown, Timothy, b. 1742. B 
field, Ct., brother of Col. John and 
Capt. Jacob, both of Pittsfield. His 
father was Dan'l Brown, his mothei 
Mehitable San ford. Dan'l and family 
moved from Enfield to Sandisfield, 
Mass., with "his numerous family" in 
1752 and settled the to* >thy 
m. "Sarah Paine of Cape Cod" — her 
parentage wanted. Timothy and Sarah 
spent many years in Dorset. Yt, and 
had a large family there, but d. in 1 

N. Y. Think the Paine- 
disfield family. 

(b) Collins, Benjamin, .on. 

Conn. He and wife Eliza d. the: 
have full records of their children b in 
Lebanon. Where did Benjamin * 
from? I think Taunton. 1 \\ 
ancestry ; wife's name and .. - 
They were m. abt 1 hil- 

dren. H. 1 

loo. Allen, Mabel, bapt. Jul] 1 ;. 
d. Oct. 10, 1790. m. M.u 10, 1 
Elijah Thompson of N 
vou tell me anything of her s 

1 I 

156. [a] \ /.'. v. Ambrose, 1740, m. 
Mary Ransom ; d Jul) i, Bo :ned 
in Westchester, N ■ 

Can anyone give the { I his 

family ; also date oi birth and d 

(^ Ransom, Mar] . 1751 
brose Niles; d. 
family genealog) 



334 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT. 



the name of her father and mother; also 
the date of her b. and m. K. R. B. 

157. (a) Brace, Susannah, b. 1714 ^Hart- 
ford?), d. 1795, Bethlehem, Conn., m. 
Dea. Samuel, son of Samuel Strong of 
Northampton. Who were her parents? 

(J?) Newell, Mary, wife of Lieut. John 
Steele, was dau. of Samuel Newell, prob. 
of Farmington, Conn. Who was her 
mother and who Samuel Newell's an- 
cestors? 

(c) Smith, John, b. Dec. 21, 17 10, Had- 
ley, son of John and Elizabeth Hoag 
Smith; lived in Hatfield; m. Mary 

. Who were her ancestors? 

E. S. B. 

158. Chaffee, William, of Enfield, Ct., 
was according to tradition of the For- 
lorn Hope at the storming of Stony 
Point, and is said to have been the first 
to plant the American Colors upon the 
ramparts. Are there any proofs of this ? 

G. P. 

159. (a) Perry, Ruhemah (or Amy), b. 
1773 in the vicinity of Danbury, Ct., 
m. as her 2nd husband Obediah Chase, 
Who was her first husband, by whom 
she had a dau. Harriet ? Was his name 
Goldsmith ? 

(b) Berry, Richard, in 1647 was living 
in Boston with Thomas Hawkins. Did 
Richard m. a dau. of Hawkins? Rich- 
ard m. Alice . Who were her 

parents? Hawkins had children b. in 
Boston, 1637 to 1657. 

{c) Perry, Solomon, b. 1726, m. abt. 

1750 Priscilla . Who were her 

parents? He had a bro.-in law Thad- 
deus Andrews. Solomon had in Ridge- 
field, Ct., 1, Gilbert. 2, Freeman. 3, 
Penelope. 4, Anna (m. James Siel). 
5, Saunders. 6, David. 7, May Lewis. 
What became of these children ? 

(d) Sherwood, Jerusha, b. July 11, 
1 75 1, Danbury, Conn. (T. R. ), m. May 
7, 1778, Silas Taylor, b. June 24, 1757. 
Who were her parents and what their 
ancestry? Who were his parents and 
what their ancestry ? 

(e) Perry, Elisha, had b. in Sandwich, 
Mass., 1, Ruth. 2, James. 3, Elisha. 
4. Solomon. 5, John. 6, Maria, b. 
1738. In the distribution in 1751 of 
his estate (Danbury, Ct., Prob. Rec.) 
mention is made of 3 other children, 



viz., David, Hannah (m. Thomas 
Cozier), and Elizabeth (m. Elijah 
Whitney). When and where these 
three children born, married and died? 
W. A. E. T. 

160. Osbom, David H., b. 1821 in Wes- 
ton, Conn, (part now called Easton), 
was my father. David Osborn, my 
grandfather, b. 1782 in Fairfield, Conn, 
(part now called Easton). Ephraim 
Osborn, my great-grandfather — don't 
know when or where he was born. 
Should like to trace the history back. 

G. W. O. 

161- {a) Gould, James, sometime before 
1 719 with 3 or 5 brothers came from 
Eng. and settled in Litchfield Co., 
Conn. He was with John French, 
Joseph Pigeon, John Cartledge and 
James Hendrickson at Conestoga, Pa., 
treating with the Indians, June 28, 1719, 
and was called captain. Is this the same 
James Gould, or what relation of a pri- 
vate in the Wyoming Valley Company 
(raised in Conn.) under Capt. Robert 
Durkee, Aug. 26, 1776? The private 
Gould m. Ann Smith, who had lived 
with Judge Green of New London, 
Conn. Their children were Peter, Eli- 
jah, Samuel and Jacob (b. Jan. 28, 1772, 
while crossing Wilkesbarre Mts., Pa.) 

(b) Skinner, Benjamin, of Hartford, 
Ct., m. Dec. 8, 1791, Abigail Spencer 
of Hartford, Who were his parents? 
Later he moved to Winsted, Ct., and 
took charge of Rockwell's mill. He d. 
Feb. 8, 1814, aged 48. L. C. S. 

162. (a) Wildman, Josiah 4 (Joseph 3 , 
Thomas 2 , Thomas 1 ), had a daughter 
Mary, m. Luke Chapin, res. Solon, N. 
Y., and had 9 sons. Whom did Josiah 
marry and what children did he have ? 

(b) Wildman, Joseph 5 (Philip 4 , Joseph 3 , 
Thomas 2 ) had, 1, Abraham", m. 2nd 
Mrs. Sally Nickerson. Who were her 
parents ? What children had Abraham ? 
Who were his other wives (said to have 
had 3)? 2, Ira 6 , m. Alice Ballard. 
Did he have issue ? Who were her 
parents? 3, Daniel , d. unm. 

(c) Wildman, Uz 5 (Joseph 4 , Joseph 3 , 
Thomas 2 ) had a son George' 1 . Whom 
did Uz marry? What issue had he? 
Who was his mother and her parents? 

A. W. 



DESCENDANTS OF WILLIAM CHASE OF \ 

BY WILLIAM A. EARDELEY-THOl 



[Continued from last number.] 

38. 

235 -v. Lot, 5 Mar. 11. 1716; m. Dec. 27, 1738, Rebecca Wing. 

236 — vi. "Hanah." 5 Sept. 26, 1718. What became of her? 

2 37 — vii. Nathaniel, 5 May — ,1724. What became of him ? 

238— viii. Mary, 5 Jan. 9, 1720-21; m. pub. July 20, 1740, in V. . Nathaniel 

Did he have children ? Who were his parents ? 
239— ix. Judah, 5 Oct. 24, 1726. What became of him ? 

Isaac and "Charete" had: 
240 — x. Barnabas, 5 April 29, 1731; m., 1749, Lydia Ryder. Who were her 
241 — xi. Temperance, 5 Mar. 4, 1731-2; m. Jan. 23, 1745, Nathaniel Baker. 
242 — xii. "Charete," 5 July' 15, 1736; m., 1757, Sylvanus 8 Chase 221. 
243 — xiii. "Mehetable," 5 Aug. 9, 1740; m. pub. Nov. 27, 1755, in H. ; m. Ja:. 

Isaac Eldridge, Jr., of H. Did he have children ? Who we: 
244 — xiv. "Desier," 5 Mar. 6, 1741-2; m., 1764, Archelus' ; Chase S62. Did he have children ? 
39. Samuel 4 Baker (Elizabeth 3 c7/^.^, William'-, William 1 , Daniel Ba 

d. Mar. 17, t 7 75 , of "Acky?" Neck m. Patience 

Who were her Parents? She d . 1750. Samuel' and 

( ) Baker had in Y.: 

i. Shubal 5 Baker, Mar. 24, 1710; m. — 1733- Lydia Stuart and had. 1 

Silvanus 6 Baker, Mar. 10, 1734-5 ; m. April S, 1750, Jane I : 
vanus 1 Baker, Dec. 13, 1757; m. Aug. 30, 1780, Phebe C 
Richard 5 (201). 
Shubel 5 Baker, had II. ShubeP Baker. Nov. II, 1741 ; m. i> 
becca 6 Chase, dau. of Rev. Richard 5 (201); m. 2nd J 
Chase, dau. of Abner 5 (205). 
ii. Susannah 5 Baker, June 22, 171 1, m. Sept. iS, 1735, V 

Nathaniel-, Francis'). Did he have issue ? 
iii. Hezekiah 5 Baker, Aug. 4, 17*5 \ m - ^P 1 - 2 ~- [ 744. M - 
iv. Tabitha 5 Baker, Mar. 8, 1718; m. Nov. 7. '74^. Jos 
v. Desire 5 Baker. Feb. 5, 1720-1; m. Mar. 1, 1743-4. L 

cis 1 ). Did he have issue ? 
vi. Elizabeth 5 Baker. Sept. 9, 1725- What became of tier " 
vii. Samual 5 Baker, June 4, 1732; m. Dec. 4. 1755, K ' 
issue ? Who were her parents ? 
40. Shubal 6 and Rebecca 6 (Chase) Baker had in V. : 

i. Hepzibah' Baker, Oct. 15, 1765: m. Feb. 4. I ) - 

father ? 
ii. Archelaus Baker, Nov. 26, 1767; m. Feb. 5. I7«9, MehiUbk C V:>ner» 

(205). 
iii. Rebecca' Baker, Dec. 19. 1770; m. Apr. 1 8, 1793, 
iv. Shubal' Baker, July 10, 1772. \ 

v. Ezra 1 Baker, Sept. 5, 1774. / \v a! 

vi. Michael" Baker, Nov. 4. r77& child 

vii. Ensign' Baker. Jan. 3, i;7 l > \ 

viii. Temperance" Baker, Oct. 15. 17^ 

(81 



336 DESCENDANTS OF WILLIAM CHASE OF YARMOUTH. 

ix. Abigail 7 Baker, Nov. 22, 1783; m. Apr. 20, 1807, Edwin Sears. She d. Sept. 18 

1853, in So. Dennis, Mass. 
x. Silvanus 7 Baker, Aug. 24, 1786. What became of him? 

41. Elizabeth 4 Baker (Elizabeth 3 Chase, Wm. 2 , Wm. 1 , Daniel 2 Baker, Francis 1 ), b. 
1676 in Y; m Nov. 8, 1705 Y., Mass., Nathaniel Baker*; ch, b. in Yarmouth, 
i. Lydia 5 Baker, Feb. 28, 1705-6; m. June 21, 1737, Joseph White, 
ii. Jacob 5 Baker, Oct, 16, 1707 ; m. Thankful 5 Chase, No. 233, and had Jacob B Baker . 

m. 1764, Rachel Whelden, and had Happy 7 Baker, Sept. 25, 17655 m. Mch. 23' 

1786, Zenas 6 Chase, No. 935. 
iii. Phebe 5 Baker, Oct. n, 1709; m. Sept. 8, 1748, Eleazer O'Kelly. 
iv. Nathaniel 5 Baker, Nov. 20, 1711; m. Temperance 5 Chase, No. 241, and had Abra_ 

ham 6 Baker; m. Anna Baxter and had Cornelius 7 Baker; m. 1st Polly Chase i 

(who were her parents ?) 2nd Betsey Snow, 
v. Joseph 5 Baker, Mch. 31, 1715 ; m. July 20, 1738, Elizabeth Berry of Harwich, and 

had Joseph 6 Baker, Oct. 8, 1746; m. Oct. 13, 1765, Priscilla 6 Chase, No. 874, and 

had Deborah 7 Baker, Dec. 2, 1767; m, , 1786, William 6 Chase, No. 919. 

vi. Elizabeth 5 Baker, Mch. 31, 1715; m. Apr. 18, 1737, Ephraim Crowell. 

44. Tabitha 4 Baker (Elizabeth 3 Chase, Wm. 2 , Wm. 1 , Daniel 2 Baker, Francis 1 ), died 

, 1737; m. Dec. 14, 171 7, in Y., Mass., Joseph 3 , son of Jeremiah 2 , David 1 

O'Kelly. f Ch. b. in Y., Mass. 

i. Stephen 4 O'Kelly, Sept. 22, 1718; m. pub. Feb. 20, 1742, Thankful 5 Chase, 

No. 2(6. 
ii. Sarah 4 O'Kelly, Feb. 21, 1721-2; m. Jan. 19, 1743-4, Joseph 5 Chase, No. 202. 
iii. Annah 4 0^ Kelly, Apr. 28, 1720; m. Aug. 19, 1743, Wm. Smith of Harwich, 
iv. Joseph 4 0' Kelly, Mch. 30, 1728; m. Mch. 8, 1749-50, Elizabeth Chase. Who were 

her parents ? 
v. Jeremiah 4 O'Kelly, May 8. 1730. What became of him? 



♦Nathaniel 2 Baker (Francisi); d. Dec. 1691, Y.; m. . She d. Dec, 1691., Y. 

i. SamueP, Oct. 29, 1670; m. July 30, 1702, Elizabeths Berry — John 2 — Richardi. 

ii. Nathaniel3, Jan. 29, 1672; m. Elizabeth* Baker, No. 41 

iii. Silasa (probably), m. May 14, 1723, Deliverances O'Kelly— Jeremiah 2 — Davidi. 

tDavid O'Kelly d. 1696 in Y-, Mass.; wife Jane d. Oct. 17, 1711, Y. A tanner in Y., admitted inhabitant 
1657 and took the oath of fealty. Records call him David. O'Kelly, the Irishman. He signed his will 
"David O'Keilia." Will dated Feb. 10, 1696, and names wife Jane ; sons Jeremiah, David, John, Ben- 
jamin and Joseph ; daus. Elizabeth and Sarah (see Barnstable, Mass.. Probate Records.) 

i. Jeremiahs ; d. Aug. 30, 1728; m. , Sarah , Who 

were her \ arents ? 

ii. David 2 _ ; m. Mch 10, 1692, Anna, daughter. Thomas and Ann (Twining) Bills. 

iii. John 2 ; d. Oct. 26, 1693 ; m. Ang. 10, 1690, in Y., Bethia Lewes. 

iv. Benjamins ; m. Aug. 2, 1709, Barnstable, Mass., Mercy Lumbert. 

v. Elizabeths ; m. May 1, 1707, Silas Sears. 

vi. Sarah 2 , d. July 24, 1715. 

vii. Josephs. What became of him ? 

Jeremiah2 O'Kelly d. Aug. 50, 1728, inY.;m. , Sarahs . She 

d. , 1727. 

i. Sarah', Sept. 17, 1689 ; m, Nov. 6, 1721, Olver Carpenter. 

ii. Jeremiah:;, last of June, 1691; m. Aug. 8. 1716, Charity Pees; he d. 1727, leaving 1, Sarah*, Oct. 10,. 
1718 ; 2 Jerusha,* ; 3, Elizabeth*. Charity m. 2nd 1727, Isaac* Chase, No. 38. 

iii. Josephs, Apr. 6, 1693 ; m. Tabitha Baker, No. 44. 

iv. Johns, middle of July, 1695 ; m. Feb. 18, 1719-20, Hannah Eldredge. 

v. Eleazer3, Mch., 1696-7 ; m. , Sarah . 

vi. Seths, end of July, 1700; m. Nov. 22, 1726, Mehitable Wing, and had Seth, m. Elizabeth, dau. of 
Zaccheus Gifford ; Zaccheus m. 1st Lydia Dillingham; m. 2nd Sarah Shove. 

vii. Amos", last day of Mch., 1702-3 ; m. , Abigail . 

vlii. Hannaha, Mch., 1705; m. , Elnathan Eldredge. 

ix. Deliverance"' ; m May 14, 1723, Silas Baker— Nathaniels*— Francisi. 

(22) 



PUBLISHER'S NOTE. 



With the next issue of the Quarter- 
ly we shall have completed four years. 
The reception has been so favorable, 
the demand for historical matter so 
constant, that we have been seriously 
handicapped by the infrequency of 
the issue. We have, found it 
necessary, in order to meet the 
growing demand, to publish oftener. 
We therefore take pleasure in an- 
nouncing that, beginning- January 
1899, we shall publish monthly, under 
the name of " The Connecticut Maga- 
zine." This will enable us to give 
our patrons a much better magazine, 
more complete in every detail. It 
will be our aim to keep up the high 
standard of the Quarterly in every 
particular, and to improve where 
we see opportunity. The subscrip- 
tion price will be the same as at pre- 
sent, $1.00 per year. Single numbers 
10 cents each. Although each num- 
ber will not have so many pages as 
a present number of the Quarterly, 
the 12 numbers combined will con- 
tain more than a hundred pages in 
excess of what a yearly volume of 
the Quarterly contains. So for the 
same price our readers will have the 
advantage of possessing much addi- 
tional material. 



The Connecticut Magazine 
under the same general • 
management as the Quart- 
been for the last three years, tti 
suring a continuance of th< 
lines in general plan and scope, and 
also insuring an improvement in 1 
ways indicated by past ex 
The business departnu be 

under the supervision of M: 
B. Eaton, who will be 
the present publisher in the : 
tion of the Magazine. We de 
to make the coming issues of the 
Magazine as complete a record of 
Connecticut history as possible and 
shall need to represent the towns 
given in the earlier numbers a^ain in 
certain praticulars as they were in- 
completely done at the time, 
hope to increase our already large 
circulation by thoroughly represent- 
ing the State in the 1 -ible 
manner and appealing to local pride 
which all our citizens feel in the 
interests of our commonwealth, 
that every one will want to post 
the work from the in- 
trinsic value and merit. 

Further particulars will be given in 
our October number. 



HISTORICAL NOTKS. 



The exercises held at the dedica- 
tion of the monument in memory of 
Rodger Ludlow, the founder of Nor- 
walk, held at East Norwalk on June 23, 
were of a unique character, and were 
planned by the Norwalk antiquarian. 
Rev. C. A. Selleck, to whose untiring- 
zeal the nlonument is due. 

The design of the monument is 
massive and simple. A great block 
of granite rests on a low stone base, 
on which is inscribed " Roger Lud- 
low." At each corner of the block 
are polished pillars, supporting a cap- 



stone, surmount* 

ball of the same gran I 

carved socket. ( to the DOTth S 

bronze bass relief e» 
necticut artist, repn 
purchasing the 

walk Indians On the BOnth side- 
bronze tablet which - d as 
follows 

"This stone. 
1895, commemorates th 
from the aboriginal inha 
February 16, 1640, by R< 1 
deputy governor of th< 



33* 



FROM THE SOCIETIES. 



necticut, framer of its first code of 
laws, and founder of Norwalk, of all 
the lands, meadows, pastures, trees, 
whatsoever there is, and grounds be- 
tween the two rivers, the one called 
Norwalke an the other Soakaluck, to 
the middle of sayed rivers from the 
sea, and a day's walk into the coun- 
try." 

This handsome memorial of Nor- 
walk's founder was erected by Mrs. 
William K. James on land given for 
the purpose by J. R. and William 
Marvin. 

The present monument was set in 
place last autumn, replacing one 
erected in 1895, which was of unsat- 
isfactory design. 



CONSTITUTION OF THE FIRST TEMPERANCE 

SOCIETY IN WOODBURY. 

[Contributed by Edward S. Boyd.] 

Woodbury is one of the old towns in 
Connecticut, being organized in 1670. 
We give below a copy of the constitution 
of the first temperance society in the 
town. The date is probably about 
1821 : 

CONSTITUTION OF WOODBURY TEMPERANCE 
SOCIETY. 

Art. 1. This Society shall be called 
"The Woodbury Temperance Society, " 
auxiliary to the temperance society of 
Litchfield County. 

Art. 2. Any person subscribing this 
constitution shall be a member of this 
Society. 

Art. 3. The members of this Society, 
believing that the use of intoxicating 
liquors is, for persons in health, not only 
unnecessary, but hurtful and that the prac- 



tice is the cause of forming intemperate 
appetite and habits; and that while it is 
continued, the evils of intemperance can 
never be prevented, do therefore agree 
that we will abstain from the use of dis- 
tilled spirit, except as a medicine in case 
of bodily hurt or sickness ; that we will 
not use it in our families, nor provide it 
for the entertainment of our friends, or 
for persons in our employment ; and that 
in all suitable ways we will discountenance 
the use of it in the community. 

Art. 4. The officers of the Society 
shall be a President, Vice-President, Sec- 
retary, and Treasurer, to be chosen at each 
annual meeting of the Society ; and who 
shall perform the duties customarily as- 
signed to such officers. 

Art. 5. The officers of the Society in 
their associated capacity shall constitute 
an executive committee to carry into effect 
all votes and orders of the Society, & to 
devise and recommend the best means of 
accomplishing its benevolent designs. 

Art. 6. The Society shall meet annu- 
ally and at such other times as shall be 
judged necessary by the executive com- 
mittee. 



Members of the Society. 
Saml R. Andrew 
Grove L. Brownwell 
Seth Miner 
Elijah Sherman, Jun. 
Judson Blackman 
Benj. H. Andrew 
Reuben H. Hotchkiss 
Ira Thomas 
Walter Cramer 
Gilbert S. Uliner 
John Cramer 
Truman Hunt 
Judah Baldwin 
Silas Clark 



Members of the Society. 
Geo. W. Hurd 
Jared Allen 
Dr. Fred'k B. Woodward 
Sami W. Judson 
Gould C. Judson 
Wm. B. Hotchkiss 
James Cramer 
David A. Tuttle 



FROM THE SOCIETIES. 



STATE CONFERENCE, D. A. R. 



The state conference of the Daugh- 
ters of the American Revolution was 
held at Norwich on May 26th; In 
spite of the unpleasant weather a large 
delegation was present in Slater Me- 
morial Hall at 11 o'clock, the hour of 
the opening exercises. All the chap- 
ters but four were represented. 



The meeting was called to order by 
the State Regent, Mrs. Sara T. Kinney 
of New Haven, and the prayer of in- 
vocation was offered by Mrs. Bulkley 
of Southport. The Regent of the 
Faith Trumbull Chapter, Mrs. Bella. 
P. Learned, made the address of wel- 



FROM THE SOCIETIES. 






come, to which the State Regent 
made a fitting reply. 

The first paper was read by Mrs. A. 
J. J. Perkins, who gave an account of 
the life of Faith Robinson Trumbull, 
wife of Governor Jonathan Trumbull 
— " Brother Jonathan " — after whom 
the chapter is named. Mr. Jonathan 
Trumbull, president of the Connecticut 
S. A. R., and grandson of Gov. Trum- 
bull, was then introduced and spoke a 
few words in praise of the patriotism 
of the Connecticut D. A. R. and 
warmly commended the work they 
were trying to do at the present time. 
Miss Root of the Katherine Gaylord 
Chapter, Bristol, made a report 
for the committee appointed to in- 
vestigate the expense of printing a 
book of biographical sketches of 
the heroines of the different chapters, 
and of the real or patent daugh- 
ters of the State. After her report 
had been accepted, Miss Ellen Larned 
of the Elizabeth Porter Putnam Chap- 
ter, read a paper entitled " A Few 
Hints." She made a strong plea for 
the value of the personal element in 
the preservation of historical data, 
this being her own special branch of 
historical research. She claimed that 
personal incident is more valuable 
than anything else in fixing an historic- 
al fact in the memory, and told several 
amusing stories to illustrate her point. 
But she warned her hearers to be 
very sure that the incidents they re- 
late as to the achievements of their 
ancestors are perfectly true and con- 
cern their own grandfathers and 
grandmothers and not the ancestors 
of some one else. 

The singing of the hymn, " Home 
and Country," written by Miss Ella 
A. Fanning of Norwich and set to 
music by Mr. J. Herbert George, also 
of Norwich, and now adopted as the 
hymn of the Connecticut D. A. R., 
closed the exercises of the morning, 
after which all present adjourned to 
Breed Hall where luncheon was 
served. 

The first paper of the afternoon 
session entitled "War and the Prison 
Ships During the Revolution " was 
read by Mrs. Virginia Chandler Tit- 
combe of Fort Greene Chapter. 
Brooklyn, N.Y. Probably many pres- 
ent, even those fairlv conversant 



with Revolutionary history, had verv 
scant knowledge of this subject, and 
were surprised and shocked to realise 
how great was the numl ; ie ri- 

can prisoners who died on three 
ships in the harbor i 
tween 1776 and 1783. 1 1,000 on one of 
them alone— the Jersey. Sb< 
most graphic and moving account of 
the sufferings endure. • hese 

prisoners, any one of whom could 
have purchased his liber: poos- 

ing the British cause. Not 
ever found who was willing I 
The bones of these martvrs in the 
cause of liberty, after many 
neglect, were at last collected and in- 
terred at Fort Greene, where thev now 
rest. A movement is now on fool l 
among the patriotic women of B: 
lyn to raise funds to erect a monu- 
ment to the memory of these bei 

An original poem. "Quo Vadis ?" 
was then read by Mrs M .lies 

Branch of the Lucretia Shaw CI 
ter, of New London. T 
followed by a paper or. 
England Divines, and Marriage Cus- 
toms in Colonial and R.c 
ary Times," by Mrs. Kate Pen te 
of the Susan Carrington Clark Chap- 
ter, of Middletown. The last paper 
of the session, on " Norwich T 
Old Green," was given 
Porter Rudd, of Norwich. 

Mrs. Kinney announced the respon- 
ses she had received to th< 
calling on chapters thr the 

state for aid for the won:, 
and sailors in the pres 
gratifying success 
$1,000 having been pl< 
other aid. The 

bury Chapter ha her cl 

for $2,000 tor an ambulance for the 
Red Cross and had also pn D 
be responsible for the 
nurse. The money the 

Connecticut D. A R - 
the purchase 
hospital ship Re*. 

The Mel icon: 
YVaterluirv semis th< 
the front, Miss I ' each 

o\ Waterbury, whose m one 

of the charter memtx 
teT Mrs, Cuthbert Hi 
of Groton ma 
chapter- 



340 



FROM THE SOCIETIES 



aid for the soldiers then in camp at 
Niantic and Fort Griswold, Groton. 

The exercises closed with the sing- 
ing of " America." The literary exer- 
cises were interspersed with excellent 
instrumental and vocal selections by 
local talent, 



Later an informal reception was 
held at the Norwich club for those 
who remained in the city until the 
evening trains. 



The Daughters of , Litchfield and 
Washington have organized a chapter 
and named it the Judea Chapter D. A. 
R. On June 9th they held a meeting 
at the home of Mrs. Gunn, in Wash- 
ington, and elected ^the following offi- 
cers : — Regent, Mrs. F. W. Gunn ; 
Vice-Regent, Mrs. John L. Buel ; Reg- 
istrar, Miss Fannie P. Brown ; Cor- 



Sec, Mrs. George C. Woodruff ; Rec- 
Sec, Mrs. Wm. Brinsmade ; Treas., 
Mrs. W. J. Ford; Historian, Miss 
Frances Hickox ; Board of manage- 
ment, Mrs. H. W. Wessells, Mrs. S. 
Ford Seeley, Mrs. W. H. Church, Miss 
Anna Brinsmade and Miss Ruth 
McNeill. 




The memorial of the first English 
settlement in Connecticut, recently 
erected by the Abigail Wolcott Ells- 
worth Chapter of Windsor, marks a 
spot as interesting and important to 
the people of our state as any that 
have been commemorated of late. 
The boulder, of which we give a pic- 
ture, is about a mile from Windsor 



center, on what is known as "The 
Island." 

At the dedication, an historical 
paper was read, prepared by Deacon 
Jabez H. Hayden, an address given 
by Mrs. Kinney, and other appropriate 
exercises were enjoyed by the large 
number of people present. 



We are glad to note the general 
response made by the various chap- 
ters to the request for aid to the 
soldiers in the present war and the 
efforts of the Society in this direction, 
as well as its interest in preventing the 
desecration of the Flag, and increas- 



ing the teaching of patriotism in our 
schools by the system of prizes 
offered for essays by the pupils, are 
to be heartily commended. They 
show themselves to be progressive, 
fully alive to the desirability of doing 
useful work. 



FROM THE SOCIETIES. 
CHILDREN OF THE AMERICAN REVOLU1 ION 



341 



On May 14th, 1898, the ruins of old 
Fort Decatur were marked by the 
Belton Allyn Society, C. A.' R. of 
Gales Ferry. This spot, most beauti- 
fully situated on Allyn's Mountain, 
north of Gales Ferry, historic from 
the fact of Decatur's sojourn there for 
21 months while watching his fleet 
which was blockaded in the Thames 
by an English fleet in New London 
harbor in the War of 181 2, is im- 
portant to be commemorated, and 
Mrs. William Moulthrope, the presi- 
dent of the Society, deserves credit 
for her successful efforts. 



The inscription is on the 
huge boulder, and read., at 
This boulder 
was marker: 
The Belton All j< 

of Gales Ferry 
as being the 
north boundary 
of Fort Decatur 
that was ere> I 

in the 
years 1813 and 1814 

to protect 
Decatur's fleet from 
the British. 



THE CONNECTICUT FORESTRY ASSOCIATION 

Contributed by Miss Mary Winslow, Secretary. 



He who plants a tree, plants a hope. 



In December, 1895, certain individu- 
als of this state, realizing and deplor- 
ing the fact that the magnificent for- 
ests of our country are being rapidly 
swept away, and desiring especially 
that the woods of Connecticut shall be 
preserved, and its people educated to 
protect shade and ornamental trees, 
banded themselves together for this 
work, drafted and signed a constitu- 
tion, and thus was founded The Con- 
necticut Forestry Association. It was 
regularly organized the following year, 
has now a membership of fifty or 
over, and holds its annual meetings 
upon Arbor Day. 

The objects of the association as set 
forth in its constitution, are substanti- 
ally as follows: To develop public 
appreciation of the value of forests 
and of the need for preserving and us- 
ing them rightly; to forward the es- 
tablishment of forests, parks and res- 
ervations, advocating the introduction 
of rational forest management in such 
lands; to disseminate information re- 
lating to the science of forestry and 
the care of trees; to encourage the 
studv of forestry and kindred topics 
in the schools. The association is not 
restricted in its efforts, to the state of 



Connecticut, but its influence will be 
used also for the advancement < 
tional forestry. 

The first president of the 
tion, and one of its founds 
Horace Winslow of We. 
bury), who declined 
year on account of ill health. 
Winslow has ever beer, 
trees — planting, guardii aing 

them. Many y< 

of a church at Rockville, aned 

for that place two 
sites, raising money. . 
ting out a numtx 
Rockville owes her now 
pleasure grounds, in I I the 

city and full of 

much to his individual 1 the 

gifts of funds from other 

Mr. Winslow'- 
dent of the Vo- 
Major Edward V. Prcs 
ford, also a lov< 
ested in their pi 

in active business, he will undoubted- 
ly accomplish much I 
ment of the ass 
largement oi 
president is \\^.\ T S 1 1 
well-known .. 



342 



THE CONNECTICUT FORESTRY ASSOCIATION. 



culture. The other officers for 1898 
are as follows: 

Corresponding secretary, Miss Mary 
Winslow, Weatogue; recording secre- 
tary, Prof. John B. McLean of Sims- 
bury; treasurer, Mr. Alfred Spencer 
Jr., Hartford; auditor, Mr. Appleton 
R. Hillyer of Hartford; advisory board, 
the above named officers and John B. 
Lewis, M. D., and Ellen R. Carr, D. D. 
S., both of Hartford. 

At the last annual meeting, Mr. 
Gold read an excellent paper upon 
" Forestry in Connecticut," which was 
followed by a general discussion par- 
ticipated in by Judge Loomis of Suf- 
field, Maj. Preston, Mr. McLean, Mr. 
J. Hale of Glastonbury and others. It 
was stated that many people are not 
aware that there is a state law by 
which trees upon the highways may 
be preserved from removal, if marked 
with certain spikes which are fur- 
nished by the secretary of agriculture. 
The spikes are headed with the letter 
C, denoting that the trees thus marked 
are henceforth under the protection of 
the state. 

At this meeting the members passed 
resolutions relating to the death of 
Dr. Birdsey.G. Northrop, the ''Father 
of Arbor Day," in Connecticut. They 
also instructed the secretary to pre- 
pare and transmit to our members of 
congress, a remonstrance against the 
passage of the Forest Reserve amend- 
ment to the Sundry Civil Bill, then 
pending in the United States Senate. 
This was accordingly done and a re- 
ply was received from every Connecti- 
cut senator and representative, all of 
them expressing sympathy with the 
efforts of the association and most of 
them promising to do their best to 
prevent the passage of such an unwise 



measure, which, if enacted into law,, 
would abolish at one stroke, the forest 
reservations set aside by President 
Cleveland. It is evident that the 
country needs arousing to the fact, 
that forests, aside from their com- 
mercial value, have almost as great a 
worth, in that they hold in place the 
soil of mountain sides, prevent in large 
degree, destructive floods, conserve 
moisture for irrigation purposes and 
stream-flow in dry seasons, purify the 
atmosphere and modify climatic 
rigors. 

At the last session of the legislature, 
a member of the association sent in a 
bill to have all locomotives provided 
with spark-arresters. Although sever- 
al of the committee on agriculture, to 
which it was reterred seemed favor- 
able to the passage of this bill, yet it 
was adversely reported and thus killed 
for that time. Many citizens appar- 
ently do not know that hundreds of 
acres of woodland in this state are 
burned over nearly every year, set on 
fire by sparks from locomotives. 

As the dues of the society are mod- 
erate, one dollar for annual and fifteen 
dollars for life membership, it is hoped 
that the good people of Connecticut 
may largely identify themselves with 
this organization, so helping to make 
our little state already generously 
prepared by nature, a veritable garden 
of beauty, and to preserve for all the 
inhabitants of this country, their 
children and children's children if 
may be, to remote generations, a frag- 
ment at least of those mighty primeval 
forests, which in all their grandeur 
once covered great portions of the 
continent and are still, it is supposed, 
without a peer on the face of the 
globe. 







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7^e Connecticut Quarterly ; 



An Illustrated Magazine X 

Devoted to the Literature, History, and Picturesque Features 
of Connecticut 



"*% PUBLISHED QUARTERLY 

JtJ By THE CONNECTICUT QUARTERLY COMPANY 

^^ 66 State Street, Courant Building. 

* \ George C. Atwell, Editor. HARTFORD coss. 



CONTENTS. 



H Vol. IV October, November, December, 1898. No. 4 

^ Mount Carmel — The Sleeping Giant. 

%Ht Salisbury. Illustrated. .... Ellen Strong Bartleti, 

K} Forestry in Connecticut. • T. S. Gold, Bfl 

&i Hamden. Illustrated. . /. H. A 

I Judge Not. Poem. . Louis E. Tko IM 

Kf | The Deciphering of Ancient Manuscripts, Edwin Stanley W 391 

!§ Youth and Nature. Poem. . . .\V//.v Woostet C 

|§ The Row of Maples. A Story. .///-,;/ /.. 7Y- • |M 

I J Peter Parley— As Known to His Daughter. lUus. Emily G ' Sm/tA, BM 

IP 

r| Connecticut Almanacs of Last Century. Illustrated. ./ ..-.•./ I MM 

% Not Forgotten. Poem. 

Iff List of Burials, Center Church Burying Ground, Hartford. Ill 

Copied and annotated by .!/</> r A' 
^ Departments.— Genealogical Department. 

|^ Historical Notes. ttl 

£j Publisher's Notes. IM 

Index for the Year 1898, GBNSALO I U Dl IM 



Hif //^///-^ • 

Copyright, i8„8. bv GEO. C, Aiuki 1 [Ali 
Entered at the Post Office at Hartford. Conn., as mail !*•» 



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Income-producing city and village real estate, and 
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Assets over $800,000.00. Accredited agents through- 
out Connecticut and in other States. Correspondence 
solicited. 

E. C. LINN, Secretary, 
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Hartford, Conn. 



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Hartford, Conn. 



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of Connecticut. 



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Births, Marriages and Deaths, returned from 

Hartford, Windsor and Fairfield, 1631-1691, 

and entered in 

The Early Land Records of the Colony 
of Connecticut. Volumes I and II, of 
Land Records, and No. I) of Colonial Deeds. 



TRANSCRIBED AND EDITED 

BY 

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Member of the Connecticut Historical Society. 

These records now for the first time printed, 
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The Connecticut Quarterly 

" Leave not your native land behind." /, 



Vol. IV. 



fourth quarter. 
Oct., Nov., Dec, 1898. 

SALISBURY: 

"A Puritan Arcadia among the Hills." — Dr 



4. 



BY ELLEN STRONG BARTLETT. 



ALISBURY is tucked away in the northwestern corner 
^5^^ among the rocks and hills, as if her beauties were to be s^ i 
>^^^/ the gaze of careless eyes, and to be reserved for ti. nent of 

those who seek them with a fixed purpose. 
We speak of "old Salisbury :" the adjective is applicable to the hills and 
streams that have smiled to the heavens for centuries, but i: 
to the town, on the scale of Connecticut history. In fact, it .tiled 

''young Salisbury;" for when the impulse 
for discovery and colonization had spent it- 
self in the southern and middle portions of 
the state, and the trials and discomforts of 
founding a commonwealth had passed into 
the steady strain of established social rela- 
tions, that impulse did not die; but gaining 
new force by former success, drove men 
forth from their peaceful homes, on the 
ceaseless westward quest which must find its 
end in another age than ours. 

These " Western Lands" were a wilder- 
ness in the eyes of the Hartford and New 
Haven colonists. The secrets of the sylvan 
retreat were rudely disclosed during the last 
days of King Philip's war, when a band of 
savages, defeated by the white men, tied 
through the pathless woods, to join the 
Mohawks near Albany. Major Talcott, of 
Hartford, pursued them hotly, and, match 
ing the Indian wiliness, surprised them at soldi tms 




346 



SALISBURY. 



a ford on the west bank of the Housatonic river. There, in the grey light of 
early dawn, the paleface and the redskin met in a fierce conflict ; and the 
paleface triumphed, killing or capturing fifty of the foe. No poet was there 
to sing the wild struggle in the midst of Nature's choicest scenes, and yet the 




STREET AT THE 



wild, selected beauty of the land must have made its impression on those 
Hartford men. 

Full of apprehensions before the dreaded arrival of Sir Edmund Andros v 
the Colonial Assembly granted to Hartford and Windsor so much of that 
region "as lay east of the Housatonic ;" but after fear was dispelled, there 
was sad quibbling in the effort to ignore the grant. A compromise was. 
effected, and an appointment was made to the claimants, soon after 1688. The 
land which was afterwards Salisbury and other neighboring towns, remained, 

the property of the 
Colony. Six hun- 
dred and twenty- 
eight acres of land 
in the town were 
given to Yale Col- 
lege in her early 
days, and are still 
her property, leases 
being given by her 
for nine hundred 
and ninety- nine 
years. 

In 1720, men 
by the wochogasticook. from Livingston 




SALISBURY. 










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STREET WEST OF THE WOCHOCASTK'nOK. 

Manor, in New York, purchased of the Indians land on the west hank 
-of the Housatonic, and began 
-a settlement in what was called 
Weatogue, later. Not the glit- 
ter of gold, but the more prosaic 
attraction of rich stores of iron 
•drew the first Connecticut set- 
tlers hither. In 1731, the Colo- 
nial Assembly granted to 
Daniel Bissell, of Windsor, the 
-one hundred acres of the "ore- 
bed in Salisbury." Samuel 
-and Elisha Forbes, of Canaan, 
were also well-known proprie- 
tors of ore-beds ; and Thomas 
Lamb, who, for the settlers, 
bought land of the Indians for 
*" eighty pounds and divers vic- 
tuals and clothes," and who 
tmilt the first forge at Lime 
-Rock, was an early owner of 
what was known as Hendrick's 
ore-bed. The struggle with 
Nature must have tested the 
powers of those pioneers, push- 




LKXANDKR 



348 



SALISBURY. 



ing their way through the wilderness, for the climate was severe, and the 
hills which concealed their grand but forbidden rocks with dense forests were 
the fastnesses of bears, wolves, and other unfriendly beasts. Connecticut 
pluck triumphed, however, and the settlement quickly assumed form and 
secured recognition from the Colonial authorities. In 1732, Salisbury town- 
ship was surveyed and divided into twenty-five "rights," which proved to be 
a tempting investment, in Hartford chiefly, being sold there by the Governor 
and Company in 1737. Of these rights, one was reserved for the first minis- 
ter who might be settled there ; one for the support of the ministry ; and one 
for the school ; provision being made thus in advance for religion and educa- 
tion in the town, which received its charter in October, 1741. 




'HE SWIFT HOUSE — OFTEN CALLED "THE MONTGOMERY HOUSE. 
(From an old print in possession of Judge Donald J. Warner.) 



Thomas Lamb, who seems to have been a daring speculator, bought all 
the water power in town, and according to Mr. Crossman's historical sermon 
of 1803, was not ignorant of modern methods of self-aggrandizement. For 
some years the ground was burned every autumn, to insure fertile crops the 
next year, and Thomas Lamb took the opportunity of the bleak appearance 
caused thereby to assure the Commissioners sent from the General Court that 
the land was hardly worth public attention, and that there ought to be only a 
few " rights." His practices do not appear to have brought prosperity to him, 
for he left town about 1746, and went to sea. 

True to the traditions of the fathers, the church was the center of the 
plan of the founders, — literally the central part here, for the General Court 



SALISBURY. 



349 



ordered that the meeting-house should be so placed that its "sill inclose the 
stake driven into the exact center of the town.'' There was some lack of ac- 
curacy in measuring the geographical center, but from an ecclesiastical 
and political point of view, there was no failure in carrying out the directions 
of the General 
Court. The land on 
wh i c h the old 
church stood, about 
opposite the present 
parsonage, was 
given by Colonel 
Robert Walker, of 
Stratford. Nothing 
could be more unas- 
suming than the 
first meeting-house 
in Salisbury, — a log- 
house thirty feet by 
twenty-five, which 
was divided into 
two parts ; one, to 
serve as a church, 
the other, as a dwell- 
ing-house for the 
minister. This use- 
ful building was out- 
grown after a few 
years, but the first 
minister was ordain- 
ed within its walls, 
and it was an im- 
provement on his 
first abode in one end of a blacksmith's shop, where stools served for chairs, 
and slabs for tables. 

The man who was then made the head of the infant community was one 
to leave a lasting impression on his people, for he was a natural leader. 

Some time before, Jonathan Lee, a Coventry lad, born July 10, 1718, had 
gone to Yale to study. He was graduated in 1742, and must have had his 
share of social as well as collegiate honors ; for it appears that he had entrance 
to President Clap's family. He came to the notice of the settlers in Salisbury, 
and, being of fine figure and pleasing manners, and in the bloom of his twen- 
ty-fifth-year, he seemed to them a very desirable addition to their colony. So, 
in January, 1742, they asked him to be their minister. He must have been 
coy or extraordinarily cautious, for he considered the matter for seven months. 
As with most deliberate people, his pondering resulted in an unchangeable 
decision ; for he remained with the church in Salisbury until the day of his 
death, in 1788. But perhaps the seven months were not wholly occupied in 
prayerful consideration of the needs of the Salisbury church, and perhaps the 
answer depended on the reply of some one else, for, two weeks after accepting 




THE DR. JOSHUA PORTER HOUSE. 



,;o 



SALISBURY. 



the offer of the Salisbury people, he carried away his trophy from New Haven 
in the shape of Elizabeth Metcalf, the step-daughter of President Clap. She 
probably made her bridal entry to town on horseback, as it was summer, and 
neither snow-shoes nor ox-sleds would be necessary ; and as all the luxury that 
she could bring would be what couid be squeezed into her share of the compound 
meeting house, it follows that she must have left the flesh-pots of Egypt behind 
her. But what a lasting luxury of glorious air and scenery was hers ! We 
wish that Elizabeth Lee had kept a diary, as did her illustrious step-father ; 
very entertaining would it be now. Probably the cares of housekeeping in 
the church-parsonage left no opportunnity for literary pursuits ; or, perhaps, 
she was too wise to trust her thoughts and observations to paper. She could 
have described the cheerful suggestions lurking in the portholes and towers of 




THE BALL FAMILY. 
From old silhouettes originally in the Ball house. i. Lois (Camp) Ball ; 2. Thomas Ball (parents) : 
3. Maria; 4. Robert; 5. Sally ; 6. Emily; 7. Caroline; 8. James (children). From the original in possession 
of Judge Donald J. Warner. 

her dwelling, and the four forts in the settlement, a forethought for the war- 
whoop and the night attack of Indian neighbors ; she could have said that 
the salary of forty pounds made it necessary for her husband's dignified back 
to bend beneath the load of his own wheat, carried to the mill to be ground ; 
she could have described the prowling bears and wolves, the " Christopher 
canoe place," probably Christopher Dutcher's ferry, and the Burrall's bridge, 
built in 1744, the next not until 1760. She could have said that the school of 
the town began in 1743, and that in that year, two school houses were within 
its limits, one at Lime Rock, the other at Salisbury ; and that the course em- 
braced reading, writing, arithmetic, and the Assembly's Catechism. 

If only our conscientious foremothers had neglected their duty a little, and 
had scribbled a few diverting notes by the way for our benefit ! 



SALISBURY. 



35* 




THE CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. 



The settlers were not long satisfied with their cramped Sabbath quarters, 
and in 1749, they decided to build a larger and better church. For that pur- 
pose, a committee was appointed: Captain Samuel Beebe, Thomas Chipman, 
and Ensign Samuel Bellows. The festivities usually attendant on a "raising" 



* v XL y \t:- *. * 




35 2 



SALISBURY. 




were not omitted, for 
Mr. Bellows was di- 
rected to procure " 16 
gals, of rhum and 
half one hundred 
weight of shuger and 
two pounds of all- 
spice for raising the 
meetinghouse." Be- 
sides that, Sergeant 
Samuel Moore was 
told to buy " eight 
bushels of wheat " to 
be made into cake to 
be used on the same 
occasion. The cooks 
had to begin at the 
foundation in those 
days. With all this, 
the building was 
raised, November 24 
and 25, 1749- The 
"rhum" and cake r 
and the sturdy hearts, 
and hands of the 
workers helped to 
make a building that, 
was used for a half a. 
century, and which 
still exists as a framework for the Town Hall, opposite the present church. 
The sermons of the handsome young Mr. Lee were not heard from that 
pulpit alone ; for he held services on each Sabbath at three separate places r 
Lakeville, then called 
"Furnace Village; 
Lime Rock, then 
known as the " Hol- 
low," and Salisbury 
proper. Perhaps the 
open air exercises re- 
quired for all this 
vSunday labor 
strengthened the ser- 
mon-making brain 
for activity so con- 
stant as that. Stray 
rays of light are 
thrown on the life of 
the settlements, by ^ 
the pages of the first THE HUSHNELL TAVERN . 




ST. JOHN S EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 



WtW*& 



M A 



%8S»1' 



SALISBURY. 



353 




JUDGE DONALD J. WARNER. 

Barrington. Very near the present 



volume of church records, bound in pigskin, where we find that every domes- 
tic beast had a kind of Greek cross branded by the "brander " and that hogs 
were allowed, by formal resolution to run on the common. A strong hint of 
terrors of the time is found in the bounty of three pounds (a large sum for the 
time and place) offered for each wolf 
that should be killed, and also that of a 
shilling for the death of each rattle- 
snake. Far from being the resort of 
fashion, the (i solitary places" were 
then the cause of anxiety and fear. As 
Mr. Crossman naively remarks, "the 
burning, with the ponds, mountains, 
and cliffs of rocks, made the face of 
nature appear forbidding to those who 
were not appraised of the fertility of 
the soil. 

But iron, which lured the settlers 
from the rich meadows of the Connecti- 
cut and the Farmington, gave the chief 
occupation of the first years. At -first 
the ore was carried in leather bags on 
the backs of horses by the " Ore Path " 
from Ore Hill to the iron works at Great 
railroad in Lakeville is the well which was " Ethan Allen's Well." It is re- 
corded that a forge existed at the "Hollow," now Lime Rock, in 1734: and 
from that day to this, one has not ceased to be in operation there. There was 

also an iron furnace 
at " Furnace Vill- 
age," now Lake- 
ville. Here the 
Salisbury men, John 
Hazleton and Ethan 
Allen, (later of Ti- 
conderoga renown) 
and Samuel Forbes, 
of Canaan, built and 
used a furnace in 
1762. But, wherever 
the center, the signs 
of activity in the 
manufacture of the 
useful metal ap- 
peared OH all sides. 
Che beds were open- 
ed at various places, 
the rude machinery 
o\ those days was 

taxed to the utmost to make the earth give up its treasures, and many furnaces 
sent forth their fiery blasts to transmute the rough ore into saleable iron. Of 




MAPLE SHADE HOTEL. 



354 



SALISBURY. 



these ore-beds, " Old Ore Hill " is the oldest in the state, and the most notable. 
There a hundred acres had been granted to Ephraim Williams. In fact, 
"Town Hill," in spite of the fierceness of the winter winds' attack, was the 
spot originally meant for the town, and a wide street led from that straight to 
the " Old Ore Bed." The imposing buildings of the Hotchkiss School stand 
on the place set apart for a public square. Let no one say that the strict men 
of those days did not have an eye for the beauties of Nature. 

Iron became a sort of circulating medium, and promissory notes were 
more frequently made payable in iron than in money. The iron obtained here 
was superior to all other iron in toughness and durability ; and therein was 
Salisbury's destinctive claim to Revolutionary glory. 




SCOVILLE MEMORIAL LIBRARY 



We all know how faithfully the little state of Connecticut and her grand 
old governor, Jonathan Trumbull, were Aaron and Hur to Washington during 
the distressful days of lack of all commissary supplies; how almost everything, 
from food and clothes to horses and wagons was provided for the Continental 
army by their heroic efforts ; but that would not have sufficed if Connect- 
icut earth and Connecticut ingenuity and skill had not produced the cannon to 
give in thundering .tones, on sea and land, the message from Freedom's hills. 
No sooner had the "shot heard round the world " given the signal than the 
Salisbury furnaces were summoned to do their best. Secure among the hills, 
they were never interrupted by fear of attack or capture, and proudly did they 
<do their work. 

Before the war, Richard Smith, an Englishman, bought the furnace at 



SALISBURY. 



355 



" Furnace Village," then the only foundry in Connecticut. He wisely returned 
to the mother country, when he found that he could not sympathize with the 
rebellious feelings of his neighbors ; and he abandoned his estate here, so that 
the state took possession, making Dr. Joshua Porter its agent. To this furnace 
came frequent orders for shot, shell, cannon, and chains, from the Governor 
and Council, for the use of the army and the navy. Whether Richard Smith 
objected to having his guns turned on him, so to speak, history does not 
report. 

Hither came the statesmen of the time, Jay and Morris, and Trumbull, 
and Hamilton, to look with anxious eyes on those furnace fires, perhaps to 
wonder whether the Salisbury iron would still be true to its reputation. One 




.EADING ROOM. SCOVILLE MEMORIAL LIBRARY. 



flaw in a cannon might decide the fate of a battle and so turn the course 
of empire. Bostwick Hill, between Salisbury Center and Lakeville, was the 
target against which the cannon were tried. Many cannon balls oi the ancient 
kind were found imbedded in the earth when it was cultivated as a tarTn, and 
Mr. Milton Robbins has one of those balls in his possession- The old ore-beds 
did honor to the state in which they lay, and sent forth cannon that did their 
stern work on many a Revolutionary field. 

Here, at Lakeville, were made the armaments whose volleys began the long 
list of our naval honors. From this spot were trundled out the cannon which 
served Commodore Truxton, on the Constellation, in those desperate conflicts 
which resulted in the defeat and capture of the French frigates. L'Insurgent 
and La Vengeance, in 1789, thus averting the danger of war after Jay's In 



35 6 



SALISBURY. 



and in 1798, when the Constitution went to sea, she carried forth Salisbury 
cannon for her historic career. 

For generations, the iron industry has been continuous here, where have 
been made cannon and anchors for the government, and rifle iron for the 
arsenals at Springfield and Harper's Ferry. By the Bessemer steel process, 
good steel can be made from inferior grades of iron, and modern methods of 
manufacture and transportation have taken away all chance of monopoly from 
the Salisbury ore-beds, but the superiority of its iron is still undisputed, and 
the remains of the ancient hoisting machinery and furnaces, and the wan 
spaces of the ore-beds themselves are features of the landscape that remind 
us of what has been. 




ON THE ROAD UP MOUNT RIGA. 

Efut the "loud-mouthed dogs of war," and the emblematic anchors were 
not the only things which Salisbury contributed to the Revolutionary war. 
Men, of the best blood and staunchest hearts, went out from the mountain 
town. Patriotism was in the very air the citizens breathed. It was to the 
neighboring town of Litchfield that the statue of George III, hurled from its 
pedestal in New York, was brought to be cast into bullets to be fired at his 
Majesty's soldiers. Some time before, the Rev. Jonathan Lee had seized the 
august opportunity of an election sermon before the Governor and the General 
Court, to utter the suggestive words : " Dominion or right to rule, is founded 



SALISBURY. 



357 



neither on nature or grace, but in compact and confederation." Some Salis- 
bury men had gone to the French war, making a part of the five thousand 
men whom Connecticut, in a few days, raised and sent to the field, in addition 







LOTUS LAKE, MT. RIGA. 

to those forces she had already sent. As early as 1756, the soldier's spirit had 
been shown in the organization of two military companies in the town ; and 
prompt response was made to the call for troops in 1775. During the Revolu- 
tionary war, twenty- 
one officers and more 
than one hundred 
non-commissioned 
officers and privates 
served in the army. 

Among the offic- 
ers were Colonel 
Blagden, Major Luth- 
er Stoddard, and Dr. 
Joshua Porter, who, 
with Dr. Solomon 
Williams, had mig- 
rated from Lebanon, 
Conn. Dr. Porter, 
as Colonel of Militia, 
was present at Bur- 
goyne's surrender ; 
and besides that, was 
of notable service as 
Continental agent 
for cannon, shot, and 
so forth. Colonel Ethan Allen, who makes so piquant a figure on the Revolu- 
tionary]scene, and who wrote a narrative of his experiences as a British captive. 




SUMMER COTTAGE OF DONALD T. W IRNER 



35* 



SALISBURY. 



was a dweller here for some years, and, as has been said, was one of the pro- 
prietors of the old furnace. From Salisbury went out the first efficient cavalry 
that joined the Continental army, Colonel Elisha Sheldon's troop of horse,. 

which did most 
valuable service. 
Throughout the war, 
the gallant town 
gave even more than 
the required support 
to the army ; it ex- 
ceeded the quotas of 
men and supplies ; it 
paid bounties in ad- 
dition to those offered 
by the state, and, 
often when even the 
undaunted Governor 
Trumbull was on the 
verge of despair, did 
his appeal for help in 
an emergency bring 
forth new recruits, 
and fresh stores of 
food, clothing, and 
ammunition from 
this remote corner of 
the state. 

Of Bu rgoyne's 
sage's ravine. surrendered army, 

several regiments were quartered in Lakeville and Salisbury, on their way 
to Hartford. One of the Hessian soldiers, John Lotz, was so well pleased 
by his surroundings, 
that he deserted from 
his regiment, and be- 
came a miller here. 
The tents of the cap- 
tives stretched out 
for a mile or more, 
and the officers made 
merry in the midst of 
their misfortune, by 
giving a ball in the 
house of Lieutenant 
Ashbel Beebe, on 
Beebe's Hill. A por- 
table wine chest left 
bv them is still treas- RKMAINS OF fo^ge where anchor of "the constitution" was cast. 

ured as a memento of their stay. 

In the words of Judge Church : "We may say, boastingly, that our mines- 












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BL 


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v . : ; ".'"*"' 


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Wwr, '" • v Jti 


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SALISBURY. 359 

furnished the material, our streams the power, and our citizens the labor, by 
which much efficiency was given to the great cause of American independ- 
ence." 

The associations of the famous war were strengthened by the presence of 
three citizens who dwelt in the town after the army was disbanded : Archibald 
Campbell, Joseph Hollister, originally from Glastonbury, who was with 
Putnam, and commanded a guard on the Hudson which captured a British 
soldier bearing messages from Burgoyne to Clinton ; and John Russell, Ser- 
geant of Artillery in the New York line, who was in the military family of 
Washington. 

Of distinguished men in professions other than that of war, the town has 
seen a great number. The Rev. Jonathan Lee moved among his people as a 
strong power for good until the frontier hamlet had grown to be a place of 
importance commensurate with the dignity of its pastor. He was his own 
law in certain matters, evidently, if we may trust specimens of his church 
records: as the following, copied verbatim et literatim from the baptismal 
register. He was fond of Latin, and the page begins with a Latin sentence 
and then goes on — " — for Ephraim Ketcham viz. Sarah & one & onemore name 
forgot and Hannah 65 " (that is 1765) — "for Joshua Porter's wife Joshua ; 60 
& Abigail ; 62 & Eunice & peterBuell 73 & Augustus" ! non memor temporis % 
Sept." ! 

It is pleasant to see his '■ 44 years in the service of Christ " commemorated 
on the church walls by a tablet raised one hundred years after his death by 
Mr. Jonathan Scoville. Mr. Lee is buried in the old burying ground back of 
the Town Hall. 

We catch a glimpse of another holy man, the Rev. Mr. Crossman, who was 
here from 1796 to 181 2, whose untiring ministrations to the sick in an epidemic 
of typhoid fever ended in his own death. Blessings on his memory ! 

There was another long pastorate among this people, that of the Rev. 
Adam Reid, D. D., who, coming hither from the Scotch Highlands, made a home 
for forty years in this other land of loch and glen and ben. He w r as a master 
in theology, a forcible teacher, a noble man, revered by his people. He ceased 
not to write sermons even to the day of his death. Said one of his hearers, 
"When Dr. Ried stops preaching, I feel as if I had dropped from a height." 
His success as a "fisher of men" was perhaps promoted by the ardor with 
which he accepted the gifts of Providence in this fisherman's paradise. It is 
said that many jolly days were spent by him in the company of Henry Ward 
Beecher, while scouring the countryside in pursuit of this favorite sport. Like 
Mr. Lee, Dr. Reid was here during a war, the civil war with all its intensity of 
feeling. 

Dr. Reid died September 23, 1877. 

From that congregation have gone forth eighteen ministers, two of them 
missionaries : four governors, Jonas Galusha, for several years a popular gov- 
ernor of Vermont ; Thomas Chittenden, governor of Vermont, with the 
exception of one year, for eighteen years, from 1778 to 1797 ; Martin Chitten- 
den, his brother, also a governor of Vermont ; and our own honored governor. 
Alexander Hamilton Holley : Three State Chief-Justices, Nathaniel Chip 
man, an officer in the Continental army, who became Chief Justice oi Vermont. 
his brother Daniel Chipman, being also a prominent Vermont lawyer ; Chief- 



3 6o SALISBURY. 

Justice Spencer, of New York ; and Samuel Church, Chief-Justice of Connecti- 
cut, a man who won and deserved the highest esteem as a lawyer, a scholar, 
and a public-spirited citizen : three United States Senators, eight members of 
Congress, two lieutenant-governors, and military and naval officers galore. 
Judge Church was a classmate of Calhoun, at Yale. He was an authority on 
local history, and gathered his knowledge together in some notable addresses 
on anniversary occasions. 

The first lawyer in the town was Jabez Swift, of Kent. In 1773, he built 
the stately stone house on Town Hill, often called the " Montgomery House." 
He planned more lavishly than his means seemed to warrant, so that the ball- 
room was not finished before his death, which occurred while he was with the 
army near Boston ; but the beautiful house, with its spacious rooms, its rich 
cornices and ceilings, its daintily ornamented walls, its fine hall, and its impos- 
ing entrance, stood among its gardens, as a landmark in the country, for many 
years. Mrs. Swift was connected with the Livingstones, who owned large 
tracts of land in the vicinity. In 1774, the house was sold to Heman Swift, 
who sold it in 1776 to Robert Livingstone. His cousin, Janet Livingston, who 
married General Montgomery, is said to have been a visitor here at times ; and 
on account of the retired situation, to have been residing here when the sad 
news of her husband's death at Quebec reached her, although she went to the 
Hudson to receive his body when it was brought thither. The saddle and ac- 
coutrement of the lost hero were brought to his widow at this house. As the 
years passed, the house was used as an inn, and then was inhabited by some 
one who did not know the actual or the historic value of the mansion ; so that 
at last, for lack of repairs, trifling at first, it fell into a state of decay before 
the day came when the hand of a Daughter of the Revolution or a Colonial 
Dame could be reached out to save it. Its exquisite mantels and other wood- 
work were taken by those who chose to buy them, and some of them now 
adorn fine houses in Sharon, Conn. At last it became unsafe, and its walls 
were partly torn down, to reappear in the buildings of the Hotchkiss School. 
The sight of the pathetic ruin must bring regret to every lover of colonial 
homesteads and of our historic mementos. 

Another lawyer of genius and eccentricity was Colonel Adonijah Strong, 
a pupil of Swift. Stories still linger of his rather boisterous wit. His suc- 
cessor in his profession and ability was his son, the Hon. Martin Strong, whose 
son, the Hon. Theron Strong, continued the family reputation in the state of 
New York. Another pupil of Colonel Strong, was Joseph Canfield, an able 
lawyer, and a noted contemporary of the latter was General Elisha Sterling. 
All of these men filled various positions of trust in state affairs many times 
and were truly well-tried "public servants." 

The medical profession was not left behind in the list of noted men. The 
first one to take his rounds over the hills with his saddle-bags was Dr. Solomon 
Williams, who probably emigrated from Labanon, Conn. Little is known of 
him except that he died in 1757, to be succeeded by another Lebanon man, a 
Yale graduate (1754) Dr. Joshua Porter, whose highly successful labors in 
his pc ->fessioa and ia pablic life made his career a long succession of benefits 
to his fellow-citizens. What ceasless energy was his ! For half a century, one 
of the best physicians of his time ; during the war, a colonel of militia and 
an efficient agent for the Continental Congress; for thirteen years, an Asso- 



SALISBURY. 



361 



ciate Judge of the County Court ; for sixteen years, a Chief Justice of 
the County Court ; for twenty years a Selectman ; for thirty-five years 
a Justice of the Peace ; thirty-seven years, Judge of Probate for the 
district of Sharon; for fifty-one sessions, from 1764, a member of the As- 
sembly, — he yet found time to live ninety- five years, and to be loved and 
honored throughout that long period. If anyone did, he must have deserved 
a " well done " when he went up higher. Verily, there were giants in those 
days. 

He is buried in the old cemetery. His house is still standing in Lakeville, 
the chimney bearing the date of its erection, 1774. The tall sycamore which 
rears its unswerving trunk in front, is one of two trees planted by the doctor 
himself. His son, Peter B. Porter, was, with De Witt Clinton, of great in- 




AT TWIN LA* 



Alienee in promoting the Erie Canal. His services in the field, in the war of 
181 2, won for him thanks and medals from Congress, and he was asked by the 
President to be commander-in-chief of the army. He was Secretary of War 
under President John Quincy Adams. 

Another interesting figure in the medical annals of the town was Dr. Sam- 
uel Cowdray, who lived near " Camp's Forge," now Chapinville. He became a 
naval surgeon, and was on board the fated " Philadelphia " when she fell into 
the hands of the Barbary pirates in those days when their atrocities paralyzed 
the powers of Europe. The weary months spent in Tripoli as a slave were 
perhaps cheered by the company of another Salisbury man, who was a captive 



362 SALISBURY. 

in Tripoli, and was inspired to describe his sufferings in verse, under the name 
of " The Horrors of Slavery." 

Three brothers, Caleb, Luther, and Benajah Ticknor, all became doctors, 
of high repute. The first was interested in the beginnings of a library in 
the town, was the author of several medical works, and had a large practice in 
New York. Dr. Luther Ticknor remained here, being at one time president, 
of the State Medical Society, while the third, the oldest of eight children had 
a romantic career. A struggle with poverty and with various conditions 
antagonistic to the pursuit of knowledge seems to enhance the magnificent 
results that he achieved. His extensive travels as a naval surgeon made him 
conversant with men and things, and persistent study made him proficeint in 
eight languages. He is said to have conversed in Latin with a Hindoo Brah- 
min. Neither adversity nor success seemed to diminish his greatest charms,. 
a benevolent heart and courteous manner. 

It was of such times and such people that Dr. Bushnell spoke when he 
looked backward from the days of 1851. "If our sons and daughters should 
assemble, a hundred years hence, they will scarcely be able to imagine the 
Arcadian pictures now so fresh in the memory of many of us, though to the 
younger part already matters of hearsay more than of personal knowledge or 
remembrance. The spinning wheels of wool and flax that used to buzz so 
familiarly in the childish ears of some of us, will be heard no more forever, 
seen no more, in fact, save in the halls of Antiquarian Societies, where the 
delicate daughters will be asking, what these strange machines are, and how 
they were made to go ? The huge, hewn-timber looms, that used to occupy a 
room by themselves, in the farmhouses, will be gone, cut up for cord wood, and 
their heavy thwack, beating up the woof, will be heard no more by the passer- 
by, not even the Antiquarian Halls .will find room to harbor a specimen. The 
long strips of linen, bleaching on the grass, and tended by a sturdy maiden, 
sprinkling them each hour, from her water-can, under a broiling sun, thus to. 
prepare the Sunday linen for her brothers and her own outfit, will have disap- 
peared, save as the}^ return to fill a picture in some novel or ballad of the old 
time. The heavy Sunday coats, that grew on sheep individually remembered,, 
more comfortably carried in warm weather on the arm, and the specially fine- 
striped, blue and white pantaloons, of linen just from the loom, will no longer 
be conspicuous in the processions of footmen going to meeting, but will have 
given place to showy carriages, filled with gentlemen in broadcloth, festooned 
with chains of California gold, and delicate ladies holding perfumed sun-^ 
shades. The churches, too, that used to be simple brown meeting-houses, cov- 
ered with rived clapboards of oak, will have come down, mostly, from the bleak 
hill tops into the close villages and populous towns, that crowd the waterfalls, 
and the railroads ; and the old burial places, where the fathers sleep, will be 
left to their lonely altitude, token, shall be say, of an age that lived as much 
nearer to heaven and as much less under the world. Would that we might 
raise some worthy monument to a state which is then to be so far passed by,, 
so worthy in all future time to be held in the dearest reverence." 

Dr. Bushnell's prophecies seem a little archaic, but his experience enabled 
him to give a sunnier picture of New England life than we see in the heavy 
shadows of Miss Wilkins. 



SALISBURY. 363 

And then the Holleys, "shall they be forgot? 

Who shall be named, if they're remembered not? 
The vigorous offshoots from a sturdy stem, 

Where will you find a brotherhood like them? 
Strong as the iron wherein their townsmen deal, 

Ay, and as true and springy as the steel.* 

Seldom has one family so many able men : Luther Holley, one of the best 
specimens of the self-made man, one, too, who could repeat "Paradise Lost" 
from memory ; John M., the surveyor ; Rev. Horace Holley, I). D., one of the 
most brilliant pulpit orators of Boston, and afterwards the president of Tran- 
sylvania University ; Orville, distinguished as a lawyer and editor ; Myron, 
lawyer and reformer, of whom it is said that without his great executive 
ability, the Erie Canal would have been a failure, and whose work as a pioneer 
in the Anti-Slavery work is commemorated by a fine monument at Mount 
Hope, Rochester, paid for by one cent contributions of the Liberty Party ; 
Governor Alexander Hamilton Holley, who was a landmark in the town and 
state for many years ; his son, Alexander Lyman Holley, the metallurgist and 
engineer, who introduced to this country the Bessemer process of making steel, 
and whose brilliant achievements as a writer, orator, and scientific man made 
him famous on two continents. 

Salisbury has given us men of note in the educational field, too ; Caleb 
Bingham, the compiler of the famous old school reader, " The National 
Preceptor;" the Rev. Chauncey Lee, Professor Church, the mathematician, 
of West Point ; Professor Chester Averill, the chemist, of Union College, and 
many others. One of the early inhabitants was Sergeant Samuel Moore. His 
eldest son and namesake was a famous mathematician in his day, and has the 
honor of having written the first American work on surveying, a work long used 
and highly esteemed. It was his renown as an instructor in surveying that 
brought hither Alexander Hamilton for a brief time of study. 

Perhaps, all unconscious of the brilliant career before him, the precocious 
youth, who was to win the friendship of that great man who had looked into 
surveying, too, in his youth, then gathered some strength from Nature's calm- 
ness before the plunge into the whirl of his life. He lived in a small house, 
opposite the present house of Mr. Silas Moore, and in the second story front 
room, he studied, taking his meals across the street, in a larger house where 
Mr. Moore's house stands now, the old house being at present a yellow 
barn in the rear. He was to young and undeveloped then for people to think 
of laying away wine-glasses and plates as soon as he had touched them as was 
already happening with Washington ; but these facts are scrupulously remem- 
bered. 

Salisbury has had its share of the strange and marvelous. Ghosts have 
enjoyed the moonlight here with great freedom. The " moving rocks" on the 
banks of Washining Lake can probably be explained ; but for the mystery of 
the famous stone throwing, no solution has ever been found. On November 
8, 1802, suddenly, in the midst of bright days and calm nights, three 
houses in Sage's Ravine suffered a bombardment of pieces of mortar, and of 
stones of a kind not known in that region, continuing several days and nights, 
fifty panes of glass being broken. The direction and violence of the missiles 

*Pierpont. 



3 6 4 SALISBURY. 

was such as to forbid the supposition that they had been dropped from the 
roof of the house, and although vigilant watch was established, no possible 
human agency could be discovered for the attack which seemed to come from 
the sunlit air itself with the force of demoniacal possession ; and yet, the stones 
stopping unaccountably within the limits of the window sills, appeared to be 
held in control by the same magic. There was a fine text for the lovers of 
blood-curdling imaginary tales, and amply was it " improved." 

When the Western Reserve became a subject of popular interest, the men 
of Salisbury were especially aroused; in fact the track was surveyed by 
Augustus Porter, a son of Dr. Joshua Porter, one of his assistants being John 
M. Holley. The map of Ohio still gives Salisbury reminiscences in the names 
of the towns of Canfield and Johnston, in Trumbull county. The Everts 
family was prominent there, too. 

The name of the town, in spite of a clinging, absurd tradition that it has 
given honor to a transient inhabitant, of little importance beyond being con- 
victed of murder, seems to be another instance of the fondness of the New 
England people for the sweet names of the mother-country. Of all the villages 
within the town limits, — Lakeville, Lime Rock, Chapinville, Hammertown, 
Ore Hill, — few seem to have had Indian names. On the west bank of the 
Housatonic is Weatogue, a repetition of the Weatogue which is a part of Sims- 
bury, on the banks of the Farmington. This is sometimes explained by 
the flight of Indians friendly to the English, from the center of the state 
during King Philip's war, and by their transference of the old name to the 
new home ; and sometimes, by an exchange of lands between the settlers. 

Salisbury street in not adorned by stately colonial houses, and yet it has a 
self-possessed air, with not a trace of neglect or thriftlessness about its com- 
fortable abodes. The arching canopy of trees, that surest mark of a true New 
England village, and the well-kept paths make the loiterer quite indifferent 
to summer sun or shower. It does not command the far reaching prospect of 
meadows and blue hills, or the glint of a parallel -rolling river, but at one end 
it is crossed by the generous, sparkling Wochocastigook, gem of woodland 
streams, with its airy bridge, and at the other, the Cobble, a rocky knoll, a 
hundred feet high, lures you with its easy nearness, and the imposing front of 
Barack Matiff towers over you, bearing aloft its curious cross-shaped tree, and 
recalling by its name the fact that there was a large proportion of Dutch fam- 
ilies among the early inhabitants. A little upward stroll in the sunset-time 
will bring you to lovely harmonies of hill and dale each step disclosing new 
beauties. The Ball house, the oldest inhabited one in town, is just in sight, 
but is two or three miles away from the street. The house was built by Dea- 
con Luke Camp, a pioneer of the town, and a man prominent in church and 
town affairs. Lois Camp was born, was married, and always lived in the 
house, where she died when very old. Thomas Ball died in 1812, of a fever 
which was epidemic then. 

The Vandusens, one of the Dutch families that migrated from New York 
in 1720 to Weatogue, and other families, were attached to the Church of Eng- 
land ; and after various efforts, their descendants built the tasteful St. John's 
Church, in 1824. This " red church." (in village parlance,) and the "white 
church," built in 1800, with its harmonious combination of gables, point across 
the street to the tiny lock-up, about large enough for a doll's house, but quite 



SALISBURY. 365 

sufficient for the incarceration of transgressors in Salisbury, as the visible 
token of the restraining influence of their work ; and a little farther on, the 
grey, granite walls of the Scoville Memorial Library, make a picture in a 
green frame. 

Did I say that the shaded street was a trait of a New England village ? 
Truly, it is the token of the careful forethought of former generations. The 
tasteful modern library might almost as surely be called a hall-mark of a 
Connecticut or Massachusetts town, and it tells of the loving remembrance of 
the men of to-day. 

This library has a history which runs far back of the attractive modern 
building. The Englishman, Richard Smith, who was the owner of the ore-bed 
before the Revolution, was evidently a man of advanced ideas. He was not 
wholly absorbed in mining and money-making ; for he had at least two hun- 
dred books sent from England for the beginning of a library ; and he so inter- 
ested his neighbors that a Library Association was formed, November 18, 17 71. 
Thirty-four persons subscribed sums varying from £1 to ^5 each. The book 
which contains the original agreement and subscriptions of the founders has 
been preserved. The diction may seem as old-fashioned as the paper, but the 
standard of good citizenship, which led men, within thirty years of their 
first struggles with bears and wolves, to contribute money for a public library 
can bear comparison with that of the inhabitants of flourishing cities at the 
present day. 

The preamble is as follows : " Whereas, we the subscribers looking upon it 
consistent with our duty to promote and encourage every rational Plan that 
may be proposed for the Encouragement of true religion ; for the Promoting 
of Virtue, Education and Learning : for the Discouragement of Vice and Im- 
morality ; and whereas the fitting up of a Library of Books upon true Piety, 
Divinity, &c, hath been proposed by a Number of Gentlemen in this town ; 
Taking the above mentioned Plan into Consideration and maturely considering 
of the same judge that a Library of Books on Divinity, Philosophy, and 
History, &c, may be condusive to bring to pass the above laudable design, we 
therefore do, for the obtaining and procuring the said Library, mutually cov- 
enant and agree with each other to pay the several sums," etc. 

" Signed : Joshua Porter, Nathaniel Evarts, Lot Norton, Samuel Moore, 
Jun.," etc. 

A generation passed, and a native of Salisbury, the Caleb Bingham before 
mentioned, once the owner of the farm between the lakes which was after- 
wards the home of Mr. Frederick Miles, removed to Boston, and from his new 
home, in January, 1803, he sent back a token of interest in the form of one 
hundred and fifty books, which formed the ''Bingham Library for Youth." 
Thus Mr. Bingham has the honor of being the first man in this country to give 
a library, especially devoted to the interests of the young. The next addition 
was the "Church Library," the gift of Miss Harriet Church, the daughter of 
Mr. Frederick Church, and the niece of Judge Church. After some years. 
these beginnings were gathered together, with additional purchases, and the 
Town Hall became the shelter of the collection. 

Then came the happy thought of another man of Salisbury birth. Mr. 
Jonathan Scoville, of Buffalo, who bequeathed a sum for a library building. 
Members of the family of Mr. Nathaniel Church Scoville took up the cause 



3 G6 SALISBURY. 

with zeal, gave more money, and have since borne the running expenses of 
the Library, and have contributed large numbers of books. The work of 
building was completed in 1894. The cool grey granite of which it is made 
was given by the owner of a home quarry, within three-quarters of a mile, 
for Salisbury is rich in marble and other building stone. Taste and liber- 
ality have made it beautiful without and within. Chimes ring out the hours 
from the tower, and the books go forth every day' to bless all who live or even 
sojourn in the town. Many objects of local and historical interest have been 
in the cases of the reading-room ; dainty pieces of old china, silver, and needle- 
work, old books, old newspapers, etc. Over the fireplace is a small bit of carved 
stone from the cathedral in Salisbury, in old "England. It was given by the 
Dean and Chapter of Salisbury, at the request of the Rev. John Calvin God- 
dard, of Salisbury, Conn. Over the slab is an inscription : " A Gift from the 
Cathedral of Salisbury, England, carved in the XV Century." Probably the 
panel was once a part of the Hungerford Chapel, as it has the chained raven 
of the Hungerford family, and the coat-of-arms, a lion rampant amid three 
fleurs-de-lis, which belonged to a family that intermarried with the Hunger- 
fords. 

The building includes an attractive hall, with a piano, and a small stage 
suitably equipped for private theatricals, and, below stairs, a kitchen, and 
pantries ; all forming a central and convenient place for various festive, liter- 
ary, and musical occasions. 

When you explore the yellow pages of the original book of records of the 
*' Smith Literary Association," you find curious entries. The language, spel- 
ling, and punctuation, are careful and scholarly, and the regulations show that 
the books were regarded as treasures to be cherished. Number 11 says that 
""No Partner shall take out of the Library at one time more than three Books; 
and if any Person shall be uneasy about a Book, he shall have it for one Cop- 
per more, and so on to the highest bidder." It is not only in the days of 
" Trilby " and " Quo Vadis " that there has been competition for a desired 
book. Two or more inspectors were appointed, who were to " carefully exam- 
ine all books returned and assess damages." That their duties were scrupulous- 
ly performed is made evident by the closely written pages of reported injuries 
and subsequent fines. The utmost accuracy was observed in setting down the 
date, the number of the book, the character of the damage inflicted, and the 
page which had suffered ; as, " 1773, Jan. 18, 173,22,99, Jared Everett, greas'd 
P. 28, — jQo, s. o, d. 9. 1774, May 14, Samuel Moore, Jr., — Leaves doubled 
down, jQo, s. o, d. 2. 

Some men, probably the inveterate readers, seem to have wasted their 
substance grievously in book-fines, being frequent transgressors. The necessity 
of holding a candle in the hand, near the page, probably explains the numer- 
ous cases of "greasing," and the occasional u drops of tallow." There is a hint 
of driving over rough roads to return the books when the monthly opening of 
the library occured, in "muddying several leaves, 2s." Some people were 
evidently really careless, for we see "dirtying and tearing, 2s ; " "leaves cut 
and doubled, 6d ; " " nastying with ink ; " " tearing civers and outside leaf ; " 
(cover is invariably spelled with an 'i.') And so the list runs on. The heaviest 
fine is 5s. for " tearing the civers and dirtying." It must have been an aggra- 
vated offence. Undoubtedly much heartburning and many hot disputes arose 



SALISBURY. 367 

from this exact inspection ; but it taught the proper care of books, and people 
always value most that which is not too easily secured. 

The books were quite worth the care which was given them, and the 
selection shows great taste and discrimination. With few exceptions, the list 
reads like one prepared now for a course in literary classics, and the two hun- 
dred volumes comprise history, travels, poetry, essays, philosophy, religion, 
biography, mythology, and, — two novels : " Pamela," (spelled Parmelia) and 
"Sir Charles Grandison." It is no wonder that Salisbury produced so many 
intellectual men, when the circumstances of their youth were such as to make 
them carefully read such books as " Paradise Lost," " Paradise Regained," 
"Pope's Homer," Dryden's Virgil," the "Spectator," and "Tatler," the letters 
of Chesterfield, the works of Smollett, Montesquieu, Goldsmith, (and Whis- 
ton's Theory !) and translations of Josephus, Seneca, Cato, Fenelon. One book 
is comprehensive in subject, " The World;" and great liberality in religious 
taste is shown. The Koran is in friendly companionship with a Dictionary of 
the Bible, a Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, and an "Impartial History of the 
Church of Christ." 

One of the oldest books is "A Collection of Articles, Injunctions, etc., 
London, Printed for Robert Paulet, at the Bible, Chancery Land, near Fleet- 
street, 1675." The frontispiece is the " Seales of the Armes of the Bishops of 
England," and among them is that of "Sarum," afterwards to be made famous 
by Reform Bills and Macauley. The book is partly in English and partly in 
Latin. "Echard's Ecclesiastical History, 1718," " Neal's History of the Puri- 
tans, London, 1754," in two large volumes, and "Hutchinson's History of 
Massachusetts Bay " show traces of much reading. You almost hear the voice 
of Jonathan Edwards coming across the mountain, when you pick up the first 
edition of "The Freedom of the Will" ending "Your obliged Friend and 
Brother, J. Edwards, Stockbridge, July 25, 1757." Here is also his "Origi- 

nal Sin," "re-printed ill London in 1766." 

The books in the "Bingham Library for Youth "were read with great 
avidity. Some of them are in existence now. "Plutarch's Lives," "Chivalry 
of the Crusades," "The Barbary States," "George Washington," are sobered 
by eminently proper work like " Address to a Young Lady," and " Human 
Prudence," which would be sure to be well preserved in almost any library. 

Ideas do go "marching on;" and when you look about the attractive read- 
ing-room, with its rugs and window seats and pictures, you feel that the idea 
which animated Richard Smith and those who followed him, found an expres- 
sion fuller than would have been possible for them in those days, in the beau- 
tiful gift and fostering care of the Scoville family; and you feel sure that the 
resulting pleasure and benefit which are evident already will not find their 
bounds of time and place here, but in those far reaching circles of influence 
which we contemplate in imagination. 

Among the features of Salisbury Street are the Soldiers Monument, the 
old Stiles house (1770), and another old house with the double piazzas that 
are often seen in this part of the country, which was once the " Bushnell 
tavern," and the watering place for horses, known as "The Kettle." This 
one of the large iron kettles once made on Mt. Riga for use in fanners* estab- 
lishments, in boiling large quantities of vegetables, etc., for stock. The water 
which pours into the kettle is from pure mountain springs, and the saying is 



368 SALISBURY. 

that if you drink of it, you will certainly return to Salisbury. Lakeville and 
Salisbury Center really form one continuous street of more than two miles, 
and the variety of trim lawns, groves of forest trees, and picturesque reaches 
of water is very pleasing. Near the banks of Lake Wonoscopomuc are the 
shaded grounds of Holleywood, the residence of the late Governor HolLey, and 
near by is the " old Holley place " with its stately columns of the old style. 
Other places of modern elegance are on the banks of the lake, which mirrors 
the groves around it and the creamy masses of the Hotchkiss school which 
stands like a Temple of Fame on a very Hill of Science. Lakeville demands 
a separate account. 

In Salisbury, Nature asserts herself royally. The little state that has 
given to the world the cotton gin, the telegraph, and anaesthesia was not ne- 
glected in the distribution of romantic scenery, and in this northwestern 
corner is a treasure of wild beauty. The town that holds the highest land in 
the state, Bear Mountain, two thousand, three hundred and fifty feet high, the 
greatest number of lakes, its share of the most copious waterfall, in the state, 
besides thirty-three kinds of ferns, and mines and quarries galore, has attrac- 
tions for every lover of Nature. Here it was that Beecher wrote a great part 
of his delightful " Star Papers," and thereby introduced the general public to 
the charms of this region. Between the clasping fingers of the Taconic range 
are dells and ravines of choicest beauty. Votaries of Nature turn to Sage's 
Ravine as to one of her inmost shrines. Folded between Mt. Riga and Mt. 
Everett, the northern bank of its dashing waters forms a part of the boundary 
line between Connecticut and Massachusetts. Moss-grown rocks are piled in 
confusion, while from far above come tumbling and foaming the pure and 
sparkling waters of woodland springs, leaping from side to side in that ecstasy 
of perpetual motion that is the charm of a waterfall, or lingering in dusky, 
transparent pools, beloved of dainty trout. Adventurous trees climb up, tak- 
ing root and gaining nourishment in ways inscrutable "to us. And in their 
shade a perpetual coolness reigns, the glossy mountain laurel and the dainty 
wood-flowers drink the refreshing spray. Of this charming bit of wildness, 
it has been said that it was the mate of Bash-Bish Falls, on the reverse side of 
the mountain. The Housatonic forms the boundary line between Canaan and 
Salisbury, and the two towns divide the honor of the fall of the Housatonic. 
The height is seventy feet, and the graceful turn, the wooded slopes above, and 
the abundant stream churned into foam are always a delight to the eye. 

The hilltops which command far reaching views are more than can be 
climbed in many a pilgrimage. Lion's Head, a bold, rock-faced spur and 
Clark's Cobble, arid Barack Matin* guard Salisbury street ; the dwellers on 
Welles Hill, or Rose Hill, as it used to be called from the wealth of roses cul- 
tivated there, have the near and distant hills and the lakes in charming 
combination ; from Bald Peak and Bear Mountain extended, comprehensive 
views are gained, and the delight of an outlook from Prospect Hill on a clear 
day, who shall fitly describe? Woodlands, hills, meadows, villages, the wind- 
ing Housatonic, the lakes in pleasant companionship and the blue Catskills 
beyond, are all combined as by an artist's hand. 

The really unique thing in the town of Salisbury is Mount Riga. The 
village street is six hundred and ninety feet above the sea level, but Mount 
Riga rises its long ridge more than eleven hundred feet higher than that 
For four miles the road ascends in the midst of over-arching trees, of vast 



SALISBURY. 369 

banks of ferns with all their harmony of curves, of thickets of blackberry 
vines, of mountain laurel, of flowers that love the shade. Here and there a 
turn and an opening give a chance for an outlook towards Lion's Head with 
its mass of foliage, and sometimes a woodman's path leads off through dusky, 
suggestive vistas. By your side, for the whole distance rushes and sparkles 
the Wochocastigook, gurgling in dark coverts, or flashing over mossy rocks in 
the light of a curious sunbeam, which strives to penetrate the secrets of the 
place. You feel that nymphs and dryads are lurking in these depths of shade, 
that here Titania's court still holds its revels, and that all the creatures of the 
land of myth and of enchantment dwell here, having held undisturbed posses- 
sion since primeval days ; you think that you hear the rush of a Bacchic dance, 
you almost catch the glimmer of a goddess of the woods ; and — suddenly, you 
come on an abandoned furnace, a dam, two or three grey houses, and a wild, 
lonely lake upon the mountain top. Are you in a dream ? Is this the land of 
the Sleeping Beauty ? 

No : this is what is left of the village of Mount Riga, once a very hive of 
industry. Long ago, perhaps early in this century, this was the center of 
activity in Salisbury. The iron ore which was laboriously dug from the ore- 
beds was still more laboriously dragged up the mountain to be smelted in the 
furnaces which blazed for half a mile along the stream. The deep lakes are 
on the summit of the mountain ; the forest was everywhere ; so charcoal and 
water power, two necessary adjuncts of iron manufacture, were here in great 
abundance. Dragging the ore uphill to be converted into iron and then drag- 
ging it down again for sale was not so foolish as it seemed, for there were no 
railroads then, and the route to the Hudson River, on which boats could carry 
the heavy loads to market, was over this very mountain ; so that really the 
furnaces were at a half-way house. The name is said to have been corrupted 
from " Mt. Righi," given by Swiss workmen. 

Mr. Joseph Pettee, who married Joanna Everett, a cousin of Edward 
Everett, came hither from Boston, and in company with Mr. John C. Coning 
and Mr. John M. Holley, the father of Governor Holley, established extensive 
iron works ; so that the stillness of the lakeside on the mountain-top was 
turned into the roar of business. Mr. Pettee lived in the large house by the 
first lake. The house has handsomely wainscoted rooms and staircase, and is 
still used in the summer as a clubhouse for fishermen. Houses for workmen 
sprang up in great numbers, and soon the busiest traffic of the town was in 
the village on Mount Riga. The Salisbury woman who wish to buy a silk 
dress in the town must go up to Mount Riga, for there was the largest and 
best equipped "department store," employing four clerks. The number of 
inhabitants may be inferred from the school which counted seventy or eighty. 
Sufficient grass was found for supporting cows, and flax was raised in quanti- 
ties large enough to feed the looms which made the homespun linen for the 
use of the inhabitants, but vegetables and fruits were brought from below. 
The business of this thriving iron foundry was conducted by means of a mail 
once a week, when a man brought the accumulated letters and newspapers, 
certainly a happy contrast to "extras" once an hour. It is said that the first 
temperance association in Litchfield county was formed among the workmen 
on Mount Riga, and that in the excitement following a temperance meeting, 
all the liquor in the store was brought forth and poured into the rushing 
waters of the stream. On Sundays, those who could, drove to the M 



37 o SALISBURY. 

to church ; and for those who staid behind services were held in the school- 
house or in the grove. Those were red letter days for the villagers when some 
great work was accomplished, notably that day when the great anchor for the 
Constitution was finished, and amid ringing of bells, and cheering of men, was 
dragged off to the Hudson by six yoke of oxen. The official inspection of the 
anchors took place annually in the late autumn or early winter, and was one of 
the greatest events of the year on Mount Riga. The testing was done by means 
of high tripod-like frames, from which the anchors were dropped to the 
ground. If they bore the blow without injury, they were pronounced worthy 
to hold a struggling ship in storms at sea. The presence of naval officers who 
were sent by the government to perform the duty of inspection gave occasion 
for all kinds of festivities ; and the pretty girls looked back on the balls given 
then on the mountain top as the culmination of the gayeties of the season. 
Hither came Katherine Sedgwick, one of the first American women to achieve 
a name by her pen ; here she got the inspiration for her story, "The Boy of 
Mount Righi." Hither she brought Fanny Kemble, from Stockbridge by the 
way of Salisbury, who delighted to drive four-in-hand, at the head of a 
merry party of girls. Profound was the impression that she made, cracking 
her long whip, or breaking eggs with her teeth when they had a wayside lunch; 
and especially striking was the effect of independence of the trammels of 
society produced by her short skirt, and that very mannish thing, a broad- 
brimmed Leghorn hat tied under her chin with a ribbon ! 

Years passed : and a workman in England sealed the fate of the village 
on Mount Riga ; for when railroads came, the iron horse could carry all the 
iron over long distances on level ground for a less price than that for which 
oxen could drag it up hill and down. So about 1847, the work stopped, the 
furnace fires went out, and in the valley below, the transferred labor found 
another and more convenient scene. The men took their families with them ; 
their frail houses, built on stilts, without cellars, quickly fell into ruins, and 
became fuel for the last lingering inhabitants, and it was not long before the 
nymphs of mountain and lake could claim their own again. All is silent now, 
save for the song of forest birds, the plash of water, and the movements of the 
hunter and the fisherman, who delight to camp here in summer. Somewhere 
in the woods, there is a graveyard, and two or three houses remain on the road 
that leads to Millerton. One is the last schoolhouse which was built there, and 
another in an old grey house, with a glowing flower garden in front ; within 
are two old people. One of the rooms, is almost filled by the ponderous loom 
beside which the weavers used to keep up their weary tread. The lakes are 
mirrors of solitude, and the forest whispers to itself that the episode of man's 
invasion is ended, and that Nature is free once more. An ideal deer-park, a 
spot for a hermitage it might be, but never again will a manufacturing village 
be seen amid the fastnesses of Mount Riga. 

This is not a proof of decay in New England, as is sometimes inferred by 
outsiders when they see a house abandoned for something better, perhaps : to 
prove the contrary, you have simply to remember that in 1880, thirty-eight 
thousand tons of iron were produced in the town, to look at the evidences of 
prosperity in Lakeville, and to know that the Barnum and Richardson Com- 
pany has recently purchased all the important iron mines in the town, and is 
continuing with success the business which has not known cessation. 

In the winter 1897-8, occured a remarkable ice-storm; for two weeks Mount 



SALISBURY. 37 i 

Riga was an ice palace indeed. Many a merry party made the ascent of the 
mountain by unfrequented ways, in order to see the fascinating scene. Every 
bough pendant with its weight of ice, and every twig flashed in the sunlight as 
if encrusted with diamonds. When the crystal arches broke, great was the 
destruction of trees. One twig was weighed with its two-inch coat of ice. It 
weighed more than three pounds. When the ice melted, the twig weighed one 
ounce ! 

Among all the charms that Nature has lavished on the town, the lakes are 
preeminent. They are six in number. Near the Wononpakok, is charming 
Interlachen and the Wononscopomuc, which renders the scenery around Lake- 
ville fascinating. Its name means " clear water," and it is fed entirely by 
springs. On its eastern side was the Indian council ground, long marked by 
a tall elm. Near it an old Indian burial place. In the southwest corner of the 
town, at the western end of Indian Mountain, and near Indian Lake, the 
Moravians had a mission, a " monastery" for the Indians, and there the mis- 
sionary is buried. In the northern part of the town, are the well-known 
"Twin Lakes," the choicest morsel in the feast of scenery. They are often 
called "Washining " and "Washinee." J. Hammond Trumbull, the unques- 
tioned authority on Indian lore, says, in his " Indian Names of Connecticut," 
that the original Indian names were " Panaheconnok," meaning a "place or 
lake not inclosed ; " and " Hokonkannok," the " other lake." On the west side 
of Panaheconnok is an old burying ground which must be an Indian one, as 
none for whites has existed since the place was settled. The " between the 
lakes " drive is a favorite one, and is full of charm. On the bosom of Hokon- 
kannok is a beautiful wooded island, with cottages hidden in the trees, and on 
its shore, are " camping grounds " known to many a party of pleasure- 
seekers. An old fisherman boasts of having fished here with men from all over 
the United States. Near the north base of Tom's Hill, is an old red house 
built before the Revolution. Its extraordinarily heavy beams were designed 
for a protection against Indian attacks. The cottagers on the the wooded high 
ground on the east side of the lake have spread before them a prospect of rare 
beauty, — the lake and island, the rolling, overlapping Taconic hills, Bear 
Mountain, holding up the monument which Robbins Battell placed on its sum- 
mit as a token of its sovereignty over all Connecticut hills, the graceful out- 
lines of Mount Everett, its mate just over the Massachusetts line ; while, in 
the shadowy cleft between, Sage's Ravine betrays itself sometimes by foam, 
as does the cascade on Bald Rock. This is the place for wonderful sunsets 
with crimson hues on sky and lake, and purple depths of mountain shadows. 
Babes Hill and Tory's Hill commemorate by their names, traditions of 
the region. From the rocky outposts of Tom's Hill, so much more poetically 
called Mount Eschol by the early settlers, on account of the abundant grapes 
there, you can look down on the fields of Sheffield, in Massachusetts, and far 
over the undulating blue of the Berkshires. Bryant's Monument Mountain 
majestically faces you, and you feel in this enchanted region you have verified 
the poet's promise : 

"Thou shalt look 

Upon the green and rolling forest tops 

And down into the secrets of the glens. 

And streams that with their bordering thickets strive 

To hide their windings." 



■ 




NOTES ON FORESTRY IN CONNECTICUT. 



BY T. S. GOLD. 



Natural conditions of soil and climate favor forest growth in New Eng- 
land. Witness the almost unbroken forest that covered the whole country, 
with trees centuries old, yet vigorous and sound. 

To confine our remarks to Connecticut, in the early part of the present 
century large tracts of this primeval forest were still standing, and the 
surveyor could trace lines of the original surveys by trees blazed in the original 
"layout" of land to the " proprietors." Some of these old landmarks still 
remain, the only living things that connect us with our ancestors, living wit- 
nesses of their toils and hopes. 

While these original forests have yielded to the progress of civilization, its 
demands for timber and fuel, yet a changed condition within the last half cen- 
tury — the use of coal for fuel and the resort to the forests of Canada, Oregon 
or Georgia for lumber — has turned the tide, and nature reasserting her claims, 
is clothing again with trees all waste land encroaching upon the borders of 
cultivated fields, to a degree, so that viewed from our highest hill-tops a wood 
growth seems to cover the whole country, and as nature rarely works in an 
economic way, according to our ideas, we find the forest holding a low place 
in the estimation of our farmers, as something that may be endured, but not 
to be encouraged. 

Occasionally white pine and hemlock reproduce from seed a thick forest 
growth, even taking possession of the neglected pastures, yet more often the 
present scattered growth of these timber trees with limbs and knots has so 
little present or prospective value in the public eye that the whole thing is 



NOTES ON FORESTRY IN CONNECTICUT. 373 

pronounced a failure. Chestnut and some other deciduous trees sprout from 
the stump, and grow rapidly to market value. 

The scattered trees of all kinds that spring up in hedge rows and 
neglected places, are largely of valueless varieties, as choke cherries, seeded 
by birds, and well adapted to feed and shelter them, are only a nuisance agri- 
culturally, and from this start we do not know where to draw the line, till we 
reach some oak or ash or hickory left to itself in some neglected corner, that 
may become a stately tree, the most beautiful thing of life we can leave to 
those who shall come after us, as a testimonial of our regard for them, that 
they may find enjoyment in some material object we have nurtured for them. 
It must be admitted that we have too much of this useless growth ; hedge-rows 
are a damage to field culture — they harbor worms that destroy our fruit and 
fungi that, checked in our orchards, find here convenient homes in wild trees 
of allied species ; but encourage nature and the result is comfort and beauty 
— an indiscriminate fight will be a losing one — ten white birches or wild cher- 
ries will spring up where we destroy one. Should we not rather use them for 
nurse trees for better kinds of forest growth, that when they have lived their 
short lives they may give place to something of value, that the world will 
need and prize ? This is only one> suggestion that comes up in viewing the 
question of forestry. 

The planting of seeds of pine among such small and scattered growth of 
shrubs and trees, that furnish just shade and shelter enough to protect the 
young seedlings and later yield to their overpowering growth, or removal by 
the ax before the young pines become weak and spindling, would not be a 
costly experiment, and if successful would prove a good investment. 

We have much land in Connecticut that has been cleared and cultivated 
that should have been allowed to remain in forest. Hillsides too steep for 
profitable culture, as rains wash away all fertility from uncovered soil — or 
even the soil itself — and rocky land, where the good pasture grasses have 
yielded to the more hardy and persistent weeds, promise a good return in 
timber if planted with black walnut or chestnut, both rapid growers, and val- 
uable for timber or lumber. 

The white ash would do better in the moist and rich intervals. It grows 
rapidly and will always be in demand for agricultural implements and 
machinery. 

A knowledge of the times of gathering the seeds, how and when and 
where to plant them, of the various forest trees, the maple, the ash, the black 
walnut, the chestnut, the hickory, the larch, the pine and the hemlock, and the 
willow, would enable the farmer to wage a more pleasant and profitable war- 
fare with the worthless bushes of small growth, as hardhack (Potentilla fruti- 
cosa), white bush (Andromeda), sweet fern (Comptonia asplenifotia\ red 
raspberry, blackberry, as well as those of larger size as the alder and the white 
birch, than is now attempted with the bush scythe in the dull muggy days of 
July and August — where the hired man takes his vacation, and is equally with 
his employer disgusted with the results of his labor. Enough has been done in 
this line already to prove its feasibility, and nature herself, in her happy 
moods, when seed has fallen on good ground, has shown us by example the 
possibilities in this kind of work. 

Orchards of nut bearing trees, the improved varieties of chestnut and 
hickory nut, promise well to be a source of profit to the cultivator in the near 



3 7 4 NO TES ON FORES TR Y IN CONNECTICUT. 

future,while the grafting of the native seedling trees, so that they may pro- 
duce chestnuts as large as small apples, in favorite nooks and corners, should 
add to the attractiveness of a country place so as to double its value as a sum- 
mer residence. 

I can see one drawback to this happy result. The question of meum and 
tuum t of ownership may arise. The small boy will have his share — as we 
have all been boys or girls, we can pardon this — but the Sabbath-day ranger, 
who takes a bagful for his family or for market, we detest him more in our 
prospective nut culture than in our peach orchards. 

CLIMATIC EFFECTS OF FORESTS. 

Besides the value of timber in forests and the increased beauty of the 
country from roadside tree planting, there are other economic questions of 
greater importance that demand consideration. 

The effect of forests upon the conservation of water supply, both of rain 
and snow, of modifying destructive winds, is better shown where reforesting 
has produced favorable results. The baleful effects are more sudden from 
forest ruin than the happy ones from forest restoration. 

It is an admitted fact that the destruction of the forests about the head 
waters of our rivers has resulted in failure of the even flow of water, in both 
extreme low water and disastrous freshets. 

The forest cover develops and preserves the forest mat of moss and leaves. 
,that acts as a sponge to absorb and hold water from rainfalls and melting 
snow, gradually feeding springs and streams. 

The lumberman by his slashing, leaves an inviting field for fire, the careless 
hunter furnishes the spark, or the thriftless squatter sets the fire to clear up 
pasture for his cow, and thousands of acres of this priceless absorbent, accu- 
mulated by nature through past centuries, all the time doing its silent work, 
goes up in smoke, leaving the hillsides, the water sheds of the country, as bare 
as barn roofs, bare not only of all organic material as soil, but also deprived 
of all young forest growth and seeds that would otherwise, by nature's provi- 
sion speedily reclothe these mountains with their natural forest cover. This, 
fearful waste of these bounties of Providence is followed by inevitable conse- 
quences. 

Devastating freshets from sudden melting of snow by rain, while the 
ground is frozen and the rivers blocked with ice, succeeded by the drying up 
of springs, and of the fountain streams that feed our rivers, these are facts 
that cannot be disputed. Abundant evidence exists of their sad reality. 

This is an old story but no less pitiful in its frequent repetition, but it 
must be repeated by the press and from the platform discussed everywhere by 
lumbermen and sanitarians, become a part of education from the district 
school to the university, to counteract the national disregard for forests, the 
result of generations engaged in their destruction. 

Civilized man takes possession of a country covered with primeval forests, 
and by wanton waste unsettles the balance of waterfall and its safe delivery 
to the ocean. Mountain torrents scour and scar the lands about the head 
waters of rivers and deposit silt and gravel lower down and about the mouthy 
obstructing navigation with sand bars and choking harbors. 

Individuals, towns or even states can do little to control this matter ; a few 
thousand acres of denuded forest near the headwaters of the Connecticut in 



NOTES ON FORESTRY IN CONNECTICUT. 375 

Vermont or New Hampshire can have but little effect on the flow of this river 
in Connecticut. But anyone who visits that region, who has any knowledge of 
rural affairs or will take the trouble to carefully investigate the conditions, will 
see how the even flow at the mouth is dependent upon an even supply at the 
source. While some of the springs on our hillsides appear to be as permanent 
as the hills themselves, yet all observant farmers notice the failure of springs 
and the diminished flow of brooks from the clearing of forest lands, even 
where fire does not follow to complete the devastation. In a forest the snow 
lies level and melts slowly, often from beneath, the forest bed absorbing the 
moisture. In open ground it thaws rapidly by sun and rain, and the frozen 
ground prevents the water from soaking in, and it flows in destructive torrents. 
Again the forests have much influence in restraining the violence of winds — a 
wind blowing over a forest is checked in its velocity and modified in its tem- 
perature. Clumps of trees on the mountain side or even in the narrow valleys 
often delay currents of air or divert them from their course, so that the 
growth of all kinds, but especially evergreens, materially modifies the local 
climate, an influence extending to unexpected places. 

In connection with this, notice the effect of clumps or rows of evergreens 
as shelter for orchards, gardens, and farm buildings. This may be carried 
much farther for other uses, and clumps of evergreens forming windbreaks 
will serve a good purpose in protecting highways and railroads from snow 
drifts. Not only good judgment from appearances but familiarity with the 
locality is needed in effectively placing these windbreaks. Currents of air 
sweep through hollows as well as over hilltops, and they may be obstructed or 
diverted often at quite a distance from where they produce trouble. 

In view of these facts, the United States government should do much 
more than they have yet done in protecting the national domain from spolia- 
tion and waste, enforcing laws for the protection of timber lands, not only for 
the timber itself but for those other purposes of national prosperity which 
they furnish. 

The state of New York is setting a noble example by her reserves in the 
Adirondack Forests. Connecticut in her laws acknowledges these truths but 
has little power to control matters. We must use our influence with the gen- 
eral government to do for the whole country what is necessary and proper, 
and by a general diffusion of knowledge on these subjects prevent these great 
outrages upon posterity. 

The sanitary effects of a pine forest around a residence is well known, but 
little regarded. Memorial Trees, or those that become such, having been 
planted by some ancestor or some noted person in past time, and now alone 
remain as testimonials of their kind foresight, are worthy of our care and 
study. May the memory of the tree planters be ever green with us, who enjoy 
the fruits of their labors. May the aroma of their good deeds perfume our 
souls, as our senses are refreshed by the odor of bursting bud and blossom and 
waving foliage, and as we recline in their shade in summer and seek their 
shelter in winter and recall with affection the planters and remember them 
with gratitude, let us also remember God the Creator of all things good, and 
who has made it our privilege, as well as duty to be co-workers with him in 
adorning our heritage. 

"Be aye sticking in a tree Jock. It'll be growing- while yore sleeping." 
3 



HAMDEN. 



BY J. H. DICKERMAN. 



Whitney Avenue, leading north from New Haven, is adorned with 
elegant residences throughout the two mile limit to the Hamden line. 
Thence it continues in unbroken characteristic elegance of country homes, 
due north the entire length of the town. The New Haven Street Railway 
Company have lately extended their road eight miles through this thorough- 
fare and now the electric car, with " Whitney Avenue " gilded on its crest, is 
making its frequent run to Mt. Carmel. 

Historically, Hamden obtained its charter in 1786, previous to that date 
being a portion of New Haven. The parish of Mt. Carmel received a colonial 
charter in 1757, and became the earliest settled portion of the town. The area 
of the township is about twenty-two square miles with a population of four 
thousand. Manufacturing gives employment to a large portion of the in- 
habitants. In the belt bordering New Haven, market gardening is a large 
interest of recent years so that land now valued at several hundred dollars an 
acre, would a few years ago not have brought ten dollars an acre. 

The first settlers, who had the pick of selection, must have chosen high 
ground, rendered dry and salubrious, and offering artistic views of rare beauty. 
We find such entrancing scenes overlooking valleys now filled by smoke-stacks 
of factories and the nearby houses of the operatives. 

A little research may reveal the belongings of a former homestead. A 
decayed apple tree putting forth a few blooms, a lilac bush or a pear tree, per- 




THE MOUNT CARMKL CHURCH. 



HAM DEN. 



377 



haps the cellar is not all obliterated — certainly the stone walls remain, showing 
where once were highways, often on exact compass lines due north by 
south or east by west, with fields well defined. Here is woodland and forest 
growth of value, a soil generous and fertile and often not much encumbered by 
stone, highways all laid out with enduring fence, and fields ready to clear and 
cultivate. 

Formerly two chartered turnpike roads and one canal entered New Haven 
through the town of Hamden. At the present time three lines of electric roads 
and two steam roads have their terminals in this town or pass through it in 
reaching the city. 

The Cheshire turnpike company received a charter in 1800. Much dissatis- 
faction was afterward expressed by the residents who were forced to pay a 




THE OLDEST HOUSE IN HAMDEN. 

toll for what before had been a free road. The toll-gate was placed a short dis- 
tance north of the Mt. Carmel church and south of what was then known as 
"The Steps," the latter being a stair-like formation in the trap rock, which 
the building of the turnpike and later, the canal, obliterated. 

In 1822 the Farmington Canal Company was chartered and work com- 
menced in 1825. The site of the canal in the town of Hamden was in close 
proximity to the turnpike road. The former was abandoned in 1S49 by 
substituting a steam road contiguous to the tow-path. The turnpike company 
became disintegrated by the building of the railroad, which for several miles 
in Hamden occupied a portion of the traveled road. So much danger was in- 
curred to passing teams that the town took action with the railroad company to 



378 



HAM DEN. 




SITE OF FORMER CANAL AND STEAM ROAD BEDS, SHOWING FORMER HIGHWAY AND ELECTRIC ROAD. 

have the steam road-bed removed to the west far from all public highways^ 
with no grade crossings. By a singular coincidence the same ground once oc- 
cupied by the steam road-bed and abandoned for that purpose during a period 
of twelve years has now become the road-bed of the electric tramway. Thus 
we have in close proximity, the remains of the former canal, steam railroad, 
the electric road and the highway; also at "The Steps," Mill River defiles 
through a narrow gorge of trap rock at the base of Carmel, in close contact 
with these different lines of travel. The turnpike companies released their 
charters in favor of the town about 1855, leaving the roads free for public 
travel. The townsmen have availed themselves of the statute providing state 
aid in stone road building, and there are now several miles of macadam roads 
in the town. In the southwest section of the town, known as Hamden Plains, 
Robert Dickerman and a few others gave three thousand dollars to build a. 
macadam pavement on Circular Avenue for the benefit of the farmers and 
gardeners in that section. Wherever such a highway is well made an im- 
mediate increase in land value is apparent. 

Foremost among those who have added to the welfare of the town of 
Hamden, Eli Whitney, the inventor of the cotton-gin will ever be remem- 
bered. He purchased in 1798, the site of Todd's grist mill, two miles from 
New Haven and established there the first factory in America for the making 
of fire-arms, thus founding Whitneyville. The first dam was built here by the 
town of New Haven before 1686. The present one was erected by the New 
Haven Water Company in i860 and now stands thirty-four feet and eleven 
inches high, forming a reservoir that affords a daily amount the year round of 
120,000,000 gallons. This was the first of what is now a series of reservoirs 
built on different streams, that supplies New Haven with water. By the 
erection of the dam at Whitneyville by the Water Company three mill sites 
above it were submerged. 



HAM DEN. 



31 ( J 



The second dam in Hamden appears to have been erected on the same 
stream in Mt. Carmel and used for a grist mill. Not far below this site a dam 
was built to run a mill for fulling cloth, which passed from existence more than 
seventy years ago. No record appears when these dams were erected. The 
first site is now utilized by the Mt. Carmel Axle Works. Between this dam 
and the one at Whitney ville is a dam running the silk factory of Hermon Clarke; 
the next south runs the brass and iron foundry of Walter Woodruff & Sons, 
the next dam works the Beers Grist Mill and below this a dam furnishes water 
power for the New Haven Web Company in Centerville. One more dam at 
Augerville. gives power for the manufacture of augers and bits. Each of these 
manufacturing sites gives employment for operatives whose homes form a 
continuous village through nearly the entire length of the town. The largest 
number of employees in any one establishment is at the Web Company in 
•Centerville. 

Much of the wealth created by the manufactures in Hamden has gone out 
from the place to its non-resident proprietors. The Mt. Carmel Axle works is 
a notable example of this, which commenced business here in 1842 under the 
control of Henry Ives, who later became a resident of New Haven, where his 
successors in the business still live. The Candee Rubber Company, one of the 
first, if not the first concern in the country to make rubber goods, was first es- 
tablished in Centerville, this town, where the very large profits made in a few 
years, enabled the company to build the extensive factories in New Haven 
where the business is still conducted. Very little money by way of permanent 
investment made by the Rubber Company remained in Hamden. The New 
Haven Web Company, which now occupies the original site of the Candee 
Rubber Company, have in its manager and superintendent, residents of 
the town, who have built handsome residences in Centerville. Some portions 




IOMAN CATHOLIC C'HI'RC 



■MOl X 1 CARMI 



3 8o 



HAM DEN. 




TOWN HALL AND CHURCH AT CENTERVILLE. 

of the profits remain in the way of extensive factories and numerous homes for 
the employees. Electric street lights and half a mile of excellent macadam 
road in Centerville are some of the features of improvement emanating from 
the Web Company. 

The town hall at Centerville is a creditable structure of brick and stone 
designed by Prof. William P. Blake of Hamden, and was erected by the town 
in 1888. 

Prominent in Centerville, in the decade previous to i860, was the famous 




STREET VIEW, CENTERVILLE. 



HAM DEN. 



38i 



"Rectory School," organized and conducted by the Rev. C. X. Everest, being 
one of the first institutions of learning to adopt military training in the educa- 
tional system. The school often numbered eighty cadets and was well known 
and popular throughout the United States. A school is still continued in the 
same buildings by William C. Raymond. 

James Ives was a notable example of a successful inventor and manufac- 
turer, who spent his fortune as accumulated, in his native parish of Mt. Carmel. 

His works still remain in evidence of his executive ability and are of per- 
manent utility in Mt. Carmel. The institution known as the Mt. Carmel 
Childrens' Home, for the care of Protestant children of this state, is beautiful 
in its situation and surroundings. It remains as at the decease of Mr. Ives, 
which previous to that was his family residence. The building before being 




FACTORY OF NEW HAVEN WEBB CO., CKNTKR VILLI'. 

converted into a residence by Mr. Ives was built, and christened " The Young 
Ladies' Female seminary," under the care of Miss Elizabeth Dickerman and her 
sisters. A few boys were admitted and I well remember the gifted teacher in 
my first introduction there into the higher branches of English literature. 
The " Principal " with her two sisters figure as the heroines in the book of 
"The Sisters," by Rev. J. P. Warren, D. D., at one time pastor of the Mt Car- 
mel church. 

The oldest house now standing, and still one of the best preserved, in the 
town of Hamden, is situated next the Mt. Carmel church. It was built by the 
Rev. Nathaniel Sherman, during his pastorate, which extended from 1769 to 
1772. Tradition has it that he was the whole three years in building it. and had 
to leave it almost as soon as finished. It was quite a mansion for those days and 
the lumber, brick, nails, etc., were all brought from Boston. 



3«* 



HAM DEN. 




MT. CARMEL CHILDREN'S HOME. 

Haven, who has compiled after many years research, 
expense, the genealogical history of the Dickerman 
Dickerman, who became president of the New York 
a successful business man of New York ; 
and Capt. Ezra Day Dickerman who served 
his country in the civil war and died from 
wounds there incurred. 

Sterling Bradley, a life-long resident of 
Hamden, became the sole proprietor of the 
Cheshire turnpike during the latter part of 
the time when toll was collected. His stal- 
wart form was a familiar figure, usually 
accompanied by a team of unusually fine 
oxen. At one period his home became the 
country tavern that furnished refreshment 
to the throngs of people that traveled over 
his road. The distance of thirteen miles 
from New Haven to Cheshire was traveled 
by the mail and passenger coaches in those 
days in one relay of horses, and this section 
then enjoyed the reputation it has since 



The old home- 
stead, formerly the 
home of Deacon 
Ezra Dickerman, 
is still standing 
where now hourly 
pass the trolley 
cars with their 
numerous throngs 
of seekers for busi- 
ness or pleasure. 
From there have 
gone out a family, 
many of whom 
have become con- 
spicious in their 
various spheres in 
the world's work. 
Among these were 
the " sisters" be- 
fore referred to ; 
the Rev. George 
Sherwood Dicker- 
man, D. D., an emi- 
nent divine of New 
Haven ; Edward 
D wight Dicker- 
man, also of New 
and published at his own 
family ; Watson Bradley 
Stock Exchange and was 




JAMES IVES. 



HAMDEN. 



383 



maintained, of being the best and pleasantest drive for the entire distance of 
any road in the whole country. The fine Bradley farm still remains an heir- 
loom in the family, and such was the permanent character of his work that 
fence walls of stone 
and cast iron posts 
with chestnut rails 
remain as he built 
them, fifty years ago. 
No man in a com- 
munity becomes a 
sh ar e r with the 
people in their joys 
and sorrows like the 
vdlage doctor, and 
Hamden has been 
fortunate in having 
the uninterrupted 
service of almost fifty 
years of Dr. Edwin D. 
Swift. He was born 
in Sharon, this state, 
in 1825, passed his boyhood in Cornwall, graduated at the New York Uni- 
versity in March, 1849, an< ^ settled in Hamden in May of the same year. I 
well remember an early call of introduction he made to my father's family, 
where his practice has been a continued success in relieving pain and distress. 
May he still have many years in which to extend relief to suffering humanity. 

Charles Brockett, whose brick 
mansion still stands as he built it, was 
the earliest in the manufacture of 
steel carriage springs. His father's 
old homestead still stands on the 
a competence from the excellence of his 




THE EZRA DICKERMAN HOMESTEAD. 




REV. GEO. SHERWOOD DICKERMAN. 

opposite corner of the original turn- 
pike highway, where he vigorously 
conducted the cooperage business in 
making casks for the West India 
trade. Charles Brockett early acquired 




DR. EDWIN D. SWIFT. 



3^4 



HAM DEN. 



carriage springs, which always bore the highest certificate of quality. As 
early as 1858 the town sought his guidance as manager of town business, 
which position he held through four terms of continued service during the 
troublous time of the civil war. He skillfully avoided litigation in the extreme- 
ly difficult adjustment of new road construction when the New Haven Water 
Company appropriated much of the town's highways in, and adjacent to, 
Whitneyville. James J. Webb and the writer were members of the board of 
selectmen during the two years of Charles Brockett's administration, and well 
do I remember the different phases of public life that often occurred in deal- 
ing with contractors and the management of public and private interests. 

The highway in its changed situation now stands a perpetual reminder of 
the great benefit to travel, which formerly passed where is now the bed of the 
lake, and which in its old layout was much of the course on swampy land, and 
often perilious with deep mud. 




>NAL CHURCH, WHITNEYVILLE. 



The Rev. Austin Putnam was pastor of the church in Whitneyville during 
fifty consecutive years and endeared himself in the hearts of his people. The 
following extracts are taken from his Historical Discourse preached July 9, 
1876, and published more fully in the History of Hamden. "The present 
pastor was installed on the 31st day of October, 1838. The church at that time 
was small and feeble. It consisted of about seventy-five members. The growth 
of the church during the last forty-eight years has not been rapid, but it has 
been steady and healthy. We have given to other churches many more than 
they have given to us. Where, for instance, are the Fords and the Gilberts 
and the Bassetts, once so numerous and so strong among us ? They are near- 
ly all gone. In their removal from the world the church sustained a great, 
and as it seemed at the time, an irreparable loss. But God, who is ever mind- 



HAM DEN. 



385 





REV. AUSTIN PUTNAM. 



REV. JOSEPH BREWSTER. 



ful of his people has been pleased to raise up others to take their 

places And we shall die but the church will live. For the source 

of life is not in man but in God. During- this period of our history our house 
of worship was rebuilt at an expense of about ten thousand dollars. We have 
a commodious, pleasant and attractive house of worship, and we owe no man 
anything but love. Our expenses have been comparatively small but they 
have always been promptly met. The pastor has always been satisfied with 
his salary, and whenever his people have changed it as they have done several 
times, they have 
always made it 
more instead of 
less, and this they 
have done entirely 
of their own free 
will without any 
solicitation or sug- 
gestion from him. 
And he has never 
had to ask or wait 
for his money." 

Rev. Joseph 
Brewster, for near- 
ly thirty years rec- 
tor of Christ 
Church New Hav- 
en, began his resi- 
dence in Hamden 
in 1865. "Edge 




RESIDENCE 



ICKKRMAN. 



3 86 



HAM DEN. 



Hill " as he named 
his little farm is 
beautifully situated 
on the hills to the 
east of the old " Ives 
Station " where i s 
now the Mt. Carmel 
post-office. Mr. 
Brewster was never 
so happy as when 
planning to increase 
the beauty of his 
grounds. Before a 
tree was planted he 
would view the place 
from every side, and 
again after consid- 
ering the effect from every* point of view, he would cut a tree here or trim a 
branch there, and open up some unexpected vista. In this beatiful spot he 
sought respite from his parish work. Resigning the rectorship of Christ 
Church in 1881, he was rector of Grace Church in Centerville for two year.s 
and again in 1892-4 he had charge of this little church. 

Mr. Brewster was not identified with Hamden so closely as his long 
residence would warrant, as his duties took him away and he had many inter- 
ests elsewhere. He died in Brooklyn Nov. 20, 1895, where he was then rector 
of St. Michael's Church. 

All of Mr. Brewster's four sons graduated at Yale College. Subsequently 
one of them became a member of the bar while three followed their father's 




"HE WEBB PLACE. 





J. If. DICKERMAN. 



JAMES J. WEBB. 



HAM DEN. 



3*7 



footsteps in entering the Episcopal ministry, Right Rev. Chauncey B. Brewster 
present Bishop-Coadjuter of Connecticut, Rev. Benjamin Brewster of 
Colorado Springs and Rev. William J. Brewster of Northford, Conn. 

Pre-eminent among the many elegant homes which adorn Whitney Avenue 
in Hamden is the home of James H. Webb descended to him from his father, 
James J. Webb, who distinguished himself by his untiring zeal to promote and 
improve the agriculture 
of his native state. Born 
in Litchfield county, he g^ 
spent many years in life 
"on the plains" and in 
New Mexico. His anec- 
dotes of personal travel 
there while engaged in 
the mercantile business 
in Santa Fe would fill a 
volume of very interesting 




Hi 







EDGE HILL" — THE BRKWSTER 
PLACE, MT. CARMEL. 




RESIDENCE OF ROBERT DICKER- 
MAN, HAMDEN PLAINS. 

narrative. Having amass- 
ed a considerable fortune 
by his indomitable perse- 
verance, he bought the 
present Webb farm which 
had formerly been owned 
by planters of the West 
Indies, who made this 
their summer home. I 
well remember the place as the home of the families of the Van den Heave. 's 
and the Walters, who were the owners of rich sugar estates and sent their 
sweets to the New Haven market, in return shipping horses, mules, casks, 
hoops and staves. The hickory poles of Hamden formerly found an excel- 
lent market in supplying the planters' demand. Kiln-dried corn meal was 
also a large product exported from a mill at Mt. Carmel. 

Under Mr. Webb's efficient management the farm became a garden in 



IVY NOOK 



FORMERLY THE RE si 



3 ss 



H AMD EN. 




CHURCH AT HAMDEN PLAINS. 



productiveness. Becoming interested in all means to increase fertility, com- 
mercial fertlizers were brought into use, and to insure uniform quality and to 
protect farmers from fraud in their purchases, he saw the great benefit science 
might give and became the prime mover in promoting the Agricultural Ex- 
periment Station at New Haven. Mr. Webb's zeal and labor in this effort 
were untiring and overcame many difficulties, and after the station under its 
efficient Director and assistants became a potent factor, the venders of inferior 
fertilizers disappeared from the market. Mr. Webb as president of the New 
Haven County Agricultural Society, president of the New Haven Farmer's 
Club and member of the State Board of Agriculture, also as State Senator, 

became well known near by 
and abroad, and left as an 
enduring monument to his 
labor, the mansion and ex- 
tensive barns and large 
farm, which extends both 
sides of Whitney Avenue to 
Mill River on the west and 
the Ridge Road on the east. 
The place may be known as 
the Webb farm for many 
generations. 

Prof. William P. Blake, 

editor of the " History of 

summer mountain cottage. tne Town of Hamden, 




HAM DEN. 



3*9 



Conn.," published after 
the centennary of the 
incorporation of the 
town, has a residence at 
Mill Rock, a rugged and 
picturesque spur of East 
Rock, which site affords 
most extensive and de- 
lightful views of New 




SUMMER RESIDENTS ON THE MOUNTAIN. 

slave oligarchy thronged college halls, I 
carriages at the foot of Carmel in waiting 
galing themselves with the splendid view 
students from the low lying cotton belt, 
such a view must have been entrancing 
and well worth the high fees of carriage 
hire which brought them to the spot. 
The only record I know of a party pass- 
ing a night on the brow, or head of the 
11 Giant," was related to me last year by 
one of the party, who is now the presi- 
dent of the University of Arizona. 
In the early days of the discovery of 
gold in California, a party of three, 
to inure themselves to camp life as 
they expected to find it, previous to 
their start for the gold fields, carried 
on their backs provisions and blankets, 
including a ten gallon keg of water, to 
the top of the " Giant " and there passed 
the night. I remember the light as it 
glowed in the night air, seen from my 
father's farm house. 



Haven Harbor, Long Island 
Sound and the surrounding 
country. He is well known 
throughout the country as an 
expert mining engineer, hav- 
ing traveled over a great por- 
tion of the world in scientific 
researches. 

In ante-bellum days 
when the "darky" raised the 
cotton and the scion of the 

often witnessed a long line of 
for their occupants, who were re- 

from the Giant's brow. To those 




ELEPHANTS 1I1AP. ON MT. CARMRI 



39 o JUDGE NOT. 

William Haskwell, a swiss surveyor in the employ of the government, 
drew a camp wagon to the top of the eastern part of the mountain and passed 
three weeks there with his party about 1832. Mrs. Chapman made a record of 
being one of a picnic party who visited the mountain on the eighth of January, 
1847, an d again visited the scene in August, 1897, walking from the foot to the 
summit in company with her daughters and grand-daughters. A club-house, 
owned by ten young men, was built on the summit in 1897, also in the same 
year Robert C. Bell of Granby, Mass., erected a house for a summer residence. 

Future generations will crowd our valleys and busy hands fill our mills. 
The cities now on every side will expand. Boroughs of to-day will be cities in 
the coming generation. The electric car will whir along our hillsides and 
bring to them the workers in the valleys for pure air and salubrious homes. 
Then will lights gleam from the mountain tops as from there we now see them 
border the Sound, the city streets and the low-lying coast line. The town 
of Hamden has too much artistic beauty in its hills to be always passed by and 
ignored by the busy crowd who throng about one of the oldest universities in 
the land. 



JUDGE NOT. 



LOUIS K. THAYER. 



I deem it sin to mark or judge a man 
By grade of birth or any social clan : 
To tender to him favors, other than 

His just deserts. For wherefore is the sense 
In catering to a mask of -dim pretense, 
And losing sight of self emoluments ? 

The storm beat reed can only show the stress 
Of outward force — its drenched leaves express, 
Only a mute, dumb nothingness. ' 

How can we hope to so judge circumstance, 
That we may see the sad flood of mischance, 
And read a soul by guilt that may enhance ? 

What moisture lingers in that cold cliff, so 

The moss can cling there, feed — and feeding grow? 

We mortals guess and guessing cannot know. 

Could we but see the brighter self within 
The form we loathe as being one of sin — 
Could we but know where that dark soul had been! 

"Here in the mire rolled that soul," we say, 
Throwing a curse upon our brother clay — 
Unknowing what pure deed was done that way. 

We read of One, whom we have never seen. 

Touching and healing the low and mean. 

Deem we, their presence made His self less clean? 

Look in the mire where you have said "he rolled," 

Perchance the very prints it still may hold 

Of one who knelt and prayed there in the cold. 

Sure as a man contain a germ of soul, 

His deeds will, to the sceptic world, unroll 

A broken life that might have been made whole. 



THE DECIPHERING OF ANCIENT MANUSCRIPTS. 



BY EDWIN STANLEY WELLES. 



The greatest danger attending genealogical investigations is that of 
inaccuracy. For some it would be astonishing to know how many errors exist 
in many of the printed historical and genealogical works. 

One is apt to think he is on pretty safe ground when he cites a statement 
from some well-known authority, but even such an authority may sometimes 
be quickly confuted by comparing his dates with those of some ancient 
manuscript. 

Written records are undoubtedly the basis of sound genealogical work. 
And whenever they are to be had, they should be closely scanned. While in 
some instances such manuscripts are not allowed to be examined, because of 
their fragile condition, as a general rule, public manuscript records are open 
to the public for their inspection. 

But oftentimes these records, particularly the most ancient, are a " sealed 
book " to the investigator. For example, let us glance a moment or two at 
the first page of the " Hartford Town Votes," with the heading, " Hartforde 
1635." A fac-simile of this page which was undoubtedly written a few years 
later than its date, is given in the latest published volume of the Connecticut 
Historical Society's Collections, and illustrates some of the nice questions 
which perplex the student of records. For some persons, indeed, a page of 
Xenophon's Anabasis would be much easier reading. Not only is the spelling 
diverse, and as arbitrary as the ingenuity of men can devise who follow no es- 
tablished rules of orthography, but the capitalization and punctuation are 
quite as unsettled. 

In fact, one who makes it a business to examine ancient documents finds 
himself sometimes actually hesitating as to the spelling of some simple and 
familiar word. He catches himself writing some archaic form that would 
make him an object of ridicule at a modern grammar school. But he has 
weightier difficulties yet to surmount. Many of the ancient characters and 
abbreviations are strangely peculiar and have long been obsolete. Among 
the first votes of the little settlement at Hartford, here is this wise regulation : 
" Itis ordrd that euery howse shall haue a Ladder or tre at Most w ch shall 
reach [ ] Two fifoote of the Topp of his howse," etc. The word 

"that " looks as much like " qat " as anything else. A combination somewhat 
resembling the letter " q " stands for, or is a hurried "th," while "h" in 
these earliest records is written very generally with the loop under instead of 
above the line. So the article " the" in places appears with this combination 
character and "e." Later it simplified into a "y," and "the" is ordinarily 
"y e " though it was pronounced "the" as we pronounce it, and not "ye" as 
many people fancy. 

"V" was frequently written as " u," and "u" as "v." 14 J" as a small 
letter was often identical with "i." Some of the ancient M e's " at first are 

4 



392 THE DECIPHERING OF ANCIENT MANUSCRIPTS. 

puzzling. They look to one acquainted with the Greek alphabet very much 
like secondary form of small theta (5) while " c " as a capital resembles 
a large theta id), and as a small letter, little tau (r). " S " as an intermediate 
letter was often written with a loop under the line, and "f " was as often double 
" f." Yet it should not be forgotten that even these forms were more or less 
variant in the oldest records. Mr. Edward Hopkins, first Secretary of the 
Connecticut Colony ( 1639-40), writing about the time the earliest Hartford 
votes were entered, makes no abbreviation of " the" and " that " nor does his 
successor in office, Mr. Thomas Welles (1640-48) in the fac-simile specimens 
of their handwriting, as shown in the first volume of the Colonial Records of 
Connecticut. Moreover, many of these archaic forms, to a large extent disap- 
peared in a generation or so. 

A few of the more common abbreviations should be indicated. "Y e " as 
already mentioned, stood for " the " il y' 1 " for " that ; " " w' ch " for " which " 
" w' th " for " with " and " s' d " for said. "P'r" was a contraction for syllable, 
like " per," and used as a word or a part of a word. A mark over a letter 
designated some contraction ; frequently the omission of the following, which 
was often the final consonant of a word, or the substitution of a single for a 
double consonant. Thus "fro" means "from." and "sumer," "summer." 
Sometimes, it is amusing to find this mark employed to designate the contrac- 
tion of a double consonant, when in correct spelling but one consonant as 
written, should be used. In the perusal of these antiquated records, many have 
been perplexed by apparently irreconcilable dates. Some dates as written 
are, indeed, irreconcilable, but much confusion will be obviated by 
understanding the old style calendar. 

Approximately correct as the calender arranged by Julius Caesar was, its 
error in reckoning had amounted to about ten days in the time of Pope 
Gregory XIII. 

That prelate distinguished his career by issuing in 1582 a decree amend- 
ing the Julian Calendar so as to make it conform to our modern calendar. He 
ordered the 5th of October, 1582, to be called October 15. 

This sensible as well as scientific improvement but slowly won accept- 
ance in Protestant England. 

For several centuries the new year in England began on the 25th of March, 
commonly called Lady Day, which was the feast of the Annunciation to the 
Virgin Mary. 

But in 1751, Parliament passed an act known as the statue of the 24George 
II, ch. 23, which made the requisite changes. 

It recited that, " Whereas the legal supputation of the year of our Lord in 
that part of Great Britain called England, according to which the year be- 
ginneth on the twenty-fifth day of March, hath been found by experience to 
be attended with divers inconveniencies, not only as it differs from the usage 
of neighboring nations, but also from the legal method of computation in that 
part of Great Britain called Scotland, and from the common usage throughout 
the whole kingdom, and thereby frequent mistakes are occasioned in the dates 
of deeds and other writings and disputes arise therefrom" . . . . "Beit 
enacted, . . . that in and throughout all his Majesty's dominions and 
countries in Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, belonging or subject to the 
crown of Great Britain, the said supputation according to which the year of 



YOUTH AND NATURE. 393 

our Lord beginneth on the twenty-fifth day of March, shall not be made use of 
from and after the last day of December one thousand seven hundred and 
fifty-one ; and that the first day of January next following the said last day of 
December shall be reckoned, taken, deemed and accounted to be the first of 
the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and fifty two." This statute 
further enacted that Sept. 3, 1752 should be reckoned as Sept. 14, thus cancel- 
ling the eleven days difference between the new and old styles. These facts 
must be constantly borne in mind when examining the more ancient records- 

Thus January 1710 would be nine months later than April 1710. 

Yet a date would often be so explained, as for instance, "January 1710-11," 
that the intelligent reader is in no danger of error. Aside from the genealog- 
ical information to be gathered from these old time documents, they possess a 
value of far wider scope. As John Fiske observes in the Bibliographical Note 
to his " Beginnings of New England," — "Town histories, though seldom written 
in a philosophical spirit and apt to be quite amorphous in structure, are a mine 
of wealth for the philosophic student of history." And the time-stained re- 
cords of town and church, rude as they often appear to us and quaint with the 
manners of generations ago, are unquestionably the warp and woof of our early 
New England town histories. 



YOUTH AND NATURE. 



NELLIE WOOSTER COOLEY. 



When life is in the bud, God Pan's a friend, 
Quick to his reedy tune young hearts respond, 

Each stone's a symbol and deep meanings blend 
With river, meadow and the blue beyond. 

Far-off horizon in rare sunset glory, 

To Youth's outreaching soul placeth no bound. 

Fantastic cloud forms tell to him a story 

Of castles, where both friends and fame are found, 

Nor does the dreamer ever cease the dreaming, 
Nor does God Pan grow weary of his pipe. 

The world of youth enchanted with its seeming, 
For Youth alone the fruits of life are ripe. 

O calm, clear-visioned Age, how strange the pact 
To pay life's alchemy for barren fact ! 




THE ROW OF MAPLES. 



BY ALBERT L. THAYER. 



On the old Litchfield turnpike, Canton, Connecticut, stands a country seat,, 
which, though old, is in a good state of preservation. Hands that could not 
abide the uncouth and rough ways of finishing house exteriors in the early 
days of our forefathers have some time in recent years rudely torn away the 
old style blackened and mossy clapboards and replaced them with more mod- 
ern ones of narrower width, yet the dignity of the old country house still as- 
serts itself, and a refined aristocratic air of an almost forgotten past seems lin- 
gering over the dwelling, appealing to you as you pass it by and pleading for 
at least a glimpse of recognition. 

For twenty years or more previous to 1890 the old house had been for a 
large part of the time uninhabited, but occasionally tenanted for a season ; its 
doors stood invitingly open to the summer breezes, and the sun glinted its rays, 
at hide and seek through the dense foliage of the maples that stood by the 
door-yard fence, and children's voices occasionally fell pleasantly upon the ear,, 
and for the time the passing neighbor would perhaps forget the story of the- 
past and the memories which haunted this almost forsaken spot. 

At such times of re-inhabitation the old place looked warm and even 
cheerful, but when the cold winter winds drove in whirling gusts across the- 
level lots at its rear, sides and front, with not a ray of light from the windows, 



THE ROW OF MAPLES. 395 

in the darkest nights or the sight of a human being near, nor the sound of a 
voice or even the bark of a dog to denote the slightest approach to occupancy, 
the old habitation looked dreary enough, and the lonely traveler quickened his 
pace as he passed, and seemed to see around it forms that were no more of this 
life, and to hear voices long since silenced on earth. 

A few more years of neglect would have allowed the mosses and lichens 
again to clothe its sides, and some future generations might perchance gaze 
upon its exterior and view it much as it appeared to me thirty years or more 
ago, but at this date the old place has passed into new hands and has lost its 
sombreness, and exhibits the care and attention of its new owner who, per- 
haps, may here read and learn for the first time the early history of his home. 

When my attention was first called to the dwelling and its surroundings I 
was but a young lad, and would have passed it by with a casual glance, per- 
haps, but for good old Dr. F , with whom I was riding. 

Stopping his horse directly in front of the house and pointing at it with 
his whip he said, " Look that place all over carefully, note the beautiful maples 
set so symmetrically on a true line and equi-distant one from another ; take it 
•all in and come over to my house to-night, and unless called away I will tell 
you a story about this once happy honie and those who lived here many years 
ago that I think will interest you. 

I was about fifteen years old then and a favorite with the doctor, who was 
our family physician, and I often went with him on his drives over the Canton 
and Simsbury hills ; he was a good companion for a real live boy, and although 
he was then sixty to seventy years of age, he could adapt himself with equal 
facility to the young or old, wise or unlearned, and I still retain in my mind 
many a tale that he told which he had received direct from his father, who in 
colonial times had a blacksmith shop on the turnpike, and who had more than 
once set shoes for the horses of both Continentals and Redcoats during the 
trying times of the Boston siege. 

Well, of course I was on hand at the doctor's house early that evening — 
really before he was ready to see me ; he was finishing his supper as I entered, 
and a quizzical look came over his face as he noted my earnestness and eager- 
ness ; a few powders must be put up for old Deacon Mahew, a little white and 
red mixture for the boy who sat on the woodbox in the corner to take to his 
father, and when at last the good doctor was ready I was running over with 
impatience. 

" Let's see," he said, u I was about ten years old, and that would make it 
1806— yes it was that year the trees I showed you this morning were set out. 
The house sheltered as happy a family as it has ever been my lot to meet ; the 
father was a true gentleman with a touch of gentle refined dignity in his man- 
ner ; a man of fine feelings, a good neighbor and a Christian. The mother was 
•a nice white-haired lady whose pleasant face was always lighted with a smile, 
and her soft blue eyes beamed kindly on us boys when we visited her son Ed- 
ward, which we often did, though he was several years our senior. This youth 
had been away to school — in Albany, I believe — and had returned after a year's 
absence to gladden again the old home. As trips of such magnitude were un- 
common to our people he was looked upon as a great traveler, and of course 
he was talked about and criticised a great deal ; but he came home to work, 
his year of study had not spoiled him, and his hammer and axe rang out from 



396 THE ROW OF MAPLES. 

morning to night as he repaired fences and gates and made the waste places 
glad. Many were the bushes grubbed out of the pastures by his willing hands, 
many gaps in the walls and rail fences were deftly repaired ; he found plenty 
to do, and after a day of laborious toil he would trudge across lots to the past- 
ures on the distant mountain side and drive home the cows, enlivening the 
way with his merry whistle or cheerful song. 

" It was at this time that we began to hear considerable about psychology 
or animal magnetism, as some of the people called it, and it became rumored 
about that Edward was an adept at the science, and many were the impossible 
and weird stories told about him in father's shop by the neighbors who came 
in to chat over their morning or afternoon pipe ; but as no one could ever find 
any real foundation for these yarns the topic gradually lust its interest, though 
many of the people regarded the young man with suspicion, and some did not 
hesitate to call him " a child of Satan." If Edward ever heard any of this talk 
he made no sign, and went on about his work calmly as ever, but he was of 
too restless a disposition to long remain quietly at home, and soon made ar- 
rangements to go to Texas, there to branch out as a physician, his study in 
Albany having been that of medicine. And now he declared his intention to 
set out a row of maples on the highway the whole length of his father's front 
line, ' something for the people to remember me by if I never come back,' he 
said — prophetic words — how often those trees call him to remembrance you 
can imagine when I have finished my story. All of us boys were greatly in- 
terested in the project, and day after day we followed Edward back and forth 
from the mountain where he procured the trees to the home where he trans- 
planted them, so true to the line he had stretched three feet from the old wall 
and fence ; as he worked we would help him by holding the trees while he 
packed them nicely with soil, adjusting the fibrous roots to their natural posi- 
tions, even digging little trenches for them to run in, 'so they won't know 
they've been moved,' he said; 'they wouldn't feel at home in any new posi- 
tion ; it would be like you boys lying in bed with your feet on the pillows 
should I change them from the ways they so long have known.' And he would 
talk to the trees, he loved them so, and would tell us beautiful stories about 
them. I remember he blazed the north side of each tree with his axe before 
taking it out of the ground, and set the same with regard to points of compass, 
because, as he said, it stood to reason that that side must be able to stand the 
cold northern blast better because it had always faced it. Often he would 
sing to us, such strange wild songs some of them were, too, and when he roared 
out right lustily, ' My name was Captain Kidd, when I sailed ! when I sailed ! ' 
our ecstacy knew no bounds ; delicious cold tremors crept up our backs, and 
if this song was chosen as a parting ode at eventide, we hurried home closely 
together imagining that every shadow was the shade of the departed pirate, 
and the boy who was left alone at the cross-roads to reach home as best he 
could planned not the order of his departure, but legged it nimbly over field 
and fen, not delaying on account of the briers, which flourished so luxuriantly 
in the pastures. 

" The last tree was at length set in place, and the October days had drawn 
to a close, a cold November had come in with leaden-hued skies, and the trees 
shivered in the chilling breezes. 

" With regret we learned that our friend was to start for Texas at once, 



THE ROW OF MAPLES. 397 

and feeling it our duty to see him off, had early on a clear, crisp morning met 
at the cross-roads to go in a body and bid him farewell. 

" We arrived at his home in good season ; young Edward was standing on 
the doorstep with his father, his face was sad, and his mother had one corner 
of her apron pressed to her eyes ; a small horse-hide trunk stood on end, 
strapped ready for the journey. We heard the horn of old Valentine, the stage 
driver, at Canton street, a half mile away ; the father started as the shrill notes 
reached his ears ; he raised his hands reverently ; Edward removed his cap, 
and the tremulous parental palm was laid on his head, a low ' God bless and 
ever keep you, my boy,' and then the father stepped hurriedly into the house 
while the mother, throwing herself on Edward's neck, sobbed out her anguish 
in a pitiful way. We looked on in sadness ; such sights were new to us ; we 
were filled with wonder and awe. The wheels sounded on the hard roadbed, 
the hoofs pounded quickly the frozen earth, a blare of the horn and ' Val' 
drew up his leaders so suddenly that they fairly sat on their haunches. A 
quick tossing up of the trunk and strapping of the boot, a hasty hand shaking 
with every boy, another kiss for mother, a shout in the door ' good-bye father,' 
a jump to the driver's seat, a snap of the whip and the noblest young man I 
ever knew was gone — had left us forever. 

" Letters came from him regularly to his parents, and as he often sent 
some message to the boys we heard his letters read ; he seemed to be doing 
well and he apparently liked the locality, although he sometimes wrote of 
much lawlessness around him — there seemed to be little of the New England 
law and order he was used to — but he had secured a good practice and was 
now a full fledged M. D. At last, however, came a letter that broke his 
parents' hearts ; a letter which they were not prepared to read ; a letter that 
shattered their hopes and proved the means of carrying them to their graves. 
I have it here if you care to read it," and he took from his secretary drawer a 
paper yellow with age. I grasped it eagerly, and while I read the old doctor 
tipped back his chair and clasped both hands behind his head. This is a copy 
of the letter just as it was written : " Texas, 

May 2o, 1S09. 
" Dear Father and Mother : 

"After much deliberating I have concluded to write yon. OncetheTe would 
have been no need to deliberate over the question of writing a letter to the 
parents I love so well, but now when the old hearts may break under the blow 
I am about to deal them you cannot wonder that I hesitated and for a time 
deemed it best to die and make no sign, and thus gradually drift out of your 
lives and without your ever really knowing but that I was still alive and well, 
though for some reason you could not divine had for a time thought best to 
keep silent; and then I thought you might learn of my fate, and know- 
ing nothing further would think your boy had died to expiate some 
crime. O father ! mother ! by this time you have thought the worst : by the 
time you read this letter the hand which penned it will be cold in death. 1 
look at myself, so young and strong, perfect in health and all that makes lite 
enjoyable and ask God how He can let such a life go out in such a way. but I 
know it must be right or He would not allow it, even now I kopi though 1 feel 
there is no hope for a continuance of earthly life for me. I will brieriv give 



39 8 THE ROW OF MAPLES. 

you the particulars of the event which has reduced me to such straits. Only 
two evenings ago I was in the company of young people about my age and the 
talk drifted into the subject of animal magnetism. O fatal topic ; none of 
those present had ever seen a display of the force and foolishly desirious of dis- 
tinguishing myself I boasted of my powers in this direction and offered to 
apply the test to any one or all. Only one, the beautiful daughter of a high 
official consented to the experiment and I soon placed her under the control of 
my will when she suddenly gasped, her head fell forward and I saw at once 
that something serious had happened. I sprang to her side, passed my hands 
before her face and applied the usual restoratives, but in vain — she was dead. 
Her father was hastily summoned and he entered with his officers. I was at 
once placed in the charge of soldiers and the body of the unfortunate girl was 
carried to her home where I too was taken. I was given forty-eight hours in 
which to restore her to life. I have wept and prayed, but she is dead and no 
earthly power can bring her to life again. I have had no trial but am con- 
demned to die, and my watch tells me that in one short half hour more I shall 
be led out to execution. As God knows my heart, I am no criminal. You will 
think well of your boy and never believe anything contrary to what is written, 
for with the shadow of death before me and the hope of a speedy resurrection 
in our Saviour I certify to its truth. 

" Good bye my father, and farewell my mother ; live to a good old age and 
do not let this blow crush you completely. I wish I could save you from this 
sorrow but I cannot. 

11 The officer is here, he says I must go now. I have tied up my effects and 
marked them for you and I trust they will reach home safely. It is not my 
lot to rest near my home, my grave will be unknown save to a few soldiers and 
to Him with whom all things are open as a book. But I must go, the officer is 
impatient to quench the life that still hopes and reaches out to you, my father 
and my mother. 

" God bless you both and bring us together again at last. 

Your loving son, 
Edward." 
I found myself crying when I finished the letter, the old doctor looked a 
me and nodded as if in approval of my course, and taking up the story where 
the letter left off he said, " The bundle came with his watch and other effects 
all right but nothing more was ever heard of this manly young fellow and no 
doubt his sentence was carried out, and now when I pass the house and see it 
going to wreck and ruin, and note how tall the maples have grown which he 
brought from the hill yonder when they were about the size of whip stocks, I 
think and think of the changes and happenings of life, how they go contrary to 
all rule or reason of our own, and yet we know they are wisely ordered, but I 
don't know, I don't know," he mused, "over there," and he pointed toward 
the Canton church yard, "lie the father and mother; heart-broken, they did 
not long survive their son, and I am sure I hope they are all now happy to- 
gether in the country beyond." 

The good doctor bowed his head and poked the fire idly with the tongs, 
the flames darted lightly up the chimney and lighted his good old strong face 
over which the shadows of sad memories seemed to be playing and quietly I 
raised the door latch and went silently out so as not to disturb him in his 
retrospect. 




PETER PARLEY"— AS KNOWN TO HIS DAUGHTER. 



BY EMILY CxOODRICH SMITH. 



PART II. 



Since writing the first part a friend tells me that a disastrous fire had a great 
deal to do with father's failure, and that some borrowed money had not boon 
returned, so he started in the old road again and worked like a beaver in Boston 
all day, and at night sat behind a heavy screen while my patient' mother wrote 
to his dictation, on the other side. 

He had a haunting fear of blindness and had twice crossed the ocean to 
consult European experts for this trouble of the eyes. A bright light was always 



4 oo "PETER PARLEY"— AS KNOWN TO HIS DAUGHTER. 

kept burning in an adjacent room. Once through the neglect of a servant it was not 
trimmed and went out, and at midnight he wakened and an agonized cry rang out 
in the startled house, " Mary, Mary, I am blind! I am blind!" Thus he pre- 
pared four lectures ; the most daring and successful of which was " Ireland and 
the Irish." There had been for a long time a growing feeling against the Irish, 
superinduced by some unsavor ; reports regarding a convent at Charlestown near 
Boston. Nor was this feeling entirely in the lower element but had permeated 
the upper classes also. A mob had risen and destroyed much property belonging 
to the Roman Catholic Church, besides burning a large business block, ruining the 
houses of the laboring poor and annihilating the small and pitiful holdings of 
recent emigrants. It was in the cause of these latter that my father pleaded. 

He had traveled in the old, old land, had noted her grand castles, talked with 
her sages, looked deep into her rich language and had determined to make a plea 
for her people, whom we had ourselves called to us with open arms and cheerful 
voice and make their home. 

But he was startled, almost dismayed when he beheld the audience gathered 
to hear him in Tremont Temple— an audience Daniel Webster would have valued. 
As he took his seat in the rostrum beside the Rev. Dr. Channing, he saw my 
mother, who was in one of the front pew s , put her hand twice to her head. He 
still retained his high hat. 

The moment had arrived.. He rose to the introduction of the most Reverend 
Doctor, raising his hat as he did so. " Ladies and gentlemen," he said, " I am so 
unaccustomed to public speaking that I do not know enough to remove my hat 
in your presence. Pardon my awkwardness and hear me for my cause." This 
brought him at once in touch with his audience who were pleased with his quick wit. 
He carried them with him holding their interest throughout, and as he closed re- 
peating one verse of that sad poem, 

" The harp -that once through Tara's halls, 

The soul of music shed, 
Now hangs as mute on Tara's walls, 

As though that soul were dead." 

They gave him generous applause and the papers next day commended his 
lecture highly. He delivered it forty times. 

I went with him once to some stately old town, riding in style in an elegant 
carriage sent for him. Over the pulpit of the old church in which he spoke, hung 
what looked like a very heavy cover, and as I watched it I was sure it swayed ; I 
was alone in my glory in a little corner pew, in full view. I was about to cry out 
to warn him that he would be crushed, when a lady near put her hand upon me as 
father rose in safety and as everyone applauded vigorously, I took a hand in and 
so got rid of my nervousness. 

We stayed with President Someone that night and the next morning 
the gentleman took me to an immense toy factory and gave me my choice 
of its contents. I froze at once to a miniature cooking stove with 
elaborate paraphanalia, but he persuaded me to choose a very costly wax doll.. 
She was taller than I and a queen — fastened to a pedestal and her crown screwed 
on ! When we reached home I begged for it to be removed. Henceforth if she 
were especially good she had a night cap for a change. Her name was Amelia. 

Just as we started away from our pleasant visit at President Blank's in the 



"PETER PARLEY"— AS KNOWN TO HIS DAUGHTER. 401 

carriage, the doll toppled over and gazed out of the window. Fatherwas convulsed 
with laughter and a jolly crowd who had gathered to see us off, gave round after 
round of cheers. Many years after as father and I were walking on the Rue de 
Rivole, Paris, Queen Amelia passed us bowing from her carriage. Memory gave 
us a second hearty laugh. 

I have said that Mr. Goodrich entered into politics, but after all it was rather 
against his will. He disliked the fighting spirit it seemed to engender between 
the hitherto best of friends. Daniel Webster rebuked him kindly but firmly for 
his stand-offish attitude, and bade him use the great rights and privileges of a 
rising young American, for until now father had never voted. 




i mm 



MEDALLION PRESENTED MR. GOODRICH AT PARIS. 



This command of the great Daniel brought him to a decision and he was put 
to work in the Whig ranks. He was appointed delegate to the Whig convention 
to nominate someone to represent the ninth district in congress. On the first 
ballot, he was to his surprise, the highest candidate but one— of course he with- 
drew. Alexander Everett who had been a conspicious Whig came out for Jackson. 
This of course injured his cause, his own publisher, Bowen, being against him. 
Father defeated him, without any desire of his own, and Everett, who had been 
very friendly toward him became very bitter. Benjamin F. Hallett. one of his 



4 o2 "PETER PARLEY-— AS KNOWN TO HIS DAUGHTER. 

supporters and editor of an influential paper in Boston, attacked father as " Peter 
Parley," most harshly accusing him of ungentlemanly and dishonorable conduct. 

Mr. Goodrich was justly indignant and, strong in his sense of right, hastened 
to Mr. Hallett's home and angrily rang the bell. A lovely young girl of ten or 
twelve with startled look answered the summons. " Is Mr. Hallett in?" asked 
my father. " Mother," said the girl in a soft voice, " has father come in ? " " No, 
dear," replied a gentle lady-like woman who came at her call, " Will you not 
step in, sir? " A curly headed urchin clung to her skirt and as usual with child- 
ren, was fascinated by my father's face, stern though it was. He put out a tiny 
hand to shake that of the visitor, and with that touch every atom of rancor faded 
from my fathers' s heart. "So," he said to himself, " this man who seemed to me to 
be full of hatred and cruelty has a beautiful home, a loving, tender wife and child- 
ren. He cannot be so evil as I deemed him. I will wait," and so saying he left 
the house, a wiser and much happier man. Some months later mutual friends 
brought them together thinking it a pity two such bright spirits should work at 
cross purposes. Mr. Goodrich related the incident to Mr. Hallett who was much 
touched, and, with explanations they became good friends. 

Most appropriately come in here another typical "Peter Parley" anecdote. 

We are in the English Channel on our way to London from Paris. My 
mother's relatives, who had ostracised her for years because she married an " im- 
pecunious Yankee " had made the "Amende honorable and invited them to come 
and make acquaintance. Father who was always for peace, consistent with, 
conscience, was a mind to accept. The letter urging this said: "Bring the 
children," so my brother and I were with them. It was a fine day but a sharp 
wind had raised a choppy sea, one which thumped you on one side and then on 
the other, and not leave you a moment of repose between jerks. The worst kind 
of a sea to endure. Father who was always a martyr to nausea, without obtain- 
ing relief, was prone upon a mattress laid in a shaded corner of the deck. Seeing 
how pale and suffering he looked, I wanted to try a remedy, and taking a big book 
of illustrations with me I sat down beside him. He could no more resist pictures 
than any child. Soon my brother prowling in search of me came into the group 
and a few wandering children joined us. We were quite absorbed over the views 
for a while and then suddenly I said: "Father tell us a story, a true story." 
There was a traveling vehicle of the most stylish appearance, on a small deck ap- 
propriated to such, with three men servants, a governess, two saddle horses, and a 
couple of rakish ponies. The parents, seasoned travelers, chatted complacently to- 
gether, taking no notice of two wan and discouraged little men of six and nine years 
who did not know what ailed them, but the motion of the carriage added to that 
of the boat was harrowing indeed. They had been watching us for some time and 
I purposely raised by voice as I asked for a story. " Ma can't we go and hear 
it ? " said the smallest boy. She shook her head. Father said, " Emily, go and 
invite them to join us," and I, nothing loath, started away, and because I had 
never been taught that riches or rank made anyone any better than a simple little 
Yankee girl, J went up to the carriage and held out my hand, but withdrawing it 
at once I said, " I forgot that you English people do not shake hands unless you are 
introduced." I heard my father's amused laugh, and that of the travelers was not 
far behind. The boys did not wait for the supercilious servant to help them down, 
but clambered out, took my hands and running, were soon seated by the mat- 



"PETER PARLEY"— AS KNOWN TO HIS DAUGHTER. 403 

tress, while above it was an older audience of which " Peter Parley" was quite 
unaware. He began, " Once upon a time," and with a settling down to listen and 
a long breath of satisfaction we were ready with an eager look in our eyes which 
was his inspiration. "Once upon a time, there was a famous snow storm, famous 
because there had never been such an one before and there has never been such an 
one since, though in those days they were remarkable for length and depth of fall. 
You little English lads have no idea of a snow storm, a few big flakes at most and a 
fog eats them up. But it had been storming more and more rapidly for three 
days when I started out to carry food to a starving family. They were without 
any the day before. I jumped on my pony Bob and with a basket slung about 
my shoulders I was off. I knew every path, every tree, almost every branch, but 
by this time the whole world was a dazzling white though it was so dark beneath the 




THE SOUTHBURY HOME. 



heavily laden trees that I had at times to feel along the great trunks to find the 
deep cuts or "blazes " made by an axe to guide travelers. The snow was already 
two feet deep and the cart path quite obliterated " — " Wot is ' bliterated ? * " asked 
the smallest boy. " Right you are, my lad. It is your privilege to ask questions 
and there is one who will never refuse to answer them and he is your friend P. P. 
It means 'rubbed out,' nothing left of it. 

" I kept steadily on with no thought that I might turn back, tho' at times the 
lonely little traveler was almost buried by the white masses which the wind tossed 
from the overhanging branches, and it was growing piercingly cold. Suddenly 
there was a rush, a roar, a blinding, whirling mass enveloped us that knocked me 
from Bob, but I clung to the basket still. Gasping, trembling, we struggled up to 
find we had wandered from the path and our way was blocked all about by an 



4o 4 "PETER PARLEY"— AS KNOWN TO HIS DAUGHTER. 

avalanche fallen from above. I was in despair. Never before had I known what help- 
lessness, loneliness and desolation meant. But I was trained to quick thought and 
set about getting out of our snow prison, though the wind piled the drift higher 
and higher, faster and faster and we made no headway. 

" Just then a strong hand grasped Bob's bridle and the collar of my coat, and 
with a wrench and a twist we were freed by ' Old Witch Sarah,' the weird hermitess 
of the mountain. Now my children there is no such thing as a witch. A name 
is fastened on some poor creature whose face is marred, whose reason is broken by 
sorrow. Let us beware how we fix upon anyone so harsh and cruel a name. 

" Sarah, by main effort dragged us into a sheltered spot, and while I was 
trying to get back my breath, she fed Bob a loaf of bread, bathed his forehead and 
lips with snow water until he was some what restored from his exhaustion. 

" ' Go back, boy,' she said, 'to your sheltered home and thank God you are not 
without one ; also that Witch Sarah has saved you from a snowy grave. Hasten 
for you can go no further. Turn about while you may. In an hour disaster and 
death will be abroad in the forest. ' 

" The pony picked up his courage and his feet together and in three laborious 
hours — as the wind was now with us — we reached home, where they were begin- 
ning to be greatly alarmed, and this is the tale of the historic storm of 1807." As 
he closed the parents of the boys at once introduced themselves and urged father to 
use their carriage to our hotel. He did not accept this most generous offer but did 
enjoy a glass of most excellent port wine from their elaborate medicine chest 
which was built under the front and back seats of the carriage. This was divided 
into compartments with silver boxes and crests and cut glass bottles with mono- 
grams and every drug useful or otherwise known to man. 

" Yours is elegant but I think ours is more convenient," I said, "show it to 
them please, father." He laughed and touched a strap across his shoulder hold- 
ing a morocco wallet of about a foot long and three inches high inside of which 
was a tin box with a cover on hinges. There were five parts within. In one, 
gum camphor, in a second, rhubarb, third guaicum, fourth sol-volatile and fifth 
laudanum. These were balanced by a traveling flask of brandy. "And with 
these," said by father, " I can circumnavigate the globe." 

A rare evening was arranged for us in Florence, Italy, when Mr. Goodrich 
and his family was passing a winter there. It was planned by Charles Lever, the 
clever Irish author at Casa Giiidi. Mr. Browning brought his invalid wife into the 
drawing room and placed her in her own peculiar chair. There were gathered 
there the Storys, Gibson and Powers the sculptors, both Tennysons — and I liked 
Frederic best, who has just died, — James Russell Lowell, Lamertine, Longfellow 
and Buchanan Read and family, Troll ope and others. Father was seated on a has- 
sock with two ranges of children about him — and many of a larger growth around 
the room. He was to tell them stories, and they wanted to know particularly 
about himself. So he told these people — many of them English — of his going to 
fight when Tryon burned Danbury and had appeared with his fleet off New Haven 
during the revolution. How one night he was sentinel and a movement in the thick 
brush near him caused him to challenge. No answer. ' " Who goes there ? Ad- 
vance and give the countersign, or I fire,' and I did. Great excitement. We 



PETER PARLEY"— AS KNOWN TO HIS DAUGHTER. 405 



heard calvary retreating — it was a disgusted cow with her calf galloping down 
the road." 

He told them how hard he had worked to reach his present position in 
letters as the veritable and only Peter Parley and a sanctimonious fraud, an Eng- 
lishman by name of " Old Mogridge" was writing unwholesome books for children 
under his name, mak- 
ing thousands of il- 
legal dollars thereby 
to the detriment of 
father's purse. We 
closed with an hour 
of social enjoyment 
and left early as Mrs. 
Browning was an in- 
valid. This evening 
was long talked of in 
Florence. 

After our return 
to our summer home 
at Courbevoir, near 
Paris, a shattered 
man enfeebled b y 
grief came to our door. 
It was the poet- 
painter, Buchanan burial lot at southbury. 

Read, who had left his tiny wife and child in a cholera grave at Rome. We took 
him in and comforted him. 

We were in America and heard her sing, when Jenny Lind made her 
debut at Castle Garden. Never had I seen my father so disappointed. He told 
Barnum that he did not consider her a prima donna; that she had little presence, 
not much magnetism and her appearance was anything but striking. Barnum 
winked and said, " So ? " 

A sad event occurred when we were spending a few days at Fire Island. 
There came a night when there was a fearful storm and a ship in dire distress 
was firing signals. The next morning it was learned that Margaret Fuller Ossoli 
and her husband and child had sunk to a watery grave. 

"It was awful, sir," said one of the wrecked sailors talking to my father the 
next day, "awful indeed. They could all have been saved if Mme. Ossoli would 
have cast off her heavy garments, but she did not and so carried the young and 
loyal husband down with her, and between them they carried that pretty bairn." 
At the beginning of the second year of Mr. Fillmore's incumbency we were in 
Paris and Mr. Goodrich consul. Never was there a more acceptable one. He 
had keen foresight, sagacity, quick wit, suavity, authority when needed and a 
most friendly and sympathetic soul. All these talents he used for the benefit of 
his countrymen and when he was superceded, great was the regret. 

A medallion of himself by Adam Salomon, a famous sculptor, was presented 
him, of the size of a large dinner plate of silver triple gilt and elegantly framed. 
A petition to retain him signed by two hundred and fifty French and American 




4 o6 "PETER PARLEY"— AS KNOWN TO HIS DAUGHTER. 

merchants was sent to the United States in vain. During his consulate, Henry 
Shelton Sanford, who was United States attache at Paris, found my father a staying^ 
power. Sanford was stiff, unyielding and his countrymen feared to ask favors of 
him. He was born in the " Hollow " in ancient Woodbury, in a little house where 
was manufactured the tinware for all the neighboring towns and here were found 
the supplies for the calithumpian serenades for half the county. 

During all our years abroad my parents had many young people under their 
fostering care. I mention but two of them. Elsie Henslee the protegee of many 
Boston gentlemen, who studied music at the Paris " Conservatoire," became a 
prima donna, and married the then King of Portugal, and is now, if I mistake not, 
the Countess Elda, much beloved and admired at Lisbon, where she is now one of 
the court favorites. The second was Rosalie Benedict, only daughter 
of Mr. and Mrs. Abner Benedict of New York. They brought her 
over and placed her in school, where after they left, my mother found 
the girl ill with nostaglia. She at once brought her to our home. I shared my 
pretty room with her and we were a happy pair, until one fall day, when the news 
came of the awful disaster to the " Artie," in which her parents had sailed. It 
became my painful lot to break to her the tidings of her double loss. Some fiend 
had sent her a package of newspaper cuttings in which it was told that the last 
seen of her parents, they were on their knees on a raft and the sharks clambering 
over the sides. I held her close to my heart for three days and thus saved her 
from insanity, but among the many sore hurts of my life, this one stands pre- 
eminent. 

Our family returned to the United States when the first break in the house- 
hold began The children scattered to different homes. Then my father decided 
to give up the New York house and bought a quaint old brick mansion at South- 
bury, Conn., which he improved and beautified to his heart's content. 

At this time his mind was full of a great work he was preparing, a natural 
history in two large volumes, in which the engravings alone cost thousands of 
dollars. He rode on his bay mare through woods and over streams for two sum- 
mers, studying every animal or insect with which he came in contact. He was 
called " the old gentleman " for twenty miles around and at every lane and by-way 
he was known and loved. Women brought him cookies and milk, and he enjoyed 
them in the shade by their doors, and the children hunted bugs and birds for 
him to study, to which he was giving up the last years of his life. This work was a 
most arduous one and he overtaxed his strength bringing back the old distressed 
turns of his early manhood. The book was dedicated to Agassiz, who himself 
commended it as a most rare and exhaustive work — the best work of a great 
man. 

The quiet people of the little village of Southbury had rather dreaded the 
coming of a city family to their midst, but they had learned one and all to value 
him as a neighbor and friend, and when one day in May, i860, the stage driver 
c une up the street calling out " Mr. Goodrich is dead, Mr. Goodrich is dead in 
New York," there was mourning indeed ; but it was only too true. He had gone 
down to the city Monday on business and on Wednesday had passed away while 
quietly talking with my brother in his home. Most of the family were at 
Southbury. 

Stern as was heaven's decree in thus calling him from us, we did not repine.. 



"PETER PARLEY"— AS KNOWN TO HIS DAUGHTER. 407 

He had died in his full vigor of mind, all in a moment as he had often wished. 
With that sad Civil War coming on he would have been heartbroken, for he 
dearly loved the Union, and was himself greatly beloved in the South, where his 
books were in general use. 

His remains were borne to St. Bartholomew's Church in the city where services 
were held, and he lay for twenty-four hours while sad crowds passed about him. 
General Dix, the publishers Appleton, Derby, Goupil, and many friends were his 
pall bearers. The " Marble Cemetery " offered us a lot, but he had elected to lie in 
"God's Acre" where the sun shines and where the rain falls upon the grassy 
mound. Mr. Hoey, president of Adams Express Company had the body rever- 
ently and tenderly borne to his Southbury home free of charge and on Sunday 
the 13th of May, we laid him at rest. Crowds had been gathering, churches were 
closed for twenty miles away — on the sloping hill-sides in front of the house were 
waiting masses who had come to pay their last tribute to a great man, known the 
world over as the "Children's Teacher and Friend." After short services at the 
house, friendly farmers and neighbors took up the casket. Everyone had taken 
a last sad look at that clear cut face with the color still in the cheeks and the lij s 
as though ready to speak. Children led the way to the adjacent village cemetery, 
st